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Amorim M Helena R - - 2013
Abstract Sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) present a wide range of biological activities, mostly based on their alkylating capabilities, which underlie their therapeutic potential. These compounds are the active constituents of a variety of plants, frequently used as herbal remedies. STLs such as artemisinin and its derivatives are in use as first-line ...
Atbi A - - 2013
Abstract Heart sounds and murmurs provide crucial diagnosis information for several heart diseases such as natural or prosthetic valve dysfunction and heart failure. Many pathological conditions of the cardiovascular system cause murmurs and aberrations in heart sounds. Phonocardiography provides the clinician with a complementary tool to record the heart sounds ...
Hall Aron J - - 2013
Although recognized as the leading cause of epidemic acute gastroenteritis across all age groups, norovirus has remained poorly characterized with respect to its endemic disease incidence. Use of different methods, including attributable proportion extrapolation, population-based surveillance, and indirect modeling, in several recent studies has considerably improved norovirus disease incidence estimates ...
Weinberg Geoffrey A - - 2013
Surveillance for rotavirus-associated diarrhea after implementation of rotavirus vaccination can assess vaccine effectiveness and identify disease-associated genotypes. During active vaccine postlicensure surveillance in the United States, we found a novel rotavirus genotype, G14P[24], in a stool sample from a child who had diarrhea. Unusual rotavirus strains may become more prevalent ...
Hall Aron J - - 2013
Implemented in 2009, the National Outbreak Reporting System provides surveillance for acute gastroenteritis outbreaks in the United States resulting from any transmission mode. Data from the first 2 years of surveillance highlight the predominant role of norovirus. The pathogen-specific transmission pathways and exposure settings identified can help inform prevention efforts.
Leshem Eyal - - 2013
We report an increase in the proportion of genotype GI.6 norovirus outbreaks in the United States from 1.4% in 2010 to 7.7% in 2012 (p<0.001). Compared with non-GI.6 outbreaks, GI.6 outbreaks were characterized by summer seasonality, foodborne transmission, and non-health care settings.
Jackson Brendan R - - 2013
Salmonella enterica infections are transmitted not only by animal-derived foods but also by vegetables, fruits, and other plant products. To clarify links between Salmonella serotypes and specific foods, we examined the diversity and predominance of food commodities implicated in outbreaks of salmonellosis during 1998-2008. More than 80% of outbreaks caused ...
Hong Ki Bae - - 2013
In Korea, Mycoplasma pneumoniae was detected in 255/2,089 respiratory specimens collected during 2000-2011; 80 isolates carried 23S rRNA gene mutations, and 69/123 culture-positive samples with the mutation were resistant to 5 macrolides. During 2000-2011, prevalence of the mutation increased substantially. These findings have critical implications for the treatment of children ...
Reich Felix - - 2013
During 2010, we evaluated the presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase- and AmpC-producing enterobacteria in broiler chickens at slaughter. Samples (70 carcasses and 51 ceca) from 4 flocks were analyzed by direct plating and after enrichment. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase producers were found in 88.6% and 72.5% of carcasses and ceca, respectively; AmpC producers ...
De Cock Kevin M - - 2013
Global health reflects the realities of globalization, including worldwide dissemination of infectious and noninfectious public health risks. Global health architecture is complex and better coordination is needed between multiple organizations. Three overlapping themes determine global health action and prioritization: development, security, and public health. These themes play out against a ...
Saupe Amy A - - 2013
Norovirus is the leading cause of foodborne disease in the United States. During October 2011-January 2013, we conducted surveillance for norovirus infection in Minnesota among callers to a complaint-based foodborne illness hotline who reported diarrhea or vomiting. Of 241 complainants tested, 127 (52.7%) were positive for norovirus.
Lodder Willemijn J - - 2013
Detection of Aichi virus in humans was initially reported in Japan in 1989. To establish a timeline for the prevalence of Aichi virus infection among humans in the Netherlands, we conducted molecular analysis of archival water samples from 1987-2000 and 2009-2012. Aichi virus RNA was detected in 100% (8/8) of ...
