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Cai Tiantian T Department of Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, - - 2013
Atonal homolog1 (Atoh1) encodes a basic helix-loop-helix protein that is the first transcription factor to be expressed in differentiating hair cells. Previous work suggests that expression of Atoh1 in prosensory precursors is necessary for the differentiation and survival of hair cells, but it is not clear whether Atoh1 is required ...
Shigetomi Eiji E Department of Physiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, - - 2013
Astrocytes are found throughout the brain where they make extensive contacts with neurons and synapses. Astrocytes are known to display intracellular Ca(2+) signals and release signaling molecules such as D-serine into the extracellular space. However, the role(s) of astrocyte Ca(2+) signals in hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a form of synaptic ...
Lenoir Magalie M In-Vivo Electrophysiology Unit, Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse-Intramural Research Program, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, - - 2013
Repeated exposure to nicotine and other psychostimulant drugs produces persistent increases in their psychomotor and physiological effects (sensitization), a phenomenon related to the drugs' reinforcing properties and abuse potential. Here we examined the role of peripheral actions of nicotine in nicotine-induced sensitization of centrally mediated physiological parameters (brain, muscle, and ...
Katnani Husam A HA Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, - - 2013
Whether allocation of visuospatial attention can be divorced from saccade preparation has been the subject of intense research efforts. A variant of the visual search paradigm, in which a feature singleton indicates that the correct saccade should be directed to it (prosaccade) or to the opposite distractor (antisaccade), has been ...
Thorsell Annika A Laboratory of Clinical and Translational Studies, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, - - 2013
The Neuropeptide S receptor, a Gs/Gq-coupled GPCR expressed in brain regions involved in mediating drug reward, has recently emerged as a candidate therapeutic target in addictive disorders. Here, we describe the in vitro and in vivo pharmacology of a novel, selective and brain penetrant NPSR antagonist with nanomolar affinity for ...
Dryanovski Dilyan I DI Department of Physiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois 60611, - - 2013
The core motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) are attributable to the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Mitochondrial oxidant stress is widely viewed a major factor in PD pathogenesis. Previous work has shown that activity-dependent calcium entry through L-type channels elevates perinuclear mitochondrial oxidant ...
Merriam Elisha P EP Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA. - - 2013
To locate visual objects, the brain combines information about retinal location and direction of gaze. Studies in monkeys have demonstrated that eye position modulates the gain of visual signals with "gain fields," so that single neurons represent both retinotopic location and eye position. We wished to know whether eye position ...
Moeller Scott J SJ Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York 10029, - - 2013
Functional polymorphisms in the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1 or SLC6A3) modulate responsiveness to salient stimuli, such that carriers of one 9R-allele of DAT1 (compared with homozygote carriers of the 10R-allele) show heightened reactivity to drug-related reinforcement in addiction. Here, using multimodal neuroimaging and behavioral dependent variables in 73 human cocaine-addicted ...
Seabrook Tania A TA Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center, Richmond, Virginia 23298, - - 2013
Neurons in layer VI of visual cortex represent one of the largest sources of nonretinal input to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) and play a major role in modulating the gain of thalamic signal transmission. However, little is known about how and when these descending projections arrive and make ...
Lee Ho-Sun HS International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, - - 2013
Early-life exposures to tobacco smoke and some dietary factors have been identified to induce epigenetic changes in genes involved in allergy and asthma development. Omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake during pregnancy could modulate key cytokines and T helper (Th) cell maturation; however, little is known about the mechanism ...
Crossland Randy F RF Department of Anesthesiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, - - 2013
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a condition in which the upper airway collapses during sleep, is strongly associated with metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Little is known how OSA affects the cerebral circulation. The goals of this study were 1) to develop a rat model of chronic OSA that involved apnea and ...
Wiggermann Vanessa V UBC MRI Research Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, - - 2013
We investigated the evolution of new multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions over time using frequency shifts of the magnetic resonance (MR) signal. Twenty patients with relapsing-remitting MS were serially scanned for 6 months at 1-month intervals. Maps of MR frequency shifts were acquired using susceptibility-weighted imaging. New lesions were identified by ...
Wen Donghai D Dept. of Cellular and Integrative Physiology, 985850 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5850. - - 2013
In the distal nephron, the large-conductance Ca-activated K (BK) channel, comprised of a pore-forming-α (BK-α) and the BK-β4 subunit, promotes K excretion when mice are maintained on a high-K alkaline diet (HK-alk). We examined whether BK-β4 and the acid-base status regulate apical membrane expression of BK-α in the cortical (CCD) ...
