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Naczynski D J - - 2013
The extension of in vivo optical imaging for disease screening and image-guided surgical interventions requires brightly emitting, tissue-specific materials that optically transmit through living tissue and can be imaged with portable systems that display data in real-time. Recent work suggests that a new window across the short-wavelength infrared region can ...
Liu Meng-Lu - - 2013
Cell fate can be reprogrammed by modifying intrinsic and extrinsic cues. Here we show that two small molecules (forskolin and dorsomorphin) enable the transcription factor Neurogenin 2 (NGN2) to convert human fetal lung fibroblasts into cholinergic neurons with high purity (>90%) and efficiency (up to 99% of NGN2-expressing cells). The ...
Liao Xing - - 2013
The development of a lithographic method that can rapidly define nanoscale features across centimetre-scale surfaces has been a long-standing goal for the nanotechnology community. If such a 'desktop nanofab' could be implemented in a low-cost format, it would bring the possibility of point-of-use nanofabrication for rapidly prototyping diverse functional structures. ...
Cappellari Ornella O Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University College London, United - - 2013
Increasing attention is currently devoted to the multiple roles that pericytes (also defined as mural, Rouget, or perivascular cells) may play during angiogenesis, vascular homeostasis, and pathology. Many recent excellent reviews thoroughly address these topics (see below); hence, we will not discuss them in detail here. However, not much is ...
Asai Masato M Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, - - 2013
Melanocortin receptor accessory proteins (MRAPs) modulate signaling of melanocortin receptors in vitro. To investigate the physiological role of brain-expressed melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein 2 (MRAP2), we characterized mice with whole-body and brain-specific targeted deletion of Mrap2, both of which develop severe obesity at a young age. Mrap2 interacts directly ...
Santagata Sandro S Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, - - 2013
The ribosome is centrally situated to sense metabolic states, but whether its activity, in turn, coherently rewires transcriptional responses is unknown. Here, through integrated chemical-genetic analyses, we found that a dominant transcriptional effect of blocking protein translation in cancer cells was inactivation of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), a multifaceted ...
Bruni Giovanna - - 2013
This paper describes the structure and properties of the drug domperidone and a novel 1:1 domperidone succinate salt. The new salt is characterized by means of thermal, spectroscopic, microscopic and powder diffraction measurements. The crystal structures of the salt and, for the first time, of pure domperidone have been determined ...
Janjić Goran V - - 2013
Parallel stacking interactions between pyridines in crystal structures and the influence of hydrogen bonding and supramolecular structures in crystals on the geometries of interactions were studied by analyzing data from the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD). In the CSD 66 contacts of pyridines have a parallel orientation of molecules and most ...
Clarke Laura E - - 2013
The wiring of the nervous system requires that axons navigate to the correct targets and maintain their correct positions during developmental growth. In this issue, Shao et al. (2013) now reveal a crucial new role for glia in preserving correct synaptic connectivity during developmental growth.
Karpac Jason - - 2013
Metabolic imbalances accompany the aging process in many organisms, and signaling mechanisms that allay or prevent these imbalances can extend lifespan. Two recent studies by Auwerx and colleagues, including one in this issue, identify a conserved signaling network centered on mitochondrial stress responses that promotes longevity in response to changes ...
Clevers Hans - - 2013
Due to its intense self-renewal kinetics and its simple repetitive architecture, the intestinal epithelium has become a prime model for studying adult stem cells in health and disease. Transgenic mouse models allow in vivo visualization and genetic lineage tracing of individual intestinal stem cells and their offspring. Fluorescently marked stem cells ...
Schwabe Tina - - 2013
Neuronal growth cones select synaptic partners through interactions with multiple cell surfaces in their environment. Many of these interactions are adhesive, yet it is unclear how growth cones integrate adhesive cues to direct their movements. Here, we examine the mechanisms that enable photoreceptors in the Drosophila visual system to choose ...
Laxman Sunil - - 2013
Protein translation is an energetically demanding process that must be regulated in response to changes in nutrient availability. Herein, we report that intracellular methionine and cysteine availability directly controls the thiolation status of wobble-uridine (U34) nucleotides present on lysine, glutamine, or glutamate tRNAs to regulate cellular translational capacity and metabolic ...
