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Results 301 - 350 of 2649
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Griffiths Peter C - - 2013
Development of transgenic mouse models expressing heterologous prion proteins (PrP) has facilitated and advanced in vivo studies of prion diseases affecting humans and animals. Here, novel transgenic mouse lines expressing a chimeric murine/ovine (Mu/Ov) PrP transgene, including amino acid residues alanine, histidine and glutamine at ovine polymorphic codons 136, 154 ...
Fortunato Orazio - - 2013
AIMS: Following an acute myocardial infarction (AMI), pro-angiogenic PCs are released from the bone marrow into the circulation and home to the ischemic site attracted by a chemokine gradient. It is unknown if components of this early homeostatic response might help forecast long-term clinical outcome. This study investigates if the ...
Wei Li-Hua - - 2013
AIMS: Smad7 plays a negative regulatory role in many inflammatory diseases, but its effect on hypertensive disease remains unknown. The present study tested the hypothesis that overexpression of Smad7 may have therapeutic potential for angiotensin II (Ang II) - mediated hypertensive cardiac remodeling.Methods and ResultsHypertensive heart disease was induced in ...
Maoz Hagai - - 2013
Impairments in 'theory of mind' (ToM) were linked to social cognition and reciprocal relationships deficits in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Twenty-four children with ADHD (13 with inattentive type and 11 with combined type, mean age 10.2 years) completed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), a self-reported empathy questionnaire. All ...
Vriet Cécile - - 2013
The plant steroid hormones, brassinosteroids (BRs), and their precursors, phytosterols, play major roles in plant growth, development, and stress tolerance. Here, we review the impressive progress made during recent years in elucidating the components of the sterol and BR metabolic and signaling pathways, and in understanding their mechanism of action ...
Gallagher Christopher J - - 2013
There is limited information on the effects of vitamin D on serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D in young people and none on African Americans. The main objective of this trial was to measure the effect of different doses of Vitamin D3 on serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and serum PTH (parathyroid ...
Mohajeri Arezoo - - 2013
Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a mesenchymal neoplasm displaying variable morphologic and clinical features. To identify pathogenetically important genetic rearrangements, 44 SFTs were analyzed using a variety of techniques. Chromosome banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed recurrent breakpoints in 12q13, clustering near the NAB2 and STAT6 genes, and ...
Ghijselings Ines - - 2013
Objectives:To examine the relationship between normative and self-perceived treatment need assessed by different measures, comprising two Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) scales. Subjects and Methods:This cross-sectional observational study comprised 386 children aged 11-16 years registered for a first consultation at the Orthodontic Department of the University Hospitals of Leuven ...
Nakatsuka Takashi - - 2013
Betalains are one of the major plant pigment groups found in some higher plants and higher fungi. They are not produced naturally in any plant species outside of the order Caryophyllales, nor are they produced by anthocyanin-accumulating Caryophyllales. Here, we attempted to reconstruct the betalain biosynthetic pathway as a self-contained ...
Jessen Leon Eyrich - - 2013
Identifying which mutation(s) within a given genotype is responsible for an observable phenotype is important in many aspects of molecular biology. Here, we present SigniSite, an online application for subgroup-free residue-level genotype-phenotype correlation. In contrast to similar methods, SigniSite does not require any pre-definition of subgroups or binary classification. Input ...
Esque Jérémy - - 2013
Protein structures are an ensemble of atoms determined experimentally mostly by X-ray crystallography or Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Studying 3D protein structures is a key point for better understanding protein function at a molecular level. We propose a set of accurate tools, for analysing protein structures, based on the reliable method ...
Makita Yuko - - 2013
Positional MEDLINE (PosMed; http://biolod.org/PosMed) is a powerful Semantic Web Association Study engine that ranks biomedical resources such as genes, metabolites, diseases and drugs, based on the statistical significance of associations between user-specified phenotypic keywords and resources connected directly or inferentially through a Semantic Web of biological databases such as MEDLINE, ...
Basha Omer - - 2013
Genome sequencing and transcriptomic profiling are two widely used approaches for the identification of human disease pathways. However, each approach typically provides a limited view of disease pathways: Genome sequencing can identify disease-related mutations but rarely reveals their mode-of-action, while transcriptomic assays do not reveal the series of events that ...
