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Results 301 - 350 of 2998
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Yan Lijuan - - 2013
The international multidisciplinary classification of lung adenocarcinoma sponsored by International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society in 2011, addresses the classification which is appropriate for resection specimens, small biopsies and cytology, respectively for the first time. For resection specimens, new concepts are introduced such as ...
Ge Hui - - 2013
To those patients with advanced lung cancer, the ultimate objective is to improve the curative effect and quality of life, lung function indexes are an important factor. We investigate the change of lung function and the relationship between pulmonary function indexs and survival time in patients with advanced lung cancer. ...
Shan Liqun - - 2013
Chest computed tomography (CT), particularly thin-slice high resolution CT, has low sensitivity and specificity for detecting pulmonary nodules <10 mm in size. This limitation leads to challenges in clinical diagnosis and treatment of small pulmonary nodules. This study introduces the use of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) for the diagnosis and ...
Wang Li - - 2013
Triptolide can cure a variety kinds of non-small cell lung cancer cell lines. It can interfere the cell cycle, active the caspase signaling pathway, inhibit the of expression vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), inhibit the activation of NF-κB, and through these ways to promote lung cancer cell death. Now the ...
Avanaki Mohammad R N - - 2013
This paper presents an algorithm for reducing speckle noise from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images using an artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm. The noise is modeled using Rayleigh distribution with a noise parameter, sigma, estimated by the ANN. The input to the ANN is a set of intensity and wavelet ...
Lin Yu-Hsuan - - 2013
A filtering macrolens was developed to simultaneously achieve macro-optical imaging and correct spectrum aberration. The macrolens was a doublet lens comprising a filtering lens and a close-up lens. The shape of the filtering lens was designed to eliminate the optical path differences between the light rays in the absorbing medium. ...
Vollmerhausen Richard - - 2013
On moonless nights, airglow is the primary source of natural ground illumination in the near infrared and shortwave infrared spectral bands. Therefore, night vision imagers operating in these spectral bands view targets that are diffusely illuminated. Aerosol scattering of diffuse airglow illumination causes atmospheric path radiance and that radiance causes ...
Liang Dawei - - 2013
To significantly improve the present-day high-power solar laser beam quality, a three-stage multi-Fresnel lenses approach is proposed for side-pumping either a Nd:YAG single-crystal or a core-doped Sm<sup>3+</sup>Nd:YAG ceramic rod. Optimum pumping and laser beam parameters are found through ZEMAX and LASCAD numerical analysis. The proposed scheme offers a uniform absorption ...
Kumar Prashant - - 2013
We propose a calibration-free algorithm for retrieval of elemental concentrations using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. This is a simple and improved version of other ratio-based algorithms as it needs only one trial parameter to estimate all other concentrations. The present algorithm has been used to estimate the composition of a brass ...
Hsieh Chi-Chang - - 2013
A well designed headlamp for a vehicle lighting system is very important as it provides drivers with safe and comfortable driving conditions at night or in dark places. With the advances of the semiconductor technology, the LED has become the fourth generation lighting source in the auto industry. In this ...
Zhang Renyan - - 2013
We investigate the lateral variations of photocurrent on CdS/Al interfaces, with a combination of a semiconductor characterization system and scanning near-field optical microscopy, in which the near-field probe is used to locally induce photocurrent on the CdS/Al interfaces with high spatial resolution. By analyzing the spatially resolved photoresponse, we find ...
Jiang Yi - - 2013
In this paper, we propose a new supervised manifold learning approach, supervised preserving projection (SPP), for the depth images of a 3D imaging sensor based on the time-of-flight (TOF) principle. We present a novel manifold sense to learn scene information produced by the TOF camera along with depth images. First, ...
Gao Meng - - 2013
Holographic imaging has proved to be useful for spherical particle characterization, including the retrieval of particle size, refractive index, and 3D location. In this method, the interference pattern of the incident and scattered light fields is recorded by a camera and compared with the relevant Lorenz-Mie solutions. However, the method ...