Cowley Daniel - - 2013
We identified a genotype G10P[14] rotavirus strain in 5 children and 1 adult with acute gastroenteritis from the Northern Territory, Australia. Full genome sequence analysis identified an artiodactyl-like (bovine, ovine, and camelid) G10-P[14]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A11-N2-T6-E2-H3 genome constellation. This finding suggests artiodactyl-to-human transmission and strengthens the need to continue rotavirus strain surveillance.
Yip Cyril C Y - - 2013
A natural recombinant of coxsackievirus A2 was found in 4 children with respiratory symptoms in Hong Kong, China, during the summer of 2012. Two of these children died. Vigilant monitoring of this emerging recombinant enterovirus is needed to prevent its transmission to other regions.
Lloyd Jennifer K - - 2013
Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning is a gastrointestinal illness caused by consumption of bivalves contaminated with dinophysistoxins. We report an illness cluster in the United States in which toxins were confirmed in shellfish from a commercial harvest area, leading to product recall. Ongoing surveillance is needed to prevent similar illness outbreaks.
Rha Brian - - 2013
Noroviruses are the leading cause of gastroenteritis in the United States, but timely measures of disease are lacking. BioSense, a national-level electronic surveillance system, assigns data on chief complaints (patient symptoms) collected during emergency department (ED) visits to 78 subsyndromes in near real-time. In a series of linear regression models, ...
Vugia Duc J - - 2013
US vibriosis rates have increased since 1996, and many Vibrio vulnificus infections are fatal. In April 2003, California implemented a regulation restricting the sale of raw oysters harvested from the Gulf of Mexico during April 1-October 31, unless they were processed to reduce V. vulnificus to nondetectable levels. We analyzed ...
Savini Hélène - - 2013
Data collected by the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network for 1,415 ill travelers returning from Indian Ocean islands during 1997-2010 were analyzed. Malaria (from Comoros and Madagascar), acute nonparasitic diarrhea, and parasitoses were the most frequently diagnosed infectious diseases. An increase in arboviral diseases reflected the 2005 outbreak of chikungunya fever.
Tate Jacqueline E - - 2013
We compared rotavirus detection rates in children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and in healthy controls using enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) and semiquantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). We calculated rotavirus vaccine effectiveness using different laboratory-based case definitions to determine which best identified the proportion of disease that was vaccine preventable. Of ...
Dallman Tim - - 2013
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli serotype O117:K1:H7 is a cause of persistent diarrhea in travelers to tropical locations. Whole genome sequencing identified genetic mechanisms involved in the pathoadaptive phenotype. Sequencing also identified toxin and putative adherence genes flanked by sequences indicating horizontal gene transfer from Shigella dysenteriae and Salmonella spp., respectively.
Hyeon Ji-Yeon - - 2013
The epidemiology of enteroviral infection in South Korea during 1999-2011 chronicles nationwide outbreaks and changing detection and subtyping methods used over the 13-year period. Of 14,657 patients whose samples were tested, 4,762 (32.5%) samples were positive for human enterovirus (human EV); as diagnostic methods improved, the rate of positive results ...
Jula Alma - - 2013
Human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1) was detected in a young child hospitalized for pneumonia and subsequently in his twin brother and other family members. The mother's nasopharyngeal samples intermittently showed HBoV1 DNA; the grandmother had HBoV1 reinfection. Findings in this family lead to consideration of HBoV virulence, latency, and reactivation.
Abid Muhammad - - 2013
Campylobacter- spp.-related gastroenteritis in diners at a catering college restaurant was associated with consumption of duck liver pâté. Population genetic analysis indicated that isolates from duck samples were typical of isolates from farmed poultry. Campylobacter spp. contamination of duck liver may present a hazard similar to the increasingly recognized contamination ...
Yandim Cihangir C Gene Control Mechanisms and Disease, Department of Medicine and MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College London, London, - - 2013
This is an exciting time in the study of Friedreich's ataxia. Over the last 10 years much progress has been made in uncovering the mechanisms, whereby the Frataxin gene is silenced by (GAA)n repeat expansions and several of the findings are now ripe for testing in the clinic. The discovery ...
Bertoli Cosetta C Medical Research Council (MRC) Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, University College London, London, UK. - - 2013
The accurate transition from G1 phase of the cell cycle to S phase is crucial for the control of eukaryotic cell proliferation, and its misregulation promotes oncogenesis. During G1 phase, growth-dependent cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity promotes DNA replication and initiates G1-to-S phase transition. CDK activation initiates a positive feedback loop ...