Pluznick Jennifer L JL Dept. of Physiology, Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205. - - 2013
Studies over the past decade have highlighted important roles played by sensory receptors outside of traditionally sensory tissues; for example, taste receptors participate in pH sensing in the cerebrospinal fluid, bitter taste receptors mediate bronchodilation and ciliary beating in the lung (Deshpande DA, Wang WC, McIlmoyle EL, Robinett KS, Schillinger ...
Bi J J Dept. of Cell and Developmental Biology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, 750 E. Adams St., Syracuse, NY 13210. - - 2013
Glomerular visceral epithelial cells, also known as podocytes, are critical to both normal kidney function and the development of kidney disease. Podocyte actin cytoskeleton and their highly specialized cell-cell junctions (also called slit diaphragm complexes) play key roles in controlling glomerular filtration. Myosin 1e (myo1e) is an actin-based molecular motor ...
Wysocki Jan J Div. of Nephrology and Hypertension, Dept. of Medicine, The Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern Univ., 320 E. Superior, Chicago, IL 60611. - - 2013
Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) enhances the degradation of ANG II and its expression is altered in diabetic kidneys, but the regulation of this enzyme in the urine is unknown. Urinary ACE2 was studied in the db/db model of type 2 diabetes and stretozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetes during several physiological and ...
Park Won Sun WS Department of Physiology, Kangwon National University School of Medicine, Chuncheon, - - 2013
Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs) have the power to differentiate into various cell types including chondrocytes, osteocytes, adipocytes, neurons, cardiomyocytes, and smooth muscle cells. We characterized the functional expression of ion channels after transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-induced differentiation of hASCs, providing insights into the differentiation of vascular smooth ...
Zhou Hua H Renal Diagnostics and Therapeutics Unit, NIDDK, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Dr., Bldg 10, Rm. 3N108, Bethesda, MD 20892-1268. - - 2013
Renal Wilms' tumor-1 (WT-1) staining is used to detect podocyte loss in kidney biopsies. We aimed to determine if urinary exosomal WT-1 could serve as a noninvasive biomarker of podocyte injury. We examined WT-1 by Western blot in a human podocyte-like cell line, a mouse model of podocyte injury, and ...
Edwards Ian J IJ School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, United - - 2013
The Na(+)/K(+) ATPase (NKA) is an essential membrane protein underlying the membrane potential in excitable cells. Transmembrane ion transport is performed by the catalytic α subunits (α1-4). The predominant subunits in neurons are α1 and α3, which have different affinities for Na(+) and K(+), impacting on transport kinetics. The exchange ...
Tokarz Rafal R Center for Infection and Immunity, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, NY, - - 2013
Coxsackieviruses (CV) A1, CV-A19 and CV-A22 have historically comprised a distinct phylogenetic clade within Enterovirus (EV) C. Several novel serotypes that are genetically similar to these three viruses have been recently discovered and characterized. Here, we report the coding sequence analysis of two genotypes of a previously uncharacterized serotype EV-C113 ...
Aziz Alfred A Nutrition Research Division and the Nutrition Regulations and Standards Division, Bureau of Nutritional Sciences, Food Directorate, Health Products and Food Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Canada. - - 2013
The glycemic index (GI) is a system that ranks foods according to the blood glucose-increasing potential of servings of foods that provide the same amount of available carbohydrate. The GI was originally developed as a tool for carbohydrate exchange in the dietary management of glycemia in persons with diabetes, and ...
Pearce Allison A Department of Computer Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, - - 2013
High-frequency (100-500 Hz) oscillations (HFOs) recorded from intracranial electrodes are a potential biomarker for epileptogenic brain. HFOs are commonly categorized as ripples (100-250 Hz) or fast ripples (250-500 Hz), and a third class of mixed frequency events has also been identified. We hypothesize that temporal changes in HFOs may identify ...
Roy Jeremy W JW Center for Systems Biology/Program in Membrane Biology/Nephrology Division, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; - - 2013
Clear cells express the vacuolar proton-pumping H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) and acidify the lumen of the epididymis, a process that is essential for male fertility. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) regulates fluid and electrolyte balance in the epididymis, and a previous study showed binding of aldosterone exclusively to epididymal clear cells (Hinton BT, ...
Ravindran Resmi R Center for Comparative Medicine, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, - - 2013
Host immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis are generally able to contain infection and maintain a delicate balance between protection and immunopathology. A shift in this balance appears to underlie active disease observed in about 10% of infected individuals. Effects of local inflammation, combined with anti-M. tuberculosis systemic immune responses, are ...
Lei Hanqin H Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, School of Dental Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, - - 2013
Efficient skeletal muscle repair and regeneration require coordinated remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Previous reports have indicated that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play the pivotal role in ECM remodeling during muscle regeneration. The goal of the current study was to determine if the interstitial collagenase MMP-13 was involved in the ...
