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Edwards Ian J IJ School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, United - - 2013
The Na(+)/K(+) ATPase (NKA) is an essential membrane protein underlying the membrane potential in excitable cells. Transmembrane ion transport is performed by the catalytic α subunits (α1-4). The predominant subunits in neurons are α1 and α3, which have different affinities for Na(+) and K(+), impacting on transport kinetics. The exchange ...
Tokarz Rafal R Center for Infection and Immunity, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, NY, - - 2013
Coxsackieviruses (CV) A1, CV-A19 and CV-A22 have historically comprised a distinct phylogenetic clade within Enterovirus (EV) C. Several novel serotypes that are genetically similar to these three viruses have been recently discovered and characterized. Here, we report the coding sequence analysis of two genotypes of a previously uncharacterized serotype EV-C113 ...
Aziz Alfred A Nutrition Research Division and the Nutrition Regulations and Standards Division, Bureau of Nutritional Sciences, Food Directorate, Health Products and Food Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Canada. - - 2013
The glycemic index (GI) is a system that ranks foods according to the blood glucose-increasing potential of servings of foods that provide the same amount of available carbohydrate. The GI was originally developed as a tool for carbohydrate exchange in the dietary management of glycemia in persons with diabetes, and ...
Pearce Allison A Department of Computer Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, - - 2013
High-frequency (100-500 Hz) oscillations (HFOs) recorded from intracranial electrodes are a potential biomarker for epileptogenic brain. HFOs are commonly categorized as ripples (100-250 Hz) or fast ripples (250-500 Hz), and a third class of mixed frequency events has also been identified. We hypothesize that temporal changes in HFOs may identify ...
Ravindran Resmi R Center for Comparative Medicine, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, - - 2013
Host immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis are generally able to contain infection and maintain a delicate balance between protection and immunopathology. A shift in this balance appears to underlie active disease observed in about 10% of infected individuals. Effects of local inflammation, combined with anti-M. tuberculosis systemic immune responses, are ...
Lei Hanqin H Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, School of Dental Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, - - 2013
Efficient skeletal muscle repair and regeneration require coordinated remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Previous reports have indicated that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play the pivotal role in ECM remodeling during muscle regeneration. The goal of the current study was to determine if the interstitial collagenase MMP-13 was involved in the ...
Spires Jessica J Departments of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH 44106-7207, - - 2013
With current techniques, experimental measurements alone cannot characterize the effects of oxygen blood-tissue diffusion on muscle oxygen uptake (Vo₂) kinetics in contracting skeletal muscle. To complement experimental studies, a computational model is used to quantitatively distinguish the contributions of convective oxygen delivery, diffusion into cells, and oxygen utilization to Vo₂ ...
Bikard David D Laboratory of Bacteriology, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA, Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, 4 Blackfan Circle, Boston, MA 02115, USA, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA, McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA, Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA and Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, - - 2013
The ability to artificially control transcription is essential both to the study of gene function and to the construction of synthetic gene networks with desired properties. Cas9 is an RNA-guided double-stranded DNA nuclease that participates in the CRISPR-Cas immune defense against prokaryotic viruses. We describe the use of a Cas9 ...
Cantuti Castelvetri Ludovico L Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60612, - - 2013
Loss of function of galactosylceramidase lysosomal activity causes demyelination and vulnerability of various neuronal populations in Krabbe disease. Psychosine, a lipid-raft-associated sphingolipid that accumulates in this disease, is thought to trigger these abnormalities. Myelin-free in vitro analyses showed that psychosine inhibited fast axonal transport through the activation of axonal PP1 ...
Ramaker Jenna M JM Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, - - 2013
Amyloid precursor protein (APP) belongs to a family of evolutionarily conserved transmembrane glycoproteins that has been proposed to regulate multiple aspects of cell motility in the nervous system. Although APP is best known as the source of β-amyloid fragments (Aβ) that accumulate in Alzheimer's disease, perturbations affecting normal APP signaling ...
Arnedo Javier J Department of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence, University of Granada, E-18071 Granada, - - 2013
It has been proposed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) discovered by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) account for only a small fraction of the genetic variation of complex traits in human population. The remaining unexplained variance or missing heritability is thought to be due to marginal effects of many loci with ...
Péré Christelle C CABI, 2800 Delémont, - - 2013
How global warming will affect insect parasitoids and their role as natural enemies of insect pests is difficult to assess within a short period of time. Considering that elevation gradients can be used as analogues for global warming, we carried out meta-analyses of 27 correlations between parasitoid richness and elevation ...
