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Spires Jessica J Departments of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH 44106-7207, - - 2013
With current techniques, experimental measurements alone cannot characterize the effects of oxygen blood-tissue diffusion on muscle oxygen uptake (Vo₂) kinetics in contracting skeletal muscle. To complement experimental studies, a computational model is used to quantitatively distinguish the contributions of convective oxygen delivery, diffusion into cells, and oxygen utilization to Vo₂ ...
Bikard David D Laboratory of Bacteriology, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA, Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, 4 Blackfan Circle, Boston, MA 02115, USA, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA, McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA, Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA and Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, - - 2013
The ability to artificially control transcription is essential both to the study of gene function and to the construction of synthetic gene networks with desired properties. Cas9 is an RNA-guided double-stranded DNA nuclease that participates in the CRISPR-Cas immune defense against prokaryotic viruses. We describe the use of a Cas9 ...
Marker Daniel F DF Centers for Neural Development and Disease, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14642, USA. - - 2013
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) is a significant source of disability in the HIV-infected population. Even with stringent adherence to anti-retroviral therapy, >50% of patients living with HIV-1 will develop HAND (Heaton et al., 2010). Because suppression of viral replication alone is not enough to stop HAND progression, ...
Cantuti Castelvetri Ludovico L Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60612, - - 2013
Loss of function of galactosylceramidase lysosomal activity causes demyelination and vulnerability of various neuronal populations in Krabbe disease. Psychosine, a lipid-raft-associated sphingolipid that accumulates in this disease, is thought to trigger these abnormalities. Myelin-free in vitro analyses showed that psychosine inhibited fast axonal transport through the activation of axonal PP1 ...
Ramaker Jenna M JM Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, - - 2013
Amyloid precursor protein (APP) belongs to a family of evolutionarily conserved transmembrane glycoproteins that has been proposed to regulate multiple aspects of cell motility in the nervous system. Although APP is best known as the source of β-amyloid fragments (Aβ) that accumulate in Alzheimer's disease, perturbations affecting normal APP signaling ...
Arnedo Javier J Department of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence, University of Granada, E-18071 Granada, - - 2013
It has been proposed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) discovered by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) account for only a small fraction of the genetic variation of complex traits in human population. The remaining unexplained variance or missing heritability is thought to be due to marginal effects of many loci with ...
Péré Christelle C CABI, 2800 Delémont, - - 2013
How global warming will affect insect parasitoids and their role as natural enemies of insect pests is difficult to assess within a short period of time. Considering that elevation gradients can be used as analogues for global warming, we carried out meta-analyses of 27 correlations between parasitoid richness and elevation ...
Ghalambor Cameron K CK Department of Biology and Graduate Degree Program in Ecology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. - - 2013
Predation can be an important agent of natural selection shaping parental care behaviours, and can also favour behavioural plasticity. Parent birds often decrease the rate that they visit the nest to provision offspring when perceived risk is high. Yet, the plasticity of such responses may differ among species as a ...
Hsu Chia-Hsin CH Bioinformatics Program, Taiwan International Graduate Program, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of - - 2013
Protein domain architectures (PDAs), in which single domains are linked to form multiple-domain proteins, are a major molecular form used by evolution for the diversification of protein functions. However, the design principles of PDAs remain largely uninvestigated. In this study, we constructed networks to connect domain architectures that had grown ...
Davies T Jonathan TJ Department of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, - - 2013
The tree-of-life represents the diversity of living organisms. Species extinction and the concomitant loss of branches from the tree-of-life is therefore a major conservation concern. There is increasing evidence indicating that extinction is phylogenetically non-random, such that if one species is vulnerable to extinction so too are its close relatives. ...
Janssens Lizanne L Laboratory of Aquatic Ecology, Evolution and Conservation, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. - - 2013
While there is increasing interest in non-consumptive effects of predators on prey, physiological effects are understudied. While physiological stress responses play a crucial role in preparing escape responses, the increased metabolic rates and shunting of energy away from other body functions, including antioxidant defence, may generate costs in terms of ...
Feeney William E WE Research School of Biology, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia. - - 2013
Arms races between brood parasites and their hosts provide model systems for studying the evolutionary repercussions of species interactions. However, how naive hosts identify brood parasites as enemies remains poorly understood, despite its ecological and evolutionary significance. Here, we investigate whether young, cuckoo-naive superb fairy-wrens, Malurus cyaneus, can learn to ...