Lubbock Alexander L R - - 2013
Tissue microarrays (TMAs) allow multiplexed analysis of tissue samples and are frequently used to estimate biomarker protein expression in tumour biopsies. TMA Navigator (www.tmanavigator.org) is an open access web application for analysis of TMA data and related information, accommodating categorical, semi-continuous and continuous expression scores. Non-biological variation, or batch effects, ...
Roche Daniel B - - 2013
The FunFOLD2 server is a new independent server that integrates our novel protein-ligand binding site and quality assessment protocols for the prediction of protein function (FN) from sequence via structure. Our guiding principles were, first, to provide a simple unified resource to make our function prediction software easily accessible to ...
Kim Jeongkyun - - 2013
Biological events such as gene expression, regulation, phosphorylation, localization and protein catabolism play important roles in the development of diseases. Understanding the association between diseases and genes can be enhanced with the identification of involved biological events in this association. Although biological knowledge has been accumulated in several databases and ...
Lissouba Pascale - - 2013
OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic review and a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies investigating the association of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and HIV acquisition. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Scientific databases and conference abstracts were systematically searched to identify all relevant studies published up to 31 January 2012. ...
Orelle Cédric - - 2013
Aminoacyl-transfer RNA (tRNA) synthetases (RS) are essential components of the cellular translation machinery and can be exploited for antibiotic discovery. Because cells have many different RS, usually one for each amino acid, identification of the specific enzyme targeted by a new natural or synthetic inhibitor can be cumbersome. We describe ...
Ren Xianwen - - 2013
Gene expression profiling has gradually become a routine procedure for disease diagnosis and classification. In the past decade, many computational methods have been proposed, resulting in great improvements on various levels, including feature selection and algorithms for classification and clustering. In this study, we present iPcc, a novel method from ...
Conklin Annalijn I - - 2013
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Many economic factors are associated with diet, yet the evidence is generally cross-sectional. Older people are considered especially vulnerable to poor diets from negative changes to varied economic factors. This review extends current knowledge on known correlates to decipher actual economic determinants of diet in older adults. ...
Durán Elisa - - 2013
Although protein recognition of DNA motifs in promoter regions has been traditionally considered as a critical regulatory element in transcription, the location of promoters, and in particular transcription start sites (TSSs), still remains a challenge. Here we perform a comprehensive analysis of putative core promoter sequences relative to non-annotated predicted ...
Croset Amelie - - 2013
One of the major early steps of repair is the recruitment of repair proteins at the damage site, and this is coordinated by a cascade of modifications controlled by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinases and/or poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). We used short interfering DNA molecules mimicking double-strand breaks (called Dbait) or single-strand ...
Hattori Naoko - - 2013
Combinations of histone modifications have significant biological roles, such as maintenance of pluripotency and cancer development, but cannot be analyzed at the single cell level. Here, we visualized a combination of histone modifications by applying the in situ proximity ligation assay, which detects two proteins in close vicinity (∼30 nm). ...
Cabrera-Ostertag Ignacio J - - 2013
The 6S RNA is a non-coding small RNA that binds within the active site of housekeeping forms of RNA polymerases (e.g. Eσ(70) in Escherichia coli, Eσ(A) in Bacillus subtilis) and regulates transcription. Efficient release of RNA polymerase from 6S RNA regulation during outgrowth from stationary phase is dependent on use ...
Bélanger Kasandra - - 2013
APOBEC3G (A3G) is a host-encoded protein that potently restricts the infectivity of a broad range of retroviruses. This can occur by mechanisms dependent on catalytic activity, resulting in the mutagenic deamination of nascent viral cDNA, and/or by other means that are independent of its catalytic activity. It is not yet ...
Clayton Peter E - - 2013
OBJECTIVE: Individual sensitivity to recombinant human growth hormone (r-hGH) is variable. Identification of genetic factors contributing to this variability has potential use for individualization of treatment. The objective of this study was to identify genetic markers and gene expression profiles associated with growth response on r-hGH therapy in treatment-naïve, prepubertal ...
Takahashi Melissa K - - 2013
Antisense RNA transcription attenuators are a key component of the synthetic biology toolbox, with their ability to serve as building blocks for both signal integration logic circuits and transcriptional cascades. However, a central challenge to building more sophisticated RNA genetic circuitry is creating larger families of orthogonal attenuators that function ...