Ghalambor Cameron K CK Department of Biology and Graduate Degree Program in Ecology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. - - 2013
Predation can be an important agent of natural selection shaping parental care behaviours, and can also favour behavioural plasticity. Parent birds often decrease the rate that they visit the nest to provision offspring when perceived risk is high. Yet, the plasticity of such responses may differ among species as a ...
Hsu Chia-Hsin CH Bioinformatics Program, Taiwan International Graduate Program, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of - - 2013
Protein domain architectures (PDAs), in which single domains are linked to form multiple-domain proteins, are a major molecular form used by evolution for the diversification of protein functions. However, the design principles of PDAs remain largely uninvestigated. In this study, we constructed networks to connect domain architectures that had grown ...
Davies T Jonathan TJ Department of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, - - 2013
The tree-of-life represents the diversity of living organisms. Species extinction and the concomitant loss of branches from the tree-of-life is therefore a major conservation concern. There is increasing evidence indicating that extinction is phylogenetically non-random, such that if one species is vulnerable to extinction so too are its close relatives. ...
Janssens Lizanne L Laboratory of Aquatic Ecology, Evolution and Conservation, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. - - 2013
While there is increasing interest in non-consumptive effects of predators on prey, physiological effects are understudied. While physiological stress responses play a crucial role in preparing escape responses, the increased metabolic rates and shunting of energy away from other body functions, including antioxidant defence, may generate costs in terms of ...
Feeney William E WE Research School of Biology, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia. - - 2013
Arms races between brood parasites and their hosts provide model systems for studying the evolutionary repercussions of species interactions. However, how naive hosts identify brood parasites as enemies remains poorly understood, despite its ecological and evolutionary significance. Here, we investigate whether young, cuckoo-naive superb fairy-wrens, Malurus cyaneus, can learn to ...
Derégnaucourt Sébastien S Department of Behavioural Neurobiology, Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Seewiesen, Germany. - - 2013
As is the case for human speech, birdsong is transmitted across generations by imitative learning. Although transfer of song patterns from adults to juveniles typically occurs via vertical or oblique transmission, there is also evidence of horizontal transmission between juveniles of the same generation. Here, we show that a young ...
Zhao Bo B Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, People's Republic of - - 2013
A recent study demonstrated that the embryos of soft-shelled turtles can reposition themselves within their eggs to exploit locally warm conditions. In this paper, we ask whether turtle embryos actively seek out optimal thermal environments for their development, as do post-hatching individuals. Specifically, (i) do reptile embryos move away from ...
Eppinger Ben B Princeton Neuroscience Institute, Green Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA. - - 2013
We examined whether older adults differ from younger adults in how they learn from rewarding and aversive outcomes. Human participants were asked to either learn to choose actions that lead to monetary reward or learn to avoid actions that lead to monetary losses. To examine age differences in the neurophysiological ...
Chen Xi X Laboratory of Applied Neuroscience, Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, - - 2013
Damage to the medial temporal lobe impairs the encoding of new memories and the retrieval of memories acquired immediately before the damage in human. In this study, we demonstrated that artificial visuoauditory memory traces can be established in the rat auditory cortex and that their encoding and retrieval depend on ...
Blanco Gustavo G Dept. of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, 3901 Rainbow Blvd., Kansas City, KS 66160. - - 2013
The classic role of the Na-K-ATPase is that of a primary active transporter that utilizes cell energy to establish and maintain transmembrane Na(+) and K(+) gradients to preserve cell osmotic stability, support cell excitability, and drive secondary active transport. Recent studies have revealed that Na-K-ATPase located within cholesterol-containing lipid rafts ...
Kothandapani Anbarasi A Department of Biochemistry and Cancer Biology, University of Toledo - Health Science Campus, Toledo, OH 43614, USA, Department of Pharmacology & Chemical Biology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Hillman Cancer Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA and Department of Human Genetics, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, - - 2013
Base excision repair (BER) and mismatch repair (MMR) pathways play an important role in modulating cis-Diamminedichloroplatinum (II) (cisplatin) cytotoxicity. In this article, we identified a novel mechanistic role of both BER and MMR pathways in mediating cellular responses to cisplatin treatment. Cells defective in BER or MMR display a cisplatin-resistant ...
Potter Rachel R Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, MO 63110, - - 2013
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is hypothesized to be caused by an overproduction or reduced clearance of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide. Autosomal dominant AD (ADAD) caused by mutations in the presenilin (PSEN) gene have been postulated to result from increased production of Aβ42 compared to Aβ40 in the central nervous system (CNS). This ...
Radzicki Daniel D Department of Physiology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois 60611, - - 2013
Febrile seizures are associated with increased brain temperature and are often resistant to treatments with antiepileptic drugs, such as carbamazepine and phenytoin, which are sodium channel blockers. Although they are clearly correlated with the hyperthermic condition, the precise cellular mechanisms of febrile seizures remain unclear. We performed patch-clamp recordings from ...