Shamloo Amir A Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4045, - - 2013
Besides its cooperating effects on stem cell proliferation and survival, Kit ligand (KL) is a potent chemotactic protein. While transwell assays permit studies of the frequency of migrating cells, the lack of direct visualization precludes dynamic chemotaxis studies. In response, we utilize microfluidic chambers that enable direct observation of murine ...
Simmons Kirsten K Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, - - 2013
The duration of immunity to norovirus (NoV) gastroenteritis has been believed to be from 6 months to 2 years. However, several observations are inconsistent with this short period. To gain better estimates of the duration of immunity to NoV, we developed a mathematical model of community NoV transmission. The model ...
Pathak Amit A Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-1762, - - 2013
It is now well established that tumor cell invasion through tissue is strongly regulated by the microstructural and mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM). However, it remains unclear how these physical microenvironmental inputs are jointly processed with oncogenic lesions to drive invasion. In this study, we address this open ...
Bility Moses T MT Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, School of Medicine, The University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, - - 2013
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infect and replicate primarily in human hepatocytes. Few reliable and easy accessible animal models are available for studying the immune system's contribution to the liver disease progression during hepatitis virus infection. Humanized mouse models reconstituted with human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) ...
Agler Anne H AH Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, - - 2013
Antioxidant nutritional status is hypothesized to influence chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) susceptibility and progression. Although past studies relate antioxidants to gene expression, there are no data in patients with COPD. This study investigated the hypothesis that antioxidant status is compromised in patients with COPD, and antioxidant-responsive genes differentially express ...
Hoque Rafaz R Section of Digestive Diseases, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, - - 2013
The ability of tissue injury to result in inflammation is a well-recognized phenomenon and is central to a number of common liver and pancreatic diseases including alcoholic steatohepatitis and pancreatitis, as well as drug-induced liver injury, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, and pancreatitis from other causes. The requirements of extracellular damage-associated molecules and ...
Tomlinson Kyle W KW Resource Ecology Group, Wageningen University, PO Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands. - - 2013
Biomass partitioning for resource conservation might affect plant allometry, accounting for a substantial amount of unexplained variation in existing plant allometry models. One means of resource conservation is through direct allocation to storage in particular organs. In this study, storage allocation and biomass allometry of deciduous and evergreen tree species ...
Khan Wajahat Ali WA Department of Computer Engineering, Kyung Hee University , Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of - - 2013
Data interoperability among health information exchange (HIE) systems is a major concern for healthcare practitioners to enable provisioning of telemedicine-related services. Heterogeneity exists in these systems not only at the data level but also among different heterogeneous healthcare standards with which these are compliant. The relationship between healthcare organization data ...
Wang Jiaqiong J Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center, Richmond, VA 23298, - - 2013
Much of the morbidity after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with traumatic axonal injury (TAI). Although most TAI studies focus on corpus callosum white matter, the visual system has received increased interest. To assess visual system TAI, we developed a mouse model of optic nerve TAI. It is unknown, ...
Liu Xian Shuang XS Department of Neurology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI 48202, - - 2013
Cerebral ischemia induces neurogenesis, including proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitor cells and migration of newly generated neuroblasts. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that decrease gene expression through mRNA destabilization and/or translational repression. Emerging data indicate that miRNAs have a role in mediating processes of proliferation and differentiation of ...
Kirkwood Caitlin M CM Translational Neuroscience Program, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, - - 2013
Dendritic spines are the site of most excitatory synapses, the loss of which correlates with cognitive impairment in patients with Alzheimer disease. Substantial evidence indicates that amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, either insoluble fibrillar Aβ deposited into plaques or soluble nonfibrillar Aβ species, can cause spine loss but the concurrent contributions of ...
Rowe Rachel K RK Barrow Neurological Institute at Phoenix Children's Hospital, Phoenix, AZ, - - 2013
Valid modeling of traumatic brain injury (TBI) requires accurate replication of both the mechanical forces that cause the primary injury and the conditions that lead to secondary injuries observed in human patients. The use of animals in TBI research is justified by the lack of in vitro or computer models ...
