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Gavassa Sat - - 2013
The balance between the costs and benefits of conspicuous animal communication signals ensures that signal expression relates to the quality of the bearer. Signal plasticity enables males to enhance conspicuous signals to impress mates and competitors and to reduce signal expression to lower energetic and predation-related signaling costs when competition ...
Smith G Troy - - 2013
The ghost knifefishes (family Apteronotidae) are one of the most successful and diverse families of electric fish. Like other weakly electric fish, apteronotids produce electric organ discharges (EODs) that function in electrolocation and communication. This review highlights the diversity in the structure, function and sexual dimorphism of electrocommunication signals within ...
Crampton W G R - - 2013
A complete understanding of animal signal evolution necessitates analyses of both the proximate (e.g. anatomical and physiological) mechanisms of signal generation and reception, and the ultimate (i.e. evolutionary) mechanisms underlying adaptation and diversification. Here we summarize the results of a synthetic study of electric diversity in the species-rich neotropical electric ...
Kaya Yüksel - - 2013
Objectives: To evaluate short term results of percutaneous patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) closure in a cohort of pediatric and adult patients following closure with the Amplatzer Ductal Occluder (ADO-1 and ADO-2) and Amplatzer Septal Occluder (ASO) devices. Study design: A total of 48 patients (17 male and 31 female; range ...
Olguntürk Rana - - 2013
The insertion of ventriculoatrial (VA) shunts for the treatment of hydrocephalus is associated with the development of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension occurs in patients with recurrent or chronic pulmonary embolism, and is a rare but, potentially devastating disease in children. Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy (PTE) is an ...
Genç Berhan - - 2013
Coronary artery fistulas are rare vascular anomalies characterized by abnormal communication, devoid of a capillary system between the coronary artery and the major vessels or cardiac chambers. In this report, we present a 14-year-old male patient with ischemic symptoms, a left coronary artery to right ventricle fistula and agenesis of ...
Biçer Ye┼čilay Asuman - - 2013
All prosthetic valves are at least mildly stenotic and have relatively high transvalvular pressure gradients that can be observed despite normal prosthesis function. Such gradients may be due to a mismatch between prosthesis effective orifice area (EOA) and patient's body size. Valve prosthesis-patient mismatch (VP-PM) may occur due to mismatches ...
Emmert Steffen S Department of Dermatology, Venerology, and Allergology, University Medical Center Göttingen, