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Wang Jiaqiong - - 2013
Much of the morbidity after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with traumatic axonal injury (TAI). Although most TAI studies focus on corpus callosum white matter, the visual system has received increased interest. To assess visual system TAI, we developed a mouse model of optic nerve TAI. It is unknown, ...
Chen Xiangting - - 2013
There has been considerable debate about whether dendritic cells (DCs), which are potent antigen-presenting cells pivotal to adaptive immune responses, are present in CNS parenchyma. In studies aimed at answering this issue, we discovered that while the neural retina of young naive transgenic C57BL/6 CD11c-eYFP reporter mice contained more than ...
Kirkwood Caitlin M - - 2013
Dendritic spines are the site of most excitatory synapses, the loss of which correlates with cognitive impairment in patients with Alzheimer disease. Substantial evidence indicates that amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, either insoluble fibrillar Aβ deposited into plaques or soluble nonfibrillar Aβ species, can cause spine loss but the concurrent contributions of ...
Nava Stefano - - 2013
It is difficult to exactly date the beginning of mechanical ventilation, but there are no doubts that noninvasive ventilation (NIV) was the first method of ventilatory support in clinical practice. The technique had a sudden increase in popularity, so that it is now considered, according to criteria of evidence-based medicine, ...
Myers Timothy R - - 2013
For centuries, hospitals have served as the cornerstone of the United States healthcare system. Just like the majority of the general population, the respiratory care profession was born inside the hospital walls, just over 6 decades ago. While the knowledge, skills, and attributes of the respiratory therapist are critically necessary ...
Oberacher Marcos - - 2013
Blood analysis for the purpose of monitoring liver enzymes in the serum is a frequent laboratory examination in everyday clinical practice. Liver values are determined not only in the context of specific liver diseases, but often for the clarification of an unexplained illness, and sometimes in asymptomatic patients as part ...
Henzen Christoph - - 2013
Endocrine disorders are common in internal medicine. Diagnosis of endocrine diseases are usually based on patient history, clinical assessment and laboratory investigations. Thereby, biochemical analyses are used to confirm clinical diagnosis, to assess the need for treatment and to monitor disease progression, in particular to ascertain treatment efficacy. This article ...
Thurnheer Robert - - 2013
The arterial blood gas analysis (ABGA) is a valuable diagnostic tool in daily clinical practice. It yields information about oxygenation, ventilation and acid-base status. ABGAs should always be interpreted within a clinical context. If a result is absolutely not compatible with a clinical situation, the probe should be repeated or ...
Bodmer Michael - - 2013
Screening tests for drugs of abuse are regularly used in the clinical routine. These tests identify the targeted substances very differently if tests from different manufacturers are used and sometimes also react positive after the intake of drugs which are not intended to be detected. Therefore, implausible results have to ...
Bykov Sergei V - - 2013
We constructed an ultrahigh-throughput, high-resolution ultraviolet (UV) Raman spectrograph that utilizes a high-efficiency filter-stage monochromator and a high-dispersion Echelle spectrograph. The spectrograph utilizes a total of six mirrors and two gratings, with an overall efficiency at 229 nm of ∼18%. The limiting resolution of our spectrometer is 0.6 cm(-1) full ...
Pandolfo Massimo - - 2013
Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is a neurological disease related to a deficiency of the protein frataxin involved in iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster biogenesis. This leads to an increased cellular iron uptake accumulating in mitochondria, and a subsequently disturbed iron homeostasis. The detailed mechanism of iron regulation of frataxin expression is yet unknown. ...
Dobreanu Dan - - 2013
Although it is well known that silent atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with morbidity and mortality rates similar to those of symptomatic AF, no specific strategy for screening and management of this form of AF has been advocated. The purpose of this survey was to identify current practices for the ...
Amorim M Helena R - - 2013
Abstract Sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) present a wide range of biological activities, mostly based on their alkylating capabilities, which underlie their therapeutic potential. These compounds are the active constituents of a variety of plants, frequently used as herbal remedies. STLs such as artemisinin and its derivatives are in use as first-line ...
