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- - 2013
This final rule addresses various requirements applicable to Navigators and non-Navigator assistance personnel in Federally-facilitated Exchanges, including State Partnership Exchanges, and to non-Navigator assistance personnel in State Exchanges that are funded through federal Exchange Establishment grants. It finalizes the requirement that Exchanges must have a certified application counselor program. It ...
Gerardo Nicole M - - 2013
Studying the association between mealybugs and two bacterial symbionts, Husnik et al. (2013) demonstrated that both integration of metabolic pathways across the partners' genomes and horizontal gene transfer from diverse bacteria into the insect host genome are integral to symbiosis.
Weiss Guenter - - 2013
In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Deriu et al. present a mechanistic explanation underlying the benefits of certain probiotic bacteria. Intestinal bacteria compete for the essential nutrient iron, leading to replacement of pathogenic Salmonella by the probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle, which is better equipped with iron acquisition systems, and ...
Deriu Elisa - - 2013
Host inflammation alters the availability of nutrients such as iron to limit microbial growth. However, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium thrives in the inflamed gut by scavenging for iron with siderophores. By administering Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917, which assimilates iron by similar mechanisms, we show that this nonpathogenic bacterium can ...
Luthra Priya - - 2013
The cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptor RIG-I is activated by viral RNA and induces type I IFN responses to control viral replication. The cellular dsRNA binding protein PACT can also activate RIG-I. To counteract innate antiviral responses, some viruses, including Ebola virus (EBOV), encode proteins that antagonize RIG-I signaling. Here, we ...
Mattei E - - 2013
The aim of this study is to propose setups for in vitro assessment of RFID (radiofrequency identification) interference on pacemakers (PM). The voltage induced at the input stage of the PM by low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) RFID transmitters has been used to quantify the amount of the interference. A ...
Bondar M Luiza - - 2013
For online adaptive radiotherapy of cervical cancer, fast and accurate image segmentation is required to facilitate daily treatment adaptation. Our aim was twofold: (1) to test and compare three intra-patient automated segmentation methods for the cervix-uterus structure in CT-images and (2) to improve the segmentation accuracy by including prior knowledge ...
Finsel Ivo - - 2013
The bacteria causing Legionnaires' disease, Legionella pneumophila, replicate intracellularly within unique Legionella-containing vacuoles (LCVs). LCV formation involves a type IV secretion system (T4SS) that translocates effector proteins into host cells. We show that the T4SS effector RidL localizes to LCVs, supports intracellular bacterial growth, and alters retrograde trafficking, in which ...
Drayman Nir - - 2013
A pathogen's ability to engage host receptors is a critical determinant of its host range and interspecies transmissibility, key issues for understanding emerging diseases. However, the identification of host receptors, which are also attractive drug targets, remains a major challenge. Our structural bioinformatics studies reveal that both bacterial and viral pathogens ...
Nakamura Gerald - - 2013
Recent advances enabling the cloning of human immunoglobulin G genes have proven effective for discovering monoclonal antibodies with therapeutic potential. However, these antibody-discovery methods are often arduous and identify only a few candidates from numerous antibody-secreting plasma cells or plasmablasts. We describe an in vivo enrichment technique that identifies broadly neutralizing human ...
Lin Peng - - 2013
We present a simple and effective mold cleaning method for nanoimprint lithography. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) prepolymer is spin-coated onto a contaminated imprint mold, thermally cured in an ambient environment, and then peeled off afterwards. Contaminants of 100 s μm to sub-50 nm sizes are effectively cleaned within one cycle. During the cleaning process, ...
Philipps J M - - 2013
We investigated the transfer of photogenerated charge carriers from GaN nanowires into a surrounding electrolyte by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and fluorescence spectroscopy. Using 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) as a spin trap we find that the formation of hydroxyl radicals dominates in acidic, neutral and moderately basic environments, while in an electrolyte ...
Oakley David A - - 2013
Hypnosis uses the powerful effects of attention and suggestion to produce, modify and enhance a broad range of subjectively compelling experiences and behaviours. For more than a century, hypnotic suggestion has been used successfully as an adjunctive procedure to treat a wide range of clinical conditions. More recently, hypnosis has ...