- - 2013
The Assistant Secretary for Special Education and Rehabilitative Services announces a priority for the Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program administered by the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR). Specifically, we announce a priority for a Rehabilitation Research and Training Center (RRTC) on Community Living Policy. ...
Würth Christian - - 2013
Luminescence techniques are among the most widely used detection methods in the life and material sciences. At the core of these methods is an ever-increasing variety of fluorescent reporters (i.e., simple dyes, fluorescent labels, probes, sensors and switches) from different fluorophore classes ranging from small organic dyes and metal ion ...
Mi Huaiyu - - 2013
The PANTHER (protein annotation through evolutionary relationship) classification system (http://www.pantherdb.org/) is a comprehensive system that combines gene function, ontology, pathways and statistical analysis tools that enable biologists to analyze large-scale, genome-wide data from sequencing, proteomics or gene expression experiments. The system is built with 82 complete genomes organized into gene ...
Li Liangping - - 2013
Introducing human genes into mice offers the opportunity to analyze their in vivo function or to obtain therapeutic molecules. For proper gene regulation, or in case of multigene families, megabase (Mb)-sized DNA fragments often have to be used. Yeast artificial chromosome (YAC)-mediated transgenesis is irreplaceable for this purpose, because alternative ...
Wang Zaicong - - 2013
The excess of highly siderophile (iron-loving) elements (HSEs) and the chondritic ratios of most HSEs in the bulk silicate Earth (BSE) may reflect the accretion of a chondritic 'late veneer' of about 0.5 per cent of Earth's mass after core formation. The amount of volatiles contained in the late veneer ...
Price Sarah L - - 2013
Crystal structure prediction (CSP) studies are not limited to being a search for the most thermodynamically stable crystal structure, but play a valuable role in understanding polymorphism, as shown by interdisciplinary studies where the crystal energy landscape has been explored experimentally and computationally. CSP usually produces more thermodynamically plausible crystal ...
Kinzhybalo Vasyl - - 2013
Tetralithium hypodiphosphate hexahydrate, Li4P2O6·6H2O, forms a highly symmetrical crystal structure, where hypodiphosphate anions have \bar 3m (D3d) symmetry. Analysis of the charge distribution (experimental and theoretically calculated) shows that the charges of the P atoms are lower than in phosphates and phosphonates, whereas the O charges are similar. Values of ...
Allen Frank H - - 2013
Using the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD), it is shown that the acidic C-H donors of chloroform and dichloromethane, respectively, form hydrogen bonds with N, O, S, halides or carbon-bound halogens in 82% and 77% of structures in which such interactions can occur. This hydrogen-bond potency is retained to a significant ...
Kagan Jonathan C - - 2013
On June 5, 2013, Ruslan Medzhitov received the Else Kröner-Fresenius Immunology Award. This recognition goes to an individual who has had such an influence on basic and medical immunology that it is almost difficult to recall a time before his discoveries were made. But in reality, that time was not ...
Nita Paweł - - 2013
Antimony nanoislands grown on a MoS2 surface in ultra-high vacuum have been manipulated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) in ambient conditions. The island profiles have been digitized and provided as an input to a collisional algorithm based on classical mechanics. Assuming that the islands are rigid and static friction is ...
Malumbres A - - 2013
Well dispersed iron-based magnetic nanoparticles have been prepared by gas phase laser-driven decomposition of iron pentacarbonyl. Agglomeration of the newly synthesized nanoparticles could be avoided by using a liquid collection system in which the exit stream from the laser reactor was bubbled through triethylene glycol (TREG). The effect of different ...
Marshall Wallace F - - 2013
A new study by Terasaki et al. highlights the role of physical forces in biological form by showing that connections between stacked endoplasmic reticulum cisternae have a shape well known in classical differential geometry, the helicoid, and that this shape is a predictable consequence of membrane physics.
Sansregret Laurent - - 2013
Development and homeostasis require repeated symmetric cell divisions, which in turn depend on a centered mitotic spindle. In this issue, Kiyomitsu and Cheeseman uncover two mechanisms that ensure correct spindle positioning in anaphase: cortical dynein for pulling the spindle to the cell center and asymmetric membrane elongation that adjusts the ...
Sutter Benjamin M - - 2013
Autophagy is a process of cellular self-digestion induced by various forms of starvation. Although nitrogen deficit is a common trigger, some yeast cells induce autophagy upon switch from a rich to minimal media without nitrogen starvation. We show that the amino acid methionine is sufficient to inhibit such non-nitrogen-starvation (NNS)-induced ...