Atbi A - - 2013
Abstract Heart sounds and murmurs provide crucial diagnosis information for several heart diseases such as natural or prosthetic valve dysfunction and heart failure. Many pathological conditions of the cardiovascular system cause murmurs and aberrations in heart sounds. Phonocardiography provides the clinician with a complementary tool to record the heart sounds ...
Hall Aron J - - 2013
Although recognized as the leading cause of epidemic acute gastroenteritis across all age groups, norovirus has remained poorly characterized with respect to its endemic disease incidence. Use of different methods, including attributable proportion extrapolation, population-based surveillance, and indirect modeling, in several recent studies has considerably improved norovirus disease incidence estimates ...
Weinberg Geoffrey A - - 2013
Surveillance for rotavirus-associated diarrhea after implementation of rotavirus vaccination can assess vaccine effectiveness and identify disease-associated genotypes. During active vaccine postlicensure surveillance in the United States, we found a novel rotavirus genotype, G14P[24], in a stool sample from a child who had diarrhea. Unusual rotavirus strains may become more prevalent ...
Hall Aron J - - 2013
Implemented in 2009, the National Outbreak Reporting System provides surveillance for acute gastroenteritis outbreaks in the United States resulting from any transmission mode. Data from the first 2 years of surveillance highlight the predominant role of norovirus. The pathogen-specific transmission pathways and exposure settings identified can help inform prevention efforts.
Leshem Eyal - - 2013
We report an increase in the proportion of genotype GI.6 norovirus outbreaks in the United States from 1.4% in 2010 to 7.7% in 2012 (p<0.001). Compared with non-GI.6 outbreaks, GI.6 outbreaks were characterized by summer seasonality, foodborne transmission, and non-health care settings.
Jackson Brendan R - - 2013
Salmonella enterica infections are transmitted not only by animal-derived foods but also by vegetables, fruits, and other plant products. To clarify links between Salmonella serotypes and specific foods, we examined the diversity and predominance of food commodities implicated in outbreaks of salmonellosis during 1998-2008. More than 80% of outbreaks caused ...
Hong Ki Bae - - 2013
In Korea, Mycoplasma pneumoniae was detected in 255/2,089 respiratory specimens collected during 2000-2011; 80 isolates carried 23S rRNA gene mutations, and 69/123 culture-positive samples with the mutation were resistant to 5 macrolides. During 2000-2011, prevalence of the mutation increased substantially. These findings have critical implications for the treatment of children ...
Reich Felix - - 2013
During 2010, we evaluated the presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase- and AmpC-producing enterobacteria in broiler chickens at slaughter. Samples (70 carcasses and 51 ceca) from 4 flocks were analyzed by direct plating and after enrichment. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase producers were found in 88.6% and 72.5% of carcasses and ceca, respectively; AmpC producers ...
De Cock Kevin M - - 2013
Global health reflects the realities of globalization, including worldwide dissemination of infectious and noninfectious public health risks. Global health architecture is complex and better coordination is needed between multiple organizations. Three overlapping themes determine global health action and prioritization: development, security, and public health. These themes play out against a ...
Saupe Amy A - - 2013
Norovirus is the leading cause of foodborne disease in the United States. During October 2011-January 2013, we conducted surveillance for norovirus infection in Minnesota among callers to a complaint-based foodborne illness hotline who reported diarrhea or vomiting. Of 241 complainants tested, 127 (52.7%) were positive for norovirus.
Lodder Willemijn J - - 2013
Detection of Aichi virus in humans was initially reported in Japan in 1989. To establish a timeline for the prevalence of Aichi virus infection among humans in the Netherlands, we conducted molecular analysis of archival water samples from 1987-2000 and 2009-2012. Aichi virus RNA was detected in 100% (8/8) of ...
Cowley Daniel - - 2013
We identified a genotype G10P[14] rotavirus strain in 5 children and 1 adult with acute gastroenteritis from the Northern Territory, Australia. Full genome sequence analysis identified an artiodactyl-like (bovine, ovine, and camelid) G10-P[14]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A11-N2-T6-E2-H3 genome constellation. This finding suggests artiodactyl-to-human transmission and strengthens the need to continue rotavirus strain surveillance.