Derégnaucourt Sébastien S Department of Behavioural Neurobiology, Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Seewiesen, Germany. - - 2013
As is the case for human speech, birdsong is transmitted across generations by imitative learning. Although transfer of song patterns from adults to juveniles typically occurs via vertical or oblique transmission, there is also evidence of horizontal transmission between juveniles of the same generation. Here, we show that a young ...
Zhao Bo B Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, People's Republic of - - 2013
A recent study demonstrated that the embryos of soft-shelled turtles can reposition themselves within their eggs to exploit locally warm conditions. In this paper, we ask whether turtle embryos actively seek out optimal thermal environments for their development, as do post-hatching individuals. Specifically, (i) do reptile embryos move away from ...
Eppinger Ben B Princeton Neuroscience Institute, Green Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA. - - 2013
We examined whether older adults differ from younger adults in how they learn from rewarding and aversive outcomes. Human participants were asked to either learn to choose actions that lead to monetary reward or learn to avoid actions that lead to monetary losses. To examine age differences in the neurophysiological ...
Chen Xi X Laboratory of Applied Neuroscience, Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, - - 2013
Damage to the medial temporal lobe impairs the encoding of new memories and the retrieval of memories acquired immediately before the damage in human. In this study, we demonstrated that artificial visuoauditory memory traces can be established in the rat auditory cortex and that their encoding and retrieval depend on ...
Blanco Gustavo G Dept. of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, 3901 Rainbow Blvd., Kansas City, KS 66160. - - 2013
The classic role of the Na-K-ATPase is that of a primary active transporter that utilizes cell energy to establish and maintain transmembrane Na(+) and K(+) gradients to preserve cell osmotic stability, support cell excitability, and drive secondary active transport. Recent studies have revealed that Na-K-ATPase located within cholesterol-containing lipid rafts ...
Zhang Yaqing Y Department of Surgery, University of Michigan Medical School, 1500 E Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, - - 2013
Wnt ligand expression and activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway have been associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, but whether Wnt activity is required for the development of pancreatic cancer has remained unclear. Here, we report the results of three different approaches to inhibit the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in a established transgenic mouse ...
Kothandapani Anbarasi A Department of Biochemistry and Cancer Biology, University of Toledo - Health Science Campus, Toledo, OH 43614, USA, Department of Pharmacology & Chemical Biology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Hillman Cancer Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA and Department of Human Genetics, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, - - 2013
Base excision repair (BER) and mismatch repair (MMR) pathways play an important role in modulating cis-Diamminedichloroplatinum (II) (cisplatin) cytotoxicity. In this article, we identified a novel mechanistic role of both BER and MMR pathways in mediating cellular responses to cisplatin treatment. Cells defective in BER or MMR display a cisplatin-resistant ...
Liu Shijing S Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX 77030, USA. - - 2013
Key characteristics of cocaine dependence include attentional bias to cocaine cues and impaired inhibitory control. Studies suggest that serotonin modulates both cocaine cue reactivity and inhibitory control. We investigated effects of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram on cocaine cue reactivity and inhibitory processes in cocaine-dependent subjects. In a double-blind ...
Potter Rachel R Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, MO 63110, - - 2013
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is hypothesized to be caused by an overproduction or reduced clearance of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide. Autosomal dominant AD (ADAD) caused by mutations in the presenilin (PSEN) gene have been postulated to result from increased production of Aβ42 compared to Aβ40 in the central nervous system (CNS). This ...
Henning Oliver - - 2013
BACKGROUND. Epilepsy-related psychoses lie in the border zone between neurology and psychiatry. The aim of this article is to give a brief overview of current knowledge of these psychoses, and to offer recommendations for their treatment.METHOD. The article is based on a discretionary selection of articles found through a search ...
Mutoro Antonina N - - 2013
This study surveyed how healthcare workers (HCW) in Kenya diagnose childhood undernutrition and growth chart plotting accuracy. HCW (39) actively involved in growth monitoring completed questionnaires that included plotting of weights at ages 2, 6 and 9 months using the Kenyan road to health chart (RTH). The most commonly used ...