Marinotti Osvaldo - - 2013
Anopheles darlingi is the principal neotropical malaria vector, responsible for more than a million cases of malaria per year on the American continent. Anopheles darlingi diverged from the African and Asian malaria vectors ∼100 million years ago (mya) and successfully adapted to the New World environment. Here we present an ...
Qin Zhoushuai - - 2013
In response to replication-blocking lesions, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) can be sequentially ubiquitinated at the K164 residue, leading to two modes of DNA-damage tolerance, namely, translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) and error-free lesion bypass. Although the majority of reported data support a model whereby monoubiquitinated PCNA enhances its affinity for ...
Kremer Stéphane - - 2013
The first goal of this study is to compare gadofosveset trisodium--a gadolinium agent that reversibly binds to albumin--to an extracellular contrast agent (Gd-DOTA) for the detection of multiple sclerosis lesions. The second goal is to determine the best postinjection time for the detection of contrast-enhanced lesions. Nine patients underwent 2 ...
Je H Shawn HS Section on Neural Development and Plasticity, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, and Genes, Cognition and Psychosis Program, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-3714, USA. - - 2013
During development, mammalian neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) transit from multiple-innervation to single-innervation through axonal competition via unknown molecular mechanisms. Previously, using an in vitro model system, we demonstrated that the postsynaptic secretion of pro-brain-derived neurotrophic factor (proBDNF) stabilizes or eliminates presynaptic axon terminals, depending on its proteolytic conversion at synapses. Here, ...
Cai Tiantian T Department of Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, - - 2013
Atonal homolog1 (Atoh1) encodes a basic helix-loop-helix protein that is the first transcription factor to be expressed in differentiating hair cells. Previous work suggests that expression of Atoh1 in prosensory precursors is necessary for the differentiation and survival of hair cells, but it is not clear whether Atoh1 is required ...
Shigetomi Eiji E Department of Physiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, - - 2013
Astrocytes are found throughout the brain where they make extensive contacts with neurons and synapses. Astrocytes are known to display intracellular Ca(2+) signals and release signaling molecules such as D-serine into the extracellular space. However, the role(s) of astrocyte Ca(2+) signals in hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a form of synaptic ...
Lenoir Magalie M In-Vivo Electrophysiology Unit, Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse-Intramural Research Program, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, - - 2013
Repeated exposure to nicotine and other psychostimulant drugs produces persistent increases in their psychomotor and physiological effects (sensitization), a phenomenon related to the drugs' reinforcing properties and abuse potential. Here we examined the role of peripheral actions of nicotine in nicotine-induced sensitization of centrally mediated physiological parameters (brain, muscle, and ...
Katnani Husam A HA Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, - - 2013
Whether allocation of visuospatial attention can be divorced from saccade preparation has been the subject of intense research efforts. A variant of the visual search paradigm, in which a feature singleton indicates that the correct saccade should be directed to it (prosaccade) or to the opposite distractor (antisaccade), has been ...
Thorsell Annika A Laboratory of Clinical and Translational Studies, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, - - 2013
The Neuropeptide S receptor, a Gs/Gq-coupled GPCR expressed in brain regions involved in mediating drug reward, has recently emerged as a candidate therapeutic target in addictive disorders. Here, we describe the in vitro and in vivo pharmacology of a novel, selective and brain penetrant NPSR antagonist with nanomolar affinity for ...
Dryanovski Dilyan I DI Department of Physiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois 60611, - - 2013
The core motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) are attributable to the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Mitochondrial oxidant stress is widely viewed a major factor in PD pathogenesis. Previous work has shown that activity-dependent calcium entry through L-type channels elevates perinuclear mitochondrial oxidant ...
Merriam Elisha P EP Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA. - - 2013
To locate visual objects, the brain combines information about retinal location and direction of gaze. Studies in monkeys have demonstrated that eye position modulates the gain of visual signals with "gain fields," so that single neurons represent both retinotopic location and eye position. We wished to know whether eye position ...