Wei L L - - 2013
We report a memristive switching effect in Pt/CuOx/Si/Pt devices prepared by the rf sputtering technique at room temperature. Differently from other Cu-based metal filament switching systems, a gradual electroforming process, marked by a gradual increase of the device resistance and a gradual decrease of the device capacitance, was observed in ...
Weaver John B - - 2013
Quantifying the number of nanoparticles present in tissue is central to many in vivo and in vitro applications. Magnetic nanoparticles can be detected with high sensitivity both in vivo and in vitro using the harmonics of their magnetization produced in a sinusoidal magnetic field. However, relaxation effects damp the magnetic ...
Zhuang Naifeng - - 2013
A simple, clean method of steam etching carbon nanotubes is reported for the synthesis of graphene nanoribbons. The chemical mechanism of carbon nanotube unzipping is also discussed. As an anode catalyst, as-prepared graphene nanoribbons combined with Pt exhibit quite a high catalytic activity for ethanol electro-oxidation in fuel cells.
Wong Shaun D - - 2013
Mononuclear non-haem iron (NHFe) enzymes catalyse a broad range of oxidative reactions, including halogenation, hydroxylation, ring closure, desaturation and aromatic ring cleavage reactions. They are involved in a number of biological processes, including phenylalanine metabolism, the production of neurotransmitters, the hypoxic response and the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. The reactive ...
Richardson Ian G - - 2013
A recently proposed method to calculate the a parameter of the unit cell of layered double hydroxides from the fraction of trivalent cations is extended to Zn- and Co-based phases. It is shown to be useful as a sanity test for extant and future structure determinations and computer-simulation studies.
Kiyomitsu Tomomi - - 2013
Mitotic spindle position defines the cell-cleavage site during cytokinesis. However, the mechanisms that control spindle positioning to generate equal-sized daughter cells remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that two mechanisms act coordinately to center the spindle during anaphase in symmetrically dividing human cells. First, the spindle is positioned directly by ...
Mouchiroud Laurent L Laboratory for Integrative and Systems Physiology, School of Life Sciences, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne, - - 2013
NAD(+) is an important cofactor regulating metabolic homeostasis and a rate-limiting substrate for sirtuin deacylases. We show that NAD(+) levels are reduced in aged mice and Caenorhabditis elegans and that decreasing NAD(+) levels results in a further reduction in worm lifespan. Conversely, genetic or pharmacological restoration of NAD(+) prevents age-associated ...
Kim Ji-Young JY Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Washington University, St. Louis School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, - - 2013
Phagocytosis and degradation of photoreceptor outer segments (POS) by retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is fundamental to vision. Autophagy is also responsible for bulk degradation of cellular components, but its role in POS degradation is not well understood. We report that the morning burst of RPE phagocytosis coincided with the enzymatic ...
Subramanian Radhika R Laboratory of Chemistry and Cell Biology, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, - - 2013
Error-free cell division depends on the assembly of the spindle midzone, a specialized array of overlapping microtubules that emerges between segregating chromosomes during anaphase. The molecular mechanisms by which a subset of dynamic microtubules from the metaphase spindle are selected and organized into a stable midzone array are poorly understood. ...
Terasaki Mark M Department of Cell Biology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 06030, USA. - - 2013
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) often forms stacked membrane sheets, an arrangement that is likely required to accommodate a maximum of membrane-bound polysomes for secretory protein synthesis. How sheets are stacked is unknown. Here, we used improved staining and automated ultrathin sectioning electron microscopy methods to analyze stacked ER sheets in ...
Chen Tsai-Wen TW Janelia Farm Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 19700 Helix Drive, Ashburn, Virginia 20147, - - 2013
Fluorescent calcium sensors are widely used to image neural activity. Using structure-based mutagenesis and neuron-based screening, we developed a family of ultrasensitive protein calcium sensors (GCaMP6) that outperformed other sensors in cultured neurons and in zebrafish, flies and mice in vivo. In layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons of the mouse visual ...
Bretheau L L Quantronics Group, Service de Physique de l'État Condensé (CNRS, URA 2464), IRAMIS, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, - - 2013
The Josephson effect describes the flow of supercurrent in a weak link-such as a tunnel junction, nanowire or molecule-between two superconductors. It is the basis for a variety of circuits and devices, with applications ranging from medicine to quantum information. Experiments using Josephson circuits that behave like artificial atoms are ...