Fox Emily J EJ Department of Physical Therapy, University of Florida, Gainesville, - - 2013
A module is a functional unit of the nervous system that specifies functionally relevant patterns of muscle activation. In adults, four to five modules account for muscle activation during walking. Neurological injury alters modular control and is associated with walking impairments. The effect of neurological injury on modular control in ...
Kim Hanjoo H Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744, - - 2013
To facilitate the analysis of large-scale high-throughput capillary electrophoresis data, we previously proposed a suite of efficient analysis software named HiTRACE (High Throughput Robust Analysis of Capillary Electrophoresis). HiTRACE has been used extensively for quantitating data from RNA and DNA structure mapping experiments, including mutate-and-map contact inference, chromatin footprinting, the ...
Ruiz Octavio O Vision Center Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, - - 2013
Optogenetics combines optics and genetics to control neuronal activity with cell-type specificity and millisecond temporal precision. Its use in model organisms such as rodents, Drosophila, and Caenorhabditis elegans is now well-established. However, application of this technology in nonhuman primates (NHPs) has been slow to develop. One key challenge has been ...
Nebert Daniel W DW Department of Environmental Health, and the Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0056, USA. - - 2013
Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a prototypical polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH); this ubiquitous environmental carcinogenic agent is found in tobacco smoke, charcoal-grilled foods, and PAH-contaminated surfaces of roofs, playgrounds, and highways. Cytochrome P450 1 wild-type, Cyp1a2(-/-), Cyp1b1(-/-), or Cyp1a2/1b1(-/-) knockouts, and mice with Cyp1a1 expression deleted in hepatocytes can ingest large oral ...
Wang Chia-Yih CY Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, MD, USA. - - 2013
Because of the logistic complexity, excessive respondent burden, and high cost of conducting 24-h urine collections in a national survey, alternative strategies to monitor sodium intake at the population level need to be evaluated. We conducted a calibration study to assess the ability to characterize sodium intake from timed-spot urine ...
Morton Paul D PD The Miami Project To Cure Paralysis, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, Florida 33136, - - 2013
Peripheral myelination is a dynamic process orchestrated by axons and Schwann cells. Although the signaling mechanisms governing myelination are not fully understood, NF-κB activation in Schwann cells has been implicated as a key regulator in vitro. Using a mouse model, we show that nuclear factor κB activation in Schwann cells ...
Housset Michael M Institut de Biologie Valrose, University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, UFR Sciences, Nice F-06108, - - 2013
Photoreceptors are specialized neurons of the retina that receive nursing from the adjacent retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Frequent in the elderly, photoreceptor loss can originate from primary dysfunction of either cell type. Despite intense interest in the etiology of these diseases, early molecular actors of late-onset photoreceptor degeneration remain elusive, ...
Bodewes Rogier R Department of Viroscience, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, the - - 2013
Influenza A viruses cause annual epidemics and occasionally pandemics. Antibodies directed to the conserved viral nucleoprotein (NP) may play a role in immunity against various influenza A virus subtypes. Here, we assessed the immunological significance of a human monoclonal antibody directed to NP in vitro. This antibody bound to virus-infected ...
Ferguson Brian J BJ Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge, CB2 1QP, - - 2013
Vaccinia virus (VACV) expresses many proteins that are non-essential for virus replication but promote virulence by inhibiting components of the host immune response to infection. These immunomodulators include a family of proteins that have, or are predicted to have, a structure related to the B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2 protein. Five members ...
Liu Shijing S Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX 77030, USA. - - 2013
Key characteristics of cocaine dependence include attentional bias to cocaine cues and impaired inhibitory control. Studies suggest that serotonin modulates both cocaine cue reactivity and inhibitory control. We investigated effects of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram on cocaine cue reactivity and inhibitory processes in cocaine-dependent subjects. In a double-blind ...
Fernández-Marín Beatriz B Department of Plant Biology and Ecology, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Aptdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao, Spain. - - 2013
Desiccation-tolerant plants are able to withstand dehydration and resume normal metabolic functions upon rehydration. These plants can be dehydrated until their cytoplasm enters a 'glassy state' in which molecular mobility is severely reduced. In desiccation-tolerant seeds, longevity can be enhanced by drying and lowering storage temperature. In these conditions, they ...