Spires Jessica J Departments of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH 44106-7207, - - 2013
With current techniques, experimental measurements alone cannot characterize the effects of oxygen blood-tissue diffusion on muscle oxygen uptake (Vo₂) kinetics in contracting skeletal muscle. To complement experimental studies, a computational model is used to quantitatively distinguish the contributions of convective oxygen delivery, diffusion into cells, and oxygen utilization to Vo₂ ...
Bikard David D Laboratory of Bacteriology, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA, Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, 4 Blackfan Circle, Boston, MA 02115, USA, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA, McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA, Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA and Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, - - 2013
The ability to artificially control transcription is essential both to the study of gene function and to the construction of synthetic gene networks with desired properties. Cas9 is an RNA-guided double-stranded DNA nuclease that participates in the CRISPR-Cas immune defense against prokaryotic viruses. We describe the use of a Cas9 ...
Cantuti Castelvetri Ludovico L Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60612, - - 2013
Loss of function of galactosylceramidase lysosomal activity causes demyelination and vulnerability of various neuronal populations in Krabbe disease. Psychosine, a lipid-raft-associated sphingolipid that accumulates in this disease, is thought to trigger these abnormalities. Myelin-free in vitro analyses showed that psychosine inhibited fast axonal transport through the activation of axonal PP1 ...
Ramaker Jenna M JM Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, - - 2013
Amyloid precursor protein (APP) belongs to a family of evolutionarily conserved transmembrane glycoproteins that has been proposed to regulate multiple aspects of cell motility in the nervous system. Although APP is best known as the source of β-amyloid fragments (Aβ) that accumulate in Alzheimer's disease, perturbations affecting normal APP signaling ...
Arnedo Javier J Department of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence, University of Granada, E-18071 Granada, - - 2013
It has been proposed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) discovered by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) account for only a small fraction of the genetic variation of complex traits in human population. The remaining unexplained variance or missing heritability is thought to be due to marginal effects of many loci with ...
Péré Christelle C CABI, 2800 Delémont, - - 2013
How global warming will affect insect parasitoids and their role as natural enemies of insect pests is difficult to assess within a short period of time. Considering that elevation gradients can be used as analogues for global warming, we carried out meta-analyses of 27 correlations between parasitoid richness and elevation ...
Ghalambor Cameron K CK Department of Biology and Graduate Degree Program in Ecology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. - - 2013
Predation can be an important agent of natural selection shaping parental care behaviours, and can also favour behavioural plasticity. Parent birds often decrease the rate that they visit the nest to provision offspring when perceived risk is high. Yet, the plasticity of such responses may differ among species as a ...
Hsu Chia-Hsin CH Bioinformatics Program, Taiwan International Graduate Program, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of - - 2013
Protein domain architectures (PDAs), in which single domains are linked to form multiple-domain proteins, are a major molecular form used by evolution for the diversification of protein functions. However, the design principles of PDAs remain largely uninvestigated. In this study, we constructed networks to connect domain architectures that had grown ...
Davies T Jonathan TJ Department of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, - - 2013
The tree-of-life represents the diversity of living organisms. Species extinction and the concomitant loss of branches from the tree-of-life is therefore a major conservation concern. There is increasing evidence indicating that extinction is phylogenetically non-random, such that if one species is vulnerable to extinction so too are its close relatives. ...
Janssens Lizanne L Laboratory of Aquatic Ecology, Evolution and Conservation, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. - - 2013
While there is increasing interest in non-consumptive effects of predators on prey, physiological effects are understudied. While physiological stress responses play a crucial role in preparing escape responses, the increased metabolic rates and shunting of energy away from other body functions, including antioxidant defence, may generate costs in terms of ...
Feeney William E WE Research School of Biology, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia. - - 2013
Arms races between brood parasites and their hosts provide model systems for studying the evolutionary repercussions of species interactions. However, how naive hosts identify brood parasites as enemies remains poorly understood, despite its ecological and evolutionary significance. Here, we investigate whether young, cuckoo-naive superb fairy-wrens, Malurus cyaneus, can learn to ...
Derégnaucourt Sébastien S Department of Behavioural Neurobiology, Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Seewiesen, Germany. - - 2013
As is the case for human speech, birdsong is transmitted across generations by imitative learning. Although transfer of song patterns from adults to juveniles typically occurs via vertical or oblique transmission, there is also evidence of horizontal transmission between juveniles of the same generation. Here, we show that a young ...
Zhao Bo B Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, People's Republic of - - 2013
A recent study demonstrated that the embryos of soft-shelled turtles can reposition themselves within their eggs to exploit locally warm conditions. In this paper, we ask whether turtle embryos actively seek out optimal thermal environments for their development, as do post-hatching individuals. Specifically, (i) do reptile embryos move away from ...