Sykes Ben - - 2013
As with clinical skills, veterinary business skills cannot be acquired overnight and developing them should be part of the process of lifelong learning, says Ben Sykes.
Shen Jian - - 2013
It has been proven that cobrotoxin has anti-tumor effect while its role in lung cancer is rarely studied. The aim of this study is to assay the anti-tumor effect of cobrotoxin in cell line A549, and also to explore its possible mechanism related to autophagy and P38-MARK pathway. Using MTT ...
Zeng Yuanyuan - - 2013
As a member of the cadherin superfamily, E-cadherin plays a critical role in the maintenance of cell polarity and integrity. And E-cadherin was reported to be down-regulated and closely related to tumor initiation, invasion and metastasis. There have been a number of studies investigating the methylation of E-cadherin promoter in ...
Yang Xinjie - - 2013
Background and objective It has been proven that icotinib hydrochloride, as a molecule targeted drug, can be safely and efficiently used to treat advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) for second-line or third-line. This research was aimed to investigate the efficacy and toxicity of icotinib hydrochloride as the first-line therapy ...
- - 2013
Schmallenberg virus (SBV) disease confirmed in suckler calves in Dumfriesshire Botulism in indoor-housed artificially reared dairy calves Mastitis, udder lesions and joint infections in a dairy herd due to Mycoplasma bovis Colitis in ewes associated with Listeria monocytogenes infection Erysipelas in young breeding turkeys These are among matters discussed in ...
Tang Chuanhao - - 2013
For advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who benefited from prior epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) therapy, the choice of a second TKI therapy has gradually become a new strategy for the treatment. Some investigators recommend that the second therapy should be continued with the original ...
Liu Yi - - 2013
Lung cancer with brain metastasis was 23% to 65%, and is the most common type in brain metastasis tumors with the poor prognosis. At present, diagnosis and treatment of brain metastases from lung carcinoma and its molecular mechanism have become one hot spot of amount researches. Here, we made a ...
Gillis Elisabeth - - 2013
Aortic aneurysm, including both abdominal aortic aneurysm and thoracic aortic aneurysm, is the cause of death of 1% to 2% of the Western population. This review focuses only on thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections. During the past decade, the genetic contribution to the pathogenesis of thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections ...
Wu J - - 2013
Electron motion in chemical bonds occurs on an attosecond timescale. This ultrafast motion can be driven by strong laser fields. Ultrashort asymmetric laser pulses are known to direct electrons to a certain direction. But do symmetric laser pulses destroy symmetry in breaking chemical bonds? Here we answer this question in ...
Tomasoni Romana - - 2013
Synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) is a member of the Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor attachment protein receptors (SNARE) protein family, required for exocytosis of synaptic vesicles and regulation of diverse ion channels. Here, we show that acute reduction of SNAP-25 expression leads to an immature phenotype of dendritic spines that are, consistently, ...
Mora Camilo - - 2013
Costello et al. (Review, 25 January 2013, p. 413) challenged the common view that many species are disappearing before being described. We suggest that their conclusion is overly optimistic because of a limited selection and interpretation of available evidence that tends to overestimate rates of species description and underestimate the ...
Costello Mark J - - 2013
Mora et al. disputed that most species will be discovered before they go extinct, but not our main recommendations to accelerate species' discoveries. We show that our conclusions would be unaltered by discoveries of more microscopic species and reinforce our estimates of species description and extinction rates, that taxonomic effort ...
Timonen Jaakko V I - - 2013
Self-assembly is a process in which interacting bodies are autonomously driven into ordered structures. Static structures such as crystals often form through simple energy minimization, whereas dynamic ones require continuous energy input to grow and sustain. Dynamic systems are ubiquitous in nature and biology but have proven challenging to understand ...
Mahaffy Paul R - - 2013
Volume mixing and isotope ratios secured with repeated atmospheric measurements taken with the Sample Analysis at Mars instrument suite on the Curiosity rover are: carbon dioxide (CO2), 0.960(±0.007); argon-40 ((40)Ar), 0.0193(±0.0001); nitrogen (N2), 0.0189(±0.0003); oxygen, 1.45(±0.09) × 10(-3); carbon monoxide, < 1.0 × 10(-3); and (40)Ar/(36)Ar, 1.9(±0.3) × 10(3). The ...
Fry Douglas P - - 2013
It has been argued that warfare evolved as a component of early human behavior within foraging band societies. We investigated lethal aggression in a sample of 21 mobile forager band societies (MFBS) derived systematically from the standard cross-cultural sample. We hypothesized, on the basis of mobile forager ethnography, that most ...
Mahler D Luke - - 2013
G. G. Simpson, one of the chief architects of evolutionary biology's modern synthesis, proposed that diversification occurs on a macroevolutionary adaptive landscape, but landscape models are seldom used to study adaptive divergence in large radiations. We show that for Caribbean Anolis lizards, diversification on similar Simpsonian landscapes leads to striking ...
Li Yanxin - - 2013
Mechanisms underlying the reprogramming process of induced pluripotent stem cells remain poorly defined. Like tumorigenesis, generation of induced pluripotent stem cells was shown to be suppressed by the Trp53 (p53) pathway, at least in part via p21(Cdkn1a) (p21)-mediated cell cycle arrest. Here we examine the role of PUMA, a pro-apoptotic ...
Webster Chris R - - 2013
Stable isotope ratios of H, C, and O are powerful indicators of a wide variety of planetary geophysical processes, and for Mars they reveal the record of loss of its atmosphere and subsequent interactions with its surface such as carbonate formation. We report in situ measurements of the isotopic ratios ...
Pan Junqing - - 2013
The automobile industry consumed 9 million metric tons of lead in 2012 for lead-acid batteries. Recycling lead from spent lead-acid batteries is not only related to the sustainable development of the lead industry, but also to the reduction of lead pollution in the environment. The existing lead pyrometallurgical processes have ...
Bakkum Douglas J - - 2013
Axons are traditionally considered stable transmission cables, but evidence of the regulation of action potential propagation demonstrates that axons may have more important roles. However, their small diameters render intracellular recordings challenging, and low-magnitude extracellular signals are difficult to detect and assign. Better experimental access to axonal function would help ...
Gunanathan Chidambaram - - 2013
Conventional oxidations of organic compounds formally transfer hydrogen atoms from the substrate to an acceptor molecule such as oxygen, a metal oxide, or a sacrificial olefin. In acceptorless dehydrogenation (AD) reactions, catalytic scission of C-H, N-H, and/or O-H bonds liberates hydrogen gas with no need for a stoichiometric oxidant, thereby ...
Lee Dongwon - - 2013
The main culprit in the pathogenesis of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), the most abundant form of ROS produced during I/R, causes inflammation, apoptosis and subsequent tissue damages. Here, we report H2O2-responsive antioxidant nanoparticles formulated from copolyoxalate containing vanillyl alcohol (VA) ...
Ogawa Naoki - - 2013
We observed the high-speed anisotropic motion of an individual gold nanoparticle in 3D at the picometer scale using a high-energy electron probe. Diffracted electron tracking (DET) using the electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) patterns of labeled nanoparticles under wet-SEM allowed us to super-accurately measure the time-resolved 3D motion of individual nanoparticles ...
Yoon Woojun - - 2013
Nanocrystal quantum dots (QD) show great promise toward improving solar cell efficiencies through the use of quantum confinement to tune absorbance across the solar spectrum and enable multi-exciton generation. Despite this remarkable potential for high photocurrent generation, the achievable open-circuit voltage (Voc) is fundamentally limited due to non-radiative recombination processes ...
Gonsamo Alemu - - 2013
The timing of crucial events in plant life cycles is shifting in response to climate change. We use phenology records from PlantWatch Canada 'Citizen Science' networks to study recent rapid shifts of flowering phenology and its relationship with climate. The average first flower bloom day of 19 Canadian plant species ...