Menguer Paloma K PK Centre for Biological Science, University of Southampton, Life Sciences Building 85, Highfield Campus, Southampton SO17 1B, - - 2013
Heavy metal homeostasis is maintained in plant cells by specialized transporters which compartmentalize or efflux metal ions, maintaining cytosolic concentrations within a narrow range. OsMTP1 is a member of the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF)/metal tolerance protein (MTP) family of metal cation transporters in Oryza sativa, which is closely related to ...
Li Yanping Y Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. - - 2013
To prospectively examine whether men with restless legs syndrome (RLS) had an increased risk of mortality. This was a prospective cohort study of 18,425 US men free of diabetes, arthritis, and renal failure in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS). In 2002, RLS was assessed using a set of standardized ...
Kantarci Kejal K Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. - - 2013
To investigate MRI and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) predictors of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in cognitively normal older adults. Subjects were cognitively normal older adults (n = 1,156) who participated in the population-based Mayo Clinic Study of Aging MRI/MRS study from August 2005 to December 2010 and had at ...
Wright Kyle T KT Department of Immunology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 06030, - - 2013
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is associated with the development of severe medical complications, including progression to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and even death. To date, only marginal improvements in terms of therapeutic options have been established for patients affected by SIRS. Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) is a regulator ...
Williams Christopher L CL Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville TN 37232, - - 2013
CD4(+) T cells developing toward a Th2 fate express IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 while inhibiting production of cytokines associated with other Th types, such as the Th1 cytokine IFN- γ. IL-4-producing Th2 effector cells give rise to a long-lived memory population committed to reactivation of the Th2 cytokine gene expression ...
Clingan Jonathan M JM Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine and Rosalind Russell Medical Research Center for Arthritis, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, - - 2013
The importance for activation of innate immunity by pattern recognition receptors in forming an effective adaptive immune response is well known. TLRs were demonstrated to be critical for Ab responses to a variety of immunizations. In particular, recent evidence suggests that B cell-intrinsic TLR signaling is required for optimal responses ...
Šedý John R JR Infectious and Inflammatory Disease Center, Sanford|Burnham Medical Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, - - 2013
Lymphocyte activation is regulated by costimulatory and inhibitory receptors, of which both B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) and CD160 engage herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM). Notably, it remains unclear how HVEM functions with each of its ligands during immune responses. In this study, we show that HVEM specifically activates CD160 ...
Myles Nicholas N 1Department of Medicine, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Woodville South, - - 2013
It has been suggested that the commonly prescribed class of antidepressants selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are associated with birth defects. However, the teratogenic effect of individual SSRIs has not been previously compared using meta-analysis. To determine the strength of the association between individual SSRIs and major, minor, and cardiac ...
Zielinski Marcin M Department of Thoracic Surgery, Pulmonary Hospital, Zakopane, Poland. - - 2013
To present the new technique of minimally invasive extended thymectomy performed through the subxiphoid-right video-thoracoscopic (VATS) approach with double elevation of the sternum and the early results of resection of thymomas with the use of this technique. whole dissection was performed through a 4- to 7-cm transverse subxiphoid incision, and ...
Mekary Rania A RA Departments of Nutrition and Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, - - 2013
Little is known about the association between eating patterns and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk in women. The objective was to examine prospectively associations between regular breakfast consumption, eating frequency, and T2D risk in women. Eating pattern was assessed in 2002 in a cohort of 46,289 US women in the ...
Lee Ho-Sun HS International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, - - 2013
Early-life exposures to tobacco smoke and some dietary factors have been identified to induce epigenetic changes in genes involved in allergy and asthma development. Omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake during pregnancy could modulate key cytokines and T helper (Th) cell maturation; however, little is known about the mechanism ...
Kratz Mario M Division of Public Health Sciences, Cancer Prevention Program, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA. - - 2013
Recent studies have indicated that omega-3 (n3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) decrease adipose tissue inflammation in rodents and in morbidly obese humans. We investigated whether a diet rich in n3 PUFAs from both marine and plant sources reduces adipose tissue and systemic inflammation in overweight to moderately obese adults. We ...
Nyberg Michael M Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. - - 2013
During skeletal muscle contractions, the concentration of ATP increases in muscle interstitial fluid as measured by microdialysis probes. This increase is associated with the magnitude of blood flow, suggesting that interstitial ATP may be important for contraction-induced vasodilation. However, interstitial ATP has solely been described to induce vasoconstriction in skeletal ...
Drummond Micah J MJ Univ. of Utah, 520 Wakara Way, Salt Lake City, UT 84108-1213, USA. - - 2013
Bed rest induces significant loss of leg lean mass in older adults. Systemic and tissue inflammation also accelerates skeletal muscle loss, but it is unknown whether inflammation is associated to inactivity-induced muscle atrophy in healthy older adults. We determined if short-term bed rest increases toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling and ...
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