Simmons Kirsten - - 2013
The duration of immunity to norovirus (NoV) gastroenteritis has been believed to be from 6 months to 2 years. However, several observations are inconsistent with this short period. To gain better estimates of the duration of immunity to NoV, we developed a mathematical model of community NoV transmission. The model ...
Yip Cyril C Y - - 2013
A natural recombinant of coxsackievirus A2 was found in 4 children with respiratory symptoms in Hong Kong, China, during the summer of 2012. Two of these children died. Vigilant monitoring of this emerging recombinant enterovirus is needed to prevent its transmission to other regions.
Lloyd Jennifer K - - 2013
Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning is a gastrointestinal illness caused by consumption of bivalves contaminated with dinophysistoxins. We report an illness cluster in the United States in which toxins were confirmed in shellfish from a commercial harvest area, leading to product recall. Ongoing surveillance is needed to prevent similar illness outbreaks.
Rha Brian - - 2013
Noroviruses are the leading cause of gastroenteritis in the United States, but timely measures of disease are lacking. BioSense, a national-level electronic surveillance system, assigns data on chief complaints (patient symptoms) collected during emergency department (ED) visits to 78 subsyndromes in near real-time. In a series of linear regression models, ...
Vugia Duc J - - 2013
US vibriosis rates have increased since 1996, and many Vibrio vulnificus infections are fatal. In April 2003, California implemented a regulation restricting the sale of raw oysters harvested from the Gulf of Mexico during April 1-October 31, unless they were processed to reduce V. vulnificus to nondetectable levels. We analyzed ...
Savini Hélène - - 2013
Data collected by the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network for 1,415 ill travelers returning from Indian Ocean islands during 1997-2010 were analyzed. Malaria (from Comoros and Madagascar), acute nonparasitic diarrhea, and parasitoses were the most frequently diagnosed infectious diseases. An increase in arboviral diseases reflected the 2005 outbreak of chikungunya fever.
Tate Jacqueline E - - 2013
We compared rotavirus detection rates in children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and in healthy controls using enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) and semiquantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). We calculated rotavirus vaccine effectiveness using different laboratory-based case definitions to determine which best identified the proportion of disease that was vaccine preventable. Of ...
Dallman Tim - - 2013
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli serotype O117:K1:H7 is a cause of persistent diarrhea in travelers to tropical locations. Whole genome sequencing identified genetic mechanisms involved in the pathoadaptive phenotype. Sequencing also identified toxin and putative adherence genes flanked by sequences indicating horizontal gene transfer from Shigella dysenteriae and Salmonella spp., respectively.
Hyeon Ji-Yeon - - 2013
The epidemiology of enteroviral infection in South Korea during 1999-2011 chronicles nationwide outbreaks and changing detection and subtyping methods used over the 13-year period. Of 14,657 patients whose samples were tested, 4,762 (32.5%) samples were positive for human enterovirus (human EV); as diagnostic methods improved, the rate of positive results ...
Jula Alma - - 2013
Human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1) was detected in a young child hospitalized for pneumonia and subsequently in his twin brother and other family members. The mother's nasopharyngeal samples intermittently showed HBoV1 DNA; the grandmother had HBoV1 reinfection. Findings in this family lead to consideration of HBoV virulence, latency, and reactivation.
Abid Muhammad - - 2013
Campylobacter- spp.-related gastroenteritis in diners at a catering college restaurant was associated with consumption of duck liver pâté. Population genetic analysis indicated that isolates from duck samples were typical of isolates from farmed poultry. Campylobacter spp. contamination of duck liver may present a hazard similar to the increasingly recognized contamination ...
Liu Xian Shuang XS Department of Neurology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI 48202, - - 2013
Cerebral ischemia induces neurogenesis, including proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitor cells and migration of newly generated neuroblasts. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that decrease gene expression through mRNA destabilization and/or translational repression. Emerging data indicate that miRNAs have a role in mediating processes of proliferation and differentiation of ...