Moeller Scott J SJ Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York 10029, - - 2013
Functional polymorphisms in the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1 or SLC6A3) modulate responsiveness to salient stimuli, such that carriers of one 9R-allele of DAT1 (compared with homozygote carriers of the 10R-allele) show heightened reactivity to drug-related reinforcement in addiction. Here, using multimodal neuroimaging and behavioral dependent variables in 73 human cocaine-addicted ...
Seabrook Tania A TA Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center, Richmond, Virginia 23298, - - 2013
Neurons in layer VI of visual cortex represent one of the largest sources of nonretinal input to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) and play a major role in modulating the gain of thalamic signal transmission. However, little is known about how and when these descending projections arrive and make ...
Wiggermann Vanessa V UBC MRI Research Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, - - 2013
We investigated the evolution of new multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions over time using frequency shifts of the magnetic resonance (MR) signal. Twenty patients with relapsing-remitting MS were serially scanned for 6 months at 1-month intervals. Maps of MR frequency shifts were acquired using susceptibility-weighted imaging. New lesions were identified by ...
Edwards Ian J IJ School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, United - - 2013
The Na(+)/K(+) ATPase (NKA) is an essential membrane protein underlying the membrane potential in excitable cells. Transmembrane ion transport is performed by the catalytic α subunits (α1-4). The predominant subunits in neurons are α1 and α3, which have different affinities for Na(+) and K(+), impacting on transport kinetics. The exchange ...
Aziz Alfred A Nutrition Research Division and the Nutrition Regulations and Standards Division, Bureau of Nutritional Sciences, Food Directorate, Health Products and Food Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Canada. - - 2013
The glycemic index (GI) is a system that ranks foods according to the blood glucose-increasing potential of servings of foods that provide the same amount of available carbohydrate. The GI was originally developed as a tool for carbohydrate exchange in the dietary management of glycemia in persons with diabetes, and ...
Ravindran Resmi R Center for Comparative Medicine, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, - - 2013
Host immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis are generally able to contain infection and maintain a delicate balance between protection and immunopathology. A shift in this balance appears to underlie active disease observed in about 10% of infected individuals. Effects of local inflammation, combined with anti-M. tuberculosis systemic immune responses, are ...
Bikard David D Laboratory of Bacteriology, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA, Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, 4 Blackfan Circle, Boston, MA 02115, USA, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA, McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA, Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA and Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, - - 2013
The ability to artificially control transcription is essential both to the study of gene function and to the construction of synthetic gene networks with desired properties. Cas9 is an RNA-guided double-stranded DNA nuclease that participates in the CRISPR-Cas immune defense against prokaryotic viruses. We describe the use of a Cas9 ...
Cantuti Castelvetri Ludovico L Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60612, - - 2013
Loss of function of galactosylceramidase lysosomal activity causes demyelination and vulnerability of various neuronal populations in Krabbe disease. Psychosine, a lipid-raft-associated sphingolipid that accumulates in this disease, is thought to trigger these abnormalities. Myelin-free in vitro analyses showed that psychosine inhibited fast axonal transport through the activation of axonal PP1 ...
Ramaker Jenna M JM Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, - - 2013
Amyloid precursor protein (APP) belongs to a family of evolutionarily conserved transmembrane glycoproteins that has been proposed to regulate multiple aspects of cell motility in the nervous system. Although APP is best known as the source of β-amyloid fragments (Aβ) that accumulate in Alzheimer's disease, perturbations affecting normal APP signaling ...
Arnedo Javier J Department of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence, University of Granada, E-18071 Granada, - - 2013
It has been proposed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) discovered by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) account for only a small fraction of the genetic variation of complex traits in human population. The remaining unexplained variance or missing heritability is thought to be due to marginal effects of many loci with ...
Eppinger Ben B Princeton Neuroscience Institute, Green Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA. - - 2013
We examined whether older adults differ from younger adults in how they learn from rewarding and aversive outcomes. Human participants were asked to either learn to choose actions that lead to monetary reward or learn to avoid actions that lead to monetary losses. To examine age differences in the neurophysiological ...
Chen Xi X Laboratory of Applied Neuroscience, Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, - - 2013
Damage to the medial temporal lobe impairs the encoding of new memories and the retrieval of memories acquired immediately before the damage in human. In this study, we demonstrated that artificial visuoauditory memory traces can be established in the rat auditory cortex and that their encoding and retrieval depend on ...
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