Song Jae Hee - - 2013
Ultrasound (US) imaging is widely used for the real-time guidance of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment at a relatively low cost. However, ultrasound image guided HIFU (USgHIFU) is limited in the real-time monitoring of HIFU treatment due to the large amplitude HIFU signals received by the US imaging transducer. The ...
Blömers C - - 2013
Electronic transport properties of InAs nanowires are studied systematically. The nanowires are grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a SiOx-covered GaAs wafer, without using foreign catalyst particles. Room-temperature measurements revealed relatively high resistivity and low carrier concentration values, which correlate with the low background doping obtained by our growth method. ...
Vu Xuan Hoa - - 2013
We present a novel technique to remotely measure and control the local temperature within a medium. This technique is based on the observation of the rotational Brownian motion of gold nanocrescent particles, which possess a strong anisotropic light interaction due to their plasmonic properties. Rotational scattering correlation spectroscopy performed on ...
Massicotte Mathieu - - 2013
Highly dendritic graphene crystals up to 0.25 mm in diameter are synthesized by low pressure chemical vapor deposition inside a copper enclosure. With their six-fold symmetry and fractal-like shape, the crystals resemble snowflakes. The evolution of the dendritic growth features is investigated for different growth conditions, and surface diffusion is found ...
Zaman Mohammed Shahriar - - 2013
The growth of crystalline copper sulfide using a viral template was investigated using sequential incubation in CuCl2 and Na2S precursors. Non-specific electrostatic attraction between a genetically-modified M13 bacteriophage and copper cations in the CuCl2 precursor caused phage agglomeration and bundle formation. Following the addition of Na2S, polydisperse nanocrystals 2-7 nm in ...
Zhang L Q - - 2013
A novel Ti3Sn/NiTi shape memory alloy anode with a sandwich structure was fabricated by arc melting. In order to characterize in situ the Ti3Sn/NiTi anode microstructure changes and phase transformations during cycling, a nanoscale lithium battery was set up inside a transmission electron microscope, which consists of Li metal as the ...
Ng Tessie M TM Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford University, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, - - 2013
Proinflammatory caspases play important roles in innate immunity. Much attention has focused on caspase-1, which acts to eliminate pathogens by obliterating their replicative niches as well as alerting the host to their presence. Now, emerging data have shed light on the lesser-studied proinflammatory caspase-11 in the combat between host and ...
March Sandra S Health Sciences and Technology, Institute for Medical Engineering and Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, - - 2013
The Plasmodium liver stage is an attractive target for the development of antimalarial drugs and vaccines, as it provides an opportunity to interrupt the life cycle of the parasite at a critical early stage. However, targeting the liver stage has been difficult. Undoubtedly, a major barrier has been the lack ...
Etienne Lucie L Division of Human Biology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, - - 2013
HIV-1 resulted from cross-species transmission of SIVcpz, a simian immunodeficiency virus that naturally infects chimpanzees. SIVcpz, in turn, is a recombinant between two SIV lineages from Old World monkeys. Lentiviral interspecies transmissions are partly driven by the evolution and capacity of viral accessory genes, such as vpx, vpr, and vif, ...
Ahlinder Linnea - - 2013
It is a challenging task to characterize the biodistribution of nanoparticles in cells and tissue on a subcellular level. Conventional methods to study the interaction of nanoparticles with living cells rely on labeling techniques that either selectively stain the particles or selectively tag them with tracer molecules. In this work, ...
Alsteens David - - 2013
Understanding the surface properties of the human opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus conidia is essential given the important role they play during the fungal interactions with the human host. Although chitin synthases with myosin motor-like domain (CSM) play a major role in cell wall biosynthesis, the extent to which deletion of ...
Mazzaferri Javier - - 2013
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is found on the basolateral plasma membrane of a variety of epithelial cells, and it is widely accepted that microtubules play an important role in protein trafficking to the plasma membrane. In the particular case of polarized trafficking, however, most evidence on the involvement of microtubules has been ...
Choi Lai-Sheung - - 2013
Metal ion probes are used to assess the accessibility of cysteine side chains in polypeptides lining the conductive pathways of ion channels and thereby determine the conformations of channel states. Despite the widespread use of this approach, the chemistry of metal ion-thiol interactions has not been fully elucidated. Here, we ...
Cantero María Del Rocío Mdel - - 2013
Polycystin-2 (PC2, TRPP2) is a Ca(2+)-permeable, nonselective cation channel implicated in Ca(2+) transport and epithelial cell signaling. Although PC2 may contribute to Ca(2+) transport in human term placenta, the regulatory mechanisms associated with Ca(2+) handling in this tissue are largely unknown. In this work we assessed the regulation by Ca(2+) ...
Lang Alexander E - - 2013
Tc toxins are widely distributed among different gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, where they act as pathogenicity factors. The toxins are composed of different components that form oligomers for biological activity. Lipid bilayer experiments were performed with the TcdA1 component of the Tc toxin from Photorhabdus luminescens, which preferentially kills insects ...
De Zorzi Rita - - 2013
2D crystallography has proven to be an excellent technique to determine the 3D structure of membrane proteins. Compared to 3D crystallography, it has the advantage of visualizing the protein in an environment closer to the native one. However, producing good 2D crystals is still a challenge and little statistical knowledge ...
van Lengerich Bettina - - 2013
Membrane fusion consists of a complex rearrangement of lipids and proteins that results in the merger of two lipid bilayers. We have developed a model system that employs synthetic DNA-lipid conjugates as a surrogate for the membrane proteins involved in the biological fusion reaction. We previously showed that complementary DNA-lipids, ...
Schmidt Florian I - - 2013
Recent studies have revealed new insights into the endocytosis of vaccinia virus (VACV). However, the mechanism of fusion between viral and cellular membranes remains unknown. We developed a microfluidic device with a cell-trap array for immobilization of individual cells, with which we analyzed the acid-dependent fusion of single virions. VACV ...
Stanich Cynthia A - - 2013
We investigate isothermal diffusion and growth of micron-scale liquid domains within membranes of free-floating giant unilamellar vesicles with diameters between 80 and 250 μm. Domains appear after a rapid temperature quench, when the membrane is cooled through a miscibility phase transition such that coexisting liquid phases form. In membranes quenched ...
Raditsis Annie V - - 2013
The iron-transport glycoprotein transferrin has recently been shown to serve as a potent inhibitor of Aβ self-association. Although this novel, to our knowledge, inhibitory function of transferrin is of potential therapeutic interest for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, the underlying mechanism is still not fully understood. Although it has been ...
Haba Noam Y - - 2013
WASp-interacting protein (WIP) is a 503-residue proline-rich polypeptide expressed in human T cells. The WIP C-terminal domain binds to Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) and regulates its activation and degradation, and the WIP-WASp interaction has been shown to be critical for actin polymerization and implicated in the onset of WAS and X-linked ...
Swett Rebecca J - - 2013
Clostridium difficile (C. diff) is one of the most common and most severe hospital-acquired infections; its consequences range from lengthened hospital stay to outright lethality. C. diff causes cellular damage through the action of two large toxins TcdA and TcdB. Recently, there has been increased effort toward developing antitoxin therapies, rather ...
Owen Dylan M - - 2013
Identifying the three-dimensional molecular organization of subcellular organelles in intact cells has been challenging to date. Here we present an analysis approach for three-dimensional localization microscopy that can not only identify subcellular objects below the diffraction limit but also quantify their shape and volume. This approach is particularly useful to ...
Lichtenberg Dov - - 2013
Multiple data are available on the self-assembly of mixtures of bilayer-forming amphiphiles, particularly phospholipids and micelle-forming amphiphiles, commonly denoted detergents. The structure of such mixed assemblies has been thoroughly investigated, described in phase diagrams, and theoretically rationalized in terms of the balance between the large spontaneous curvature of the curvophilic detergent ...
Vargas-Pinto R - - 2013
We examined whether the presence of the cell cortex might explain, in part, why previous studies using atomic force microscopy (AFM) to measure cell modulus (E) gave higher values with sharp tips than for larger spherical tips. We confirmed these AFM findings in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and ...