Yandim Cihangir C Gene Control Mechanisms and Disease, Department of Medicine and MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College London, London, - - 2013
This is an exciting time in the study of Friedreich's ataxia. Over the last 10 years much progress has been made in uncovering the mechanisms, whereby the Frataxin gene is silenced by (GAA)n repeat expansions and several of the findings are now ripe for testing in the clinic. The discovery ...
Bertoli Cosetta C Medical Research Council (MRC) Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, University College London, London, UK. - - 2013
The accurate transition from G1 phase of the cell cycle to S phase is crucial for the control of eukaryotic cell proliferation, and its misregulation promotes oncogenesis. During G1 phase, growth-dependent cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity promotes DNA replication and initiates G1-to-S phase transition. CDK activation initiates a positive feedback loop ...
Bility Moses T MT Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, School of Medicine, The University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, - - 2013
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infect and replicate primarily in human hepatocytes. Few reliable and easy accessible animal models are available for studying the immune system's contribution to the liver disease progression during hepatitis virus infection. Humanized mouse models reconstituted with human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) ...
Shamloo Amir A Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4045, - - 2013
Besides its cooperating effects on stem cell proliferation and survival, Kit ligand (KL) is a potent chemotactic protein. While transwell assays permit studies of the frequency of migrating cells, the lack of direct visualization precludes dynamic chemotaxis studies. In response, we utilize microfluidic chambers that enable direct observation of murine ...
Ding Li - - 2013
Two thioxanthone-based fluorescent probes exhibited prominent solvatofluorochromism, and they were further found to be useful as fluorescence indicators for the qualitative and quantitative detection of low-level water content in various solvent media.
Haugner Iii John C - - 2013
An artificial RNA ligase specific to RNA with a 5'-triphosphate (PPP-RNA) exhibits broad sequence specificity on model substrates and secondary siRNAs with direct applications in the identification of PPP-RNAs through sequencing.
Jevtovikj Ivana - - 2013
The reaction of [Na2(thf)4(P4Mes4)] () with tributyltin chloride gives 1,2,3,4-tetramesityl-1,4-bis(tri-n-butyltin)tetraphosphane () which is stable towards disproportionation in solution at room temperature.
Feketeová Linda - - 2013
Oxidative damage to DNA yields guanine radical cations. Their gas-phase IR spectroscopic signature and acidity have been modelled by the radical cation of 9-methylguanine. Comparisons with quantum chemistry calculations suggest that radical cation formation produces the ground-state keto tautomer, which has an N-H acidity enhanced by ∼470 kJ mol(-1).
Zhang Peng - - 2013
Real-time dynamics of native super-paramagnetic nanoparticles (SPMNPs) with different sizes were observed in a microchip at the single-particle level. Based on the optimized magnetic field conditions obtained in the single-nanoparticle study, the SPMNPs were successfully separated and detected within ∼15 s from the model polydisperse mixture.
Kilic Leyla - - 2013
Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is the standard of care for gastric cancer patients in the USA. However, in countries where D2 lymph node dissection is performed, the effect of radiotherapy on locoregional recurrence is controversial. The aim of this study is to compare the outcomes in pN3 gastric cancer patients following ...
Hu Yongfei - - 2013
The human gut microbiota is a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes, but little is known about their diversity and richness within the gut. Here we analyse the antibiotic resistance genes of gut microbiota from 162 individuals. We identify a total of 1,093 antibiotic resistance genes and find that Chinese individuals ...
KriukienÄ— Edita - - 2013
Dynamic patterns of cytosine-5 methylation and successive hydroxylation are part of epigenetic regulation in eukaryotes, including humans, which contributes to normal phenotypic variation and disease risk. Here we present an approach for the mapping of unmodified regions of the genome, which we call the unmethylome. Our technique is based on ...
Mathon Bertrand - - 2013
A 5-year-old boy was operated on for a non-metastatic medulloblastoma of the fourth ventricle (figure 1). Chemotherapy and bifractionated craniospinal radiotherapy were administered. Four years later, T1-weighted MRI with contrast revealed abnormal vessels in the right sylvian fissure that gradually increased during follow-up; angiography confirmed an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) (figure ...
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