Morell Carola M CM Department of Surgery and Interdisciplinary Medicine, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan, - - 2013
Cholangiocytes are involved in a variety of processes essential for liver pathophysiology. To meet their demanding metabolic and functional needs, bile ducts are nourished by their own arterial supply, the peribiliary plexus. This capillary network originates from the hepatic artery and is strictly arranged around the intrahepatic bile ducts. Biliary ...
Roh Yoon Seok YS Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, La Jolla, California 92093-0702, - - 2013
Activation of innate immune systems including Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is a key in chronic liver disease. Recent studies suggest that gut microflora-derived bacterial products (i.e. lipopolysaccharide [LPS], bacterial DNA) and endogenous substances (i.e. high-mobility group protein B1 [HMGB1], free fatty acids) released from damaged cells activate hepatic TLRs that ...
Petrasek Jan J Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, - - 2013
The similar histopathological characteristics of alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and the crucial role of the innate immune response in both conditions may lead to the assumption that ASH and NASH represent the same pathophysiological entities caused by different risk factors. In this review paper, we elaborate on ...
Koeppen Arnulf H AH Neurology and Research Services, VA Medical Center, Departments of Neurology and Pathology, Albany Medical College, Albany, New York 12208, USA. - - 2013
Nikolaus Friedreich (1825-1882) presented clinical findings in six patients with a severe hereditary disorder of the nervous system and secured full autopsies in four of them. He was fascinated by the spinal cord lesions in the siblings of two unrelated families, and in the first three of his five long ...
Gottesfeld Joel M JM Department of Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, - - 2013
The genetic defect in Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is the expansion of a GAA·TCC triplet in the first intron of the FXN gene, which encodes the mitochondrial protein frataxin. Previous studies have established that the repeats reduce transcription of this essential gene, with a concomitant decrease in frataxin protein in affected ...
Kong Xiaoni X Laboratory of Liver Diseases, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. - - 2013
Interleukin-22 (IL-22) plays a key role in promoting antimicrobial immunity and tissue repair at barrier surfaces by binding to the receptors IL-22R1, which is generally thought to be expressed exclusively in epithelial cells, and IL-10R2. Our laboratory previously demonstrated that IL-22 plays an important role in ameliorating liver injury in ...
Ding Li - - 2013
Two thioxanthone-based fluorescent probes exhibited prominent solvatofluorochromism, and they were further found to be useful as fluorescence indicators for the qualitative and quantitative detection of low-level water content in various solvent media.
Jevtovikj Ivana - - 2013
The reaction of [Na2(thf)4(P4Mes4)] () with tributyltin chloride gives 1,2,3,4-tetramesityl-1,4-bis(tri-n-butyltin)tetraphosphane () which is stable towards disproportionation in solution at room temperature.
Feketeová Linda - - 2013
Oxidative damage to DNA yields guanine radical cations. Their gas-phase IR spectroscopic signature and acidity have been modelled by the radical cation of 9-methylguanine. Comparisons with quantum chemistry calculations suggest that radical cation formation produces the ground-state keto tautomer, which has an N-H acidity enhanced by ∼470 kJ mol(-1).
Zhang Peng - - 2013
Real-time dynamics of native super-paramagnetic nanoparticles (SPMNPs) with different sizes were observed in a microchip at the single-particle level. Based on the optimized magnetic field conditions obtained in the single-nanoparticle study, the SPMNPs were successfully separated and detected within ∼15 s from the model polydisperse mixture.
Kilic Leyla - - 2013
Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is the standard of care for gastric cancer patients in the USA. However, in countries where D2 lymph node dissection is performed, the effect of radiotherapy on locoregional recurrence is controversial. The aim of this study is to compare the outcomes in pN3 gastric cancer patients following ...
Hu Yongfei - - 2013
The human gut microbiota is a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes, but little is known about their diversity and richness within the gut. Here we analyse the antibiotic resistance genes of gut microbiota from 162 individuals. We identify a total of 1,093 antibiotic resistance genes and find that Chinese individuals ...
KriukienÄ— Edita - - 2013
Dynamic patterns of cytosine-5 methylation and successive hydroxylation are part of epigenetic regulation in eukaryotes, including humans, which contributes to normal phenotypic variation and disease risk. Here we present an approach for the mapping of unmodified regions of the genome, which we call the unmethylome. Our technique is based on ...
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