Prameprart Monsikarn - - 2013
The objectives of this study were to investigate the pattern of unintentional drowning deaths and to identify the factors associated with drowning deaths in Thailand from 2000 to 2009. Reported death data were obtained from the Bureau of Health Policy and Strategy, Ministry of Public Health. During the period from ...
Lin Yu-Cheng - - 2013
To examine the potential risk factors for work-related fatigue (WRF) among workers in modern industries, the authors analyzed the records of need-for-recovery questionnaires and health checkup results for 1545 employees. Compared with regular daytime workers, and after adjusting for confounders, the workers adapting to day-and-night rotating shift work (RSW) had ...
Foon Tan Siow - - 2013
This study examines the rate of decline of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) over a 10-year period and the associated risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Medical records of T2DM patients were randomly selected. The rate of fall in eGFR (simplified modification of diet in renal disease ...
Wang Chenggang - - 2013
The aim of this study is to develop a model that correctly identifies and quantifies the relationship between dengue and meteorological factors in Guangzhou, China. By cross-correlation analysis, meteorological variables and their lag effects were determined. According to the epidemic characteristics of dengue in Guangzhou, those statistically significant variables were ...
Phanthavong Pinkham - - 2013
In spite of being a major public health issue, no data on depression in young people exist in Laos. Decision makers are therefore poorly equipped to define the degree of prioritization of this pathology among their preoccupations. This study aimed at estimating the prevalence of depression among last-year high schools ...
Banala Srinivas - - 2013
A cyclodehydration reaction has been used to synthesize the linear azole-containing peptide plantazolicin A. The target compound was synthesized from two heterocyclic fragments derived from dipeptide building blocks. The acid-labile oxazolines and thiazoles necessitate the use of a Teoc/TMSE-based protection-group strategy which allows structure modification of plantazolicin.
Zemlyak Alla - - 2013
Primary and acquired abdominal pathology accounts for a significant proportion of sepsis and SIRS in the ICU population. Abdominal processes often present a difficult diagnostic dilemma in the truly critically ill patient who, due to hemodynamic instability or severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring high-level ventilatory support, is at ...
Pathirage Niroshani A - - 2013
Abnormal trophoblast function is associated with human fetal growth restriction (FGR). Targeted disruption of homeobox gene transforming growth β-induced factor (TGIF-1) results in placental dysfunction in the mouse. The role of human TGIF-1 in placental cell function is unknown. The aims of this study were to determine expression of TGIF-1 ...
Masuda Tsukuru - - 2013
An autonomous functional surface has been designed by using self-oscillating polymers that convert the chemical energy of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction into conformational changes of the polymer chains (see picture: red: hydrophobic/collapsed, green: hydrophilic/extended). Self-oscillating polymer brushes were grafted onto the inner surface of a glass capillary, and autonomous propagation of ...
Zoja Carlamaria - - 2013
The Nrf2/Keap1 system regulates the transcription of antioxidant and cytoprotective genes through direct Nrf2 binding to responsive elements in the promoter region of target genes or via Keap1-induced NF-kB inhibition. The association between oxidative stress and inflammation with progression of chronic kidney diseases (CKDs) directed attention towards bardoxolone methyl and ...
Usvyat Len A - - 2013
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In chronic hemodialysis (HD), patients' hospitalizations result in significant costs and affect the quality of life. We aimed at understanding hospitalization rates before death and to identify patterns in clinical and laboratory parameters that precede the first hospitalization. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND MEASUREMENTS: We conducted two separate ...
Chagas Marcos Hortes N - - 2013
BACKGROUND: depression is common in Parkinson's disease (PD), although frequently under-recognised. Among the scales used to investigate depressive features in PD, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) has been largely used, but no specific cut-off scores for depression have been established thus far, which hinders the use of the PHQ-9 in ...
Ryu Mikyung - - 2013
OBJECTIVE: this study examined the association of physical activity with sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity among the community-dwelling Korean elderly. METHODS: subjects consisted of 2,264 aged 65 years or older in the 2008-09 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Sarcopenia was defined as 2 SD below the mean of the ...
Cour M - - 2013
BACKGROUND: /st>Manual changeover of vasoactive drug infusion pumps (CVIP) frequently lead to haemodynamic instability. Some of the newest smart pumps allow automated CVIP. The aim of this study was to compare automated CVIP with manual 'Quick Change' relays. METHODS: /st>We performed a prospective, quasi-experimental study, in a university-affiliated intensive care ...