Eppinger Ben B Princeton Neuroscience Institute, Green Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA. - - 2013
We examined whether older adults differ from younger adults in how they learn from rewarding and aversive outcomes. Human participants were asked to either learn to choose actions that lead to monetary reward or learn to avoid actions that lead to monetary losses. To examine age differences in the neurophysiological ...
Chen Xi X Laboratory of Applied Neuroscience, Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, - - 2013
Damage to the medial temporal lobe impairs the encoding of new memories and the retrieval of memories acquired immediately before the damage in human. In this study, we demonstrated that artificial visuoauditory memory traces can be established in the rat auditory cortex and that their encoding and retrieval depend on ...
Blanco Gustavo G Dept. of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, 3901 Rainbow Blvd., Kansas City, KS 66160. - - 2013
The classic role of the Na-K-ATPase is that of a primary active transporter that utilizes cell energy to establish and maintain transmembrane Na(+) and K(+) gradients to preserve cell osmotic stability, support cell excitability, and drive secondary active transport. Recent studies have revealed that Na-K-ATPase located within cholesterol-containing lipid rafts ...
Kothandapani Anbarasi A Department of Biochemistry and Cancer Biology, University of Toledo - Health Science Campus, Toledo, OH 43614, USA, Department of Pharmacology & Chemical Biology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Hillman Cancer Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA and Department of Human Genetics, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, - - 2013
Base excision repair (BER) and mismatch repair (MMR) pathways play an important role in modulating cis-Diamminedichloroplatinum (II) (cisplatin) cytotoxicity. In this article, we identified a novel mechanistic role of both BER and MMR pathways in mediating cellular responses to cisplatin treatment. Cells defective in BER or MMR display a cisplatin-resistant ...
Potter Rachel R Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, MO 63110, - - 2013
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is hypothesized to be caused by an overproduction or reduced clearance of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide. Autosomal dominant AD (ADAD) caused by mutations in the presenilin (PSEN) gene have been postulated to result from increased production of Aβ42 compared to Aβ40 in the central nervous system (CNS). This ...
Radzicki Daniel D Department of Physiology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois 60611, - - 2013
Febrile seizures are associated with increased brain temperature and are often resistant to treatments with antiepileptic drugs, such as carbamazepine and phenytoin, which are sodium channel blockers. Although they are clearly correlated with the hyperthermic condition, the precise cellular mechanisms of febrile seizures remain unclear. We performed patch-clamp recordings from ...
Fox Emily J EJ Department of Physical Therapy, University of Florida, Gainesville, - - 2013
A module is a functional unit of the nervous system that specifies functionally relevant patterns of muscle activation. In adults, four to five modules account for muscle activation during walking. Neurological injury alters modular control and is associated with walking impairments. The effect of neurological injury on modular control in ...
Wong Jeffrey L JL Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Hillman Cancer Center, UPCI Research Pavilion, Room 1.46, 5117 Center Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-1863, - - 2013
Chemokine-driven interactions of immune cells are essential for effective antitumor immunity. Human natural killer (NK) cells can be primed by the interleukin (IL)-1-related proinflammatory cytokine IL-18 for unique helper activity, which promotes dendritic cell (DC) activation and DC-mediated induction of type-1 immune responses against cancer. Here, we show that such ...
Stukalin Evgeny B EB Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, - - 2013
For symmetrically dividing cells, large variations in the cell cycle time are typical, even among clonal cells. The consequence of this variation is important in stem cell differentiation, tissue and organ size control, and cancer development, where cell division rates ultimately determine the cell population. We explore the connection between ...
Kim Hanjoo H Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744, - - 2013
To facilitate the analysis of large-scale high-throughput capillary electrophoresis data, we previously proposed a suite of efficient analysis software named HiTRACE (High Throughput Robust Analysis of Capillary Electrophoresis). HiTRACE has been used extensively for quantitating data from RNA and DNA structure mapping experiments, including mutate-and-map contact inference, chromatin footprinting, the ...
Zhang Yaqing Y Department of Surgery, University of Michigan Medical School, 1500 E Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, - - 2013
Wnt ligand expression and activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway have been associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, but whether Wnt activity is required for the development of pancreatic cancer has remained unclear. Here, we report the results of three different approaches to inhibit the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in a established transgenic mouse ...
Ruiz Octavio O Vision Center Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, - - 2013
Optogenetics combines optics and genetics to control neuronal activity with cell-type specificity and millisecond temporal precision. Its use in model organisms such as rodents, Drosophila, and Caenorhabditis elegans is now well-established. However, application of this technology in nonhuman primates (NHPs) has been slow to develop. One key challenge has been ...
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