Zhao Xianglong - - 2013
Nanocontainers have great potentials in targeted drug delivery and nanospace-confined reactions. However, the previous synthetic approaches exhibited limited control over the morphology, size and materials of the nanocontainers, which are crucial in practical applications. Here, we present a synthetic approach to multi-segment linear-shaped nanopores with pre-designed morphologies inside anodic aluminium ...
Kim Dokyoon - - 2013
Giant magnetoresistive (GMR) nanosensors provide a novel approach for measuring protein concentrations in blood for medical diagnosis. Using an in vivo mouse radiation model, we developed protocols for measuring Flt3 ligand (Flt3lg) and serum amyloid A1 (Saa1) in small amounts of blood collected during the first week after X-ray exposures ...
Akemann Walther - - 2013
Voltage-sensitive fluorescent proteins (VSFPs) are a family of genetically-encoded voltage indicators (GEVIs) reporting membrane voltage fluctuation from genetically-targeted cells in cell cultures to whole brains in awake mice as demonstrated earlier using 1-photon (1P) fluorescence excitation imaging. However, in-vivo 1P imaging captures optical signals only from superficial layers and does ...
Rui Guanghao - - 2013
Optical antennas have been utilized to tailor the emission properties of nanoscale emitters in terms of the intensity, directivity and polarization. In this letter, we further explore the capability of beam steering via the use a spiral plasmonic structure as a transmitting antenna. According to both numerical simulation and experimental ...
Longkumer Toshisangba - - 2013
While analyzing plasmids of Acinetobacter sp. DS002 we have detected a circular DNA molecule pTS236, which upon further investigation is identified as the genome of a phage. The phage genome has shown sequence similarity to the recently discovered Sphinx 2.36 DNA sequence co-purified with the Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE) particles ...
Tay Song Buck - - 2013
Conventional leaching (extraction) methods for gold recovery from electronic waste involve the use of strong acids and pose considerable threat to the environment. The alternative use of bioleaching microbes for gold recovery is non-pollutive and relies on the secretion of a lixiviant or (bio)chemical such as cyanide for extraction of ...
Haiser Henry J - - 2013
Despite numerous examples of the effects of the human gastrointestinal microbiome on drug efficacy and toxicity, there is often an incomplete understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Here, we dissect the inactivation of the cardiac drug digoxin by the gut Actinobacterium Eggerthella lenta. Transcriptional profiling, comparative genomics, and culture-based assays revealed ...
Maitz Manfred F - - 2013
Bio-responsive polymer architectures can empower medical therapies by engaging molecular feedback-response mechanisms resembling the homeostatic adaptation of living tissues to varying environmental constraints. Here we show that a blood coagulation-responsive hydrogel system can deliver heparin in amounts triggered by the environmental levels of thrombin, the key enzyme of the coagulation ...
Johansson Henrik J - - 2013
About one-third of oestrogen receptor alpha-positive breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen relapse. Here we identify the nuclear receptor retinoic acid receptor alpha as a marker of tamoxifen resistance. Using quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics, we show that retinoic acid receptor alpha protein networks and levels differ in a tamoxifen-sensitive (MCF7) ...
Homoky William B - - 2013
Oceanic iron inputs must be traced and quantified to learn how they affect primary productivity and climate. Chemical reduction of iron in continental margin sediments provides a substantial dissolved flux to the oceans, which is isotopically lighter than the crust, and so may be distinguished in seawater from other sources, ...
Sebag Julien A - - 2013
The melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) is essential for control of energy homeostasis in vertebrates. MC4R interacts with melanocortin receptor accessory protein 2 (MRAP2) in vitro, but its functions in vivo are unknown. We found that MRAP2a, a larval form, stimulates growth of zebrafish by specifically blocking the action of MC4R. In ...
Philippe Nadège - - 2013
Ten years ago, the discovery of Mimivirus, a virus infecting Acanthamoeba, initiated a reappraisal of the upper limits of the viral world, both in terms of particle size (>0.7 micrometers) and genome complexity (>1000 genes), dimensions typical of parasitic bacteria. The diversity of these giant viruses (the Megaviridae) was assessed ...
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