Lovisetto Alessandro - - 2013
Background and AimsThe evolution of seeds together with the mechanisms related to their dispersal into the environment represented a turning point in the evolution of plants. Seeds are produced by gymnosperms and angiosperms but only the latter have an ovary to be transformed into a fruit. Yet some gymnosperms produce ...
Wang Yi - - 2013
Background and AimsInvasive plants can be released from specialist herbivores and encounter novel generalists in their introduced ranges, leading to variation in defence among native and invasive populations. However, few studies have examined how constitutive and induced indirect defences change during plant invasion, especially during the juvenile stage.MethodsConstitutive extrafloral nectar ...
Waldrop Lindsay D - - 2013
Malacostracan crustaceans such as crabs flick antennae with arrays of olfactory sensilla called aesthetascs through the water to sense odors. Flicking by crabs consists of a quick downstroke, in which aesthetascs are deflected laterally (splayed), and a slower, reversed return stroke, in which aesthetascs clump together. This motion causes water ...
Smutzer Gregory - - 2013
A novel delivery method is described that incorporates taste stimuli into edible strips for determining n-propylthiouracil (PROP) taster status. Edible strips that contained 400 or 600nanomoles of PROP were prepared for psychophysical studies. Using these strips, we measured taste intensity, taste hedonics, and taste quality responses in a sample of ...
McGann John P - - 2013
Presynaptic inhibition is the suppression of neurotransmitter release from a neuron by inhibitory input onto its presynaptic terminal. In the olfactory system, the primary sensory afferents from the olfactory neuroepithelium to the brain's olfactory bulb are strongly modulated by a presynaptic inhibition that has been studied extensively in brain slices ...
Dong Yongqiang - - 2013
Helpful elements: A facile bottom-up method using citric acid and L-cysteine as a precursor has been developed to prepare graphene quantum dots (GQDs) co-doped with nitrogen and sulfur. A new type and high density of surface state of GQDs arises, leading to high yields (more than 70 %) and excitation-independent emission. ...
Bhaskaran Manoj - - 2013
Ricin toxin, a type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein and a category B bioterrorism agent, is produced from the seeds of castor oil plant (Ricinus communis). Chronic pathological changes in survivors of aerosolized ricin exposure have not been reported in primates. Here we compare and contrast the pathological changes manifested between rhesus ...
Vollset Stein Emil - - 2013
Aims: Use time trends in cause-specific middle-age death risk to study differences in mortality patterns among the Nordic countries. Methods: Middle-age (40-69 years) death risk and its decomposition into cause-specific death risks were computed. Results: In 1952, middle-age death risk was highest in Finland and lowest in Norway. For men, ...
Zander Viktoria - - 2013
Background: As dispersed ethnic populations in Swedish society expand, the healthcare system need to adapt rehabilitation services according to their needs. The experiences of trauma and forced resettlement have a continuing impact on health and musculoskeletal pain, as well as the intersecting structures that prerequisite the possibilities in the new ...
Krane Line - - 2013
Aims: Sickness absence is of considerable concern in both Norway and Denmark. Labour Force Surveys indicate that absence in Norway is about twice that in Denmark and twice that of the mean reported by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. This study compares absence patterns according to age, percentage ...
Elgán Tobias H - - 2013
Aims: The primary aim is to estimate the prevalence of Swedish adolescents who perceive their parent(s) to have alcohol problems. Additional research questions pertain to the prevalence of adolescents who think someone close to them drinks too much alcohol and if this has hurt them or caused them problems. Methods: ...
Shan Yu - - 2013
A novel antiviral protein, designated as Stellarmedin A, was purified from Stellaria media (L.) Vill. (Caryophyllaceae) by using ammonium sulfate precipitation, cation-exchange chromatography system. Gel electrophoresis analysis showed that Stellarmedin A is a highly basic glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 35.1 kDa and an isoelectric point of ∼8.7. The ...
Rodrigues Miguel A - - 2013
Freezing is an important operation in biotherapeutics industry. However, water crystallization in solution, containing electrolytes, sugars and proteins, is difficult to control and usually leads to substantial spatial solute heterogeneity. Herein, we address the influence of the geometry of freezing direction (axial or radial) on the heterogeneity of the frozen ...
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