White Jacqueline K JK Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, - - 2013
Mutations in whole organisms are powerful ways of interrogating gene function in a realistic context. We describe a program, the Sanger Institute Mouse Genetics Project, that provides a step toward the aim of knocking out all genes and screening each line for a broad range of traits. We found that ...
Lyons David B DB Tetrad Program, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, - - 2013
The molecular mechanisms regulating olfactory receptor (OR) expression in the mammalian nose are not yet understood. Here, we identify the transient expression of histone demethylase LSD1 and the OR-dependent expression of adenylyl cyclase 3 (Adcy3) as requirements for initiation and stabilization of OR expression. As a transcriptional coactivator, LSD1 is ...
Tang Zhanyun Z Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, - - 2013
The H3K4me3 mark in chromatin is closely correlated with actively transcribed genes, although the mechanisms involved in its generation and function are not fully understood. In vitro studies with recombinant chromatin and purified human factors demonstrate a robust SET1 complex (SET1C)-mediated H3K4 trimethylation that is dependent upon p53- and p300-mediated H3 ...
Shao Zhiyong Z Program in Cellular Neuroscience, Neurodegeneration and Repair, Department of Cell Biology, Yale University School of Medicine, P.O. Box 9812, New Haven, CT 06536-0812, - - 2013
Synaptic contacts are largely established during embryogenesis and are then maintained during growth. To identify molecules involved in this process, we conducted a forward genetic screen in C. elegans and identified cima-1. In cima-1 mutants, synaptic contacts are correctly established during embryogenesis, but ectopic synapses emerge during postdevelopmental growth. cima-1 ...
Millay Douglas P DP Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, - - 2013
Fusion of myoblasts is essential for the formation of multi-nucleated muscle fibres. However, the identity of muscle-specific proteins that directly govern this fusion process in mammals has remained elusive. Here we identify a muscle-specific membrane protein, named myomaker, that controls myoblast fusion. Myomaker is expressed on the cell surface of ...
Martinez Raquel C R RC University of Sao Paulo, Medical School, Surgery Department LIM 26 HCFMUSP, Sao Paulo 01246-903, - - 2013
Active avoidance (AA) is an important paradigm for studying mechanisms of aversive instrumental learning, pathological anxiety, and active coping. Unfortunately, AA neurocircuits are poorly understood, partly because behavior is highly variable and reflects a competition between Pavlovian reactions and instrumental actions. Here we exploited the behavioral differences between good and ...
Wang Xiaomeng X Department of Cell Biology, UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, London EC1V 9EL, - - 2013
Aberrant neovascularization contributes to diseases such as cancer, blindness and atherosclerosis, and is the consequence of inappropriate angiogenic signalling. Although many regulators of pathogenic angiogenesis have been identified, our understanding of this process is incomplete. Here we explore the transcriptome of retinal microvessels isolated from mouse models of retinal disease ...
Kok Kin-Hang - - 2013
The sensing of viral RNA by the host innate immune system is mediated by RIG-I and its partner PACT. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Luthra et al. (2013) show that the Ebola virus VP35 protein counteracts the action of PACT at the cost of compromising its own function ...
Yewdell Jonathan W - - 2013
In this issue, Nakamura et al. (2013) describe a robust SCID mouse-based method for isolating human monoclonal antibodies of desired specificity from adoptively transferred human B cells. As proof of principle, they isolate human mAbs that could potentially be used to treat or prevent human infection with any influenza A virus ...
Matheoud Diana - - 2013
During phagocytosis, microorganisms are taken up by immune cells into phagosomes. Through membrane-trafficking events mediated by SNARE proteins, phagosomes fuse with lysosomes, generating degradative phagolysosomes. Phagolysosomes contribute to host immunity by linking microbial killing within these organelles with antigen processing for presentation on MHC class I or II molecules to ...
Handa Yutaka - - 2013
The vaccinia F11 protein promotes viral spread by modulating the cortical actin cytoskeleton by inhibiting RhoA signaling via an unknown mechanism. PDZ domains are widely conserved protein interaction modules whose occurrence in viral proteins is unprecedented. We found that F11 contains a central PDZ-like domain that is required to downregulate ...
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