Bark David L DL - - 2013
Thrombus formation over a ruptured atherosclerotic plaque cap can occlude an artery with fatal consequences. We describe a computational model of platelet transport and binding to interpret rate-limiting steps seen in experimental thrombus formation over a collagen-coated stenosis. The model is used to compute shear rates in stenoses with growing ...
Hamilton Joshua J - - 2013
Constraint-based methods provide powerful computational techniques to allow understanding and prediction of cellular behavior. These methods rely on physiochemical constraints to eliminate infeasible behaviors from the space of available behaviors. One such constraint is thermodynamic feasibility, the requirement that intracellular flux distributions obey the laws of thermodynamics. The past decade ...
Woods Marcella C - - 2013
Detailed knowledge of tissue response to both systolic and diastolic shock is critical for understanding defibrillation. Diastolic field stimulation has been much less studied than systolic stimulation, particularly regarding transient virtual anodes. Here we investigated high-voltage-induced polarization and activation patterns in response to strong diastolic shocks of various durations and ...
Dvir Hila - - 2013
The ventricular tissue is activated in a stochastic rather than in a deterministic rhythm due to the inherent heart rate variability (HRV). Low HRV is a known predictor for arrhythmia events and traditionally is attributed to autonomic nervous system tone damage. Yet, there is no model that directly assesses the ...
Yao Xin-Qiu - - 2013
Heterotrimeric G proteins are conformational switches that turn on intracellular signaling cascades in response to the activation of G-protein-coupled receptors. Receptor activation by extracellular stimuli promotes a cycle of GTP binding and hydrolysis on the G protein α-subunit (Gα). Important conformational transitions occurring during this cycle have been characterized from ...
Mitchell Deborah G - - 2013
The short lifetime of superoxide and the low rates of formation expected in vivo make detection by standard continuous wave (CW) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) challenging. The new rapid-scan EPR method offers improved sensitivity for these types of samples. In rapid-scan EPR, the magnetic field is scanned through resonance in a ...
Bazil Jason N - - 2013
Ubiquinol:cytochrome c oxidoreductase, bc1 complex, is the enzyme in the respiratory chain of mitochondria responsible for the transfer reducing potential from ubiquinol to cytochrome c coupled to the movement of charge against the electrostatic potential across the mitochondrial inner membrane. The complex is also implicated in the generation of reactive ...
Mehler Michaela - - 2013
The proteorhodopsin family consists of retinal proteins of marine bacterial origin with optical properties adjusted to their local environments. For green proteorhodopsin, a highly specific mutation in the EF loop, A178R, has been found to cause a surprisingly large redshift of 20 nm despite its distance from the chromophore. Here, we ...
Weiß Kerstin - - 2013
Protein diffusion in lipid membranes is a key aspect of many cellular signaling processes. To quantitatively describe protein diffusion in membranes, several competing theoretical models have been proposed. Among these, the Saffman-Delbrück model is the most famous. This model predicts a logarithmic dependence of a protein's diffusion coefficient on its ...
Dörig Pablo - - 2013
An original method is presented to study single-colloid interaction with a substrate in liquid environment. Colloids, either in solution or adsorbed on a surface, are fixed by suction against the aperture of a microchanneled atomic force microscopy cantilever. Their adhesion to the substrate is measured, followed by their release via ...
Wheaten Sterling A SA Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of North Carolina Wilmington, Wilmington, North Carolina, - - 2013
Antimicrobial, cytolytic, and cell-penetrating peptides induce pores or perturbations in phospholipid membranes that result in fluxes of dyes into or out of lipid vesicles. Here we examine the fluxes induced by four of these membrane-active peptides in giant unilamellar vesicles. The type of flux is determined from the modality of ...
Ziv Oren - - 2013
Pancreas homeostasis is based on replication of differentiated cells in order to maintain proper organ size and function under changing physiological demand. Recent studies suggest that acinar cells, the most abundant cell type in the pancreas, are facultative progenitors capable of reverting to embryonic-like multipotent progenitor cells under injury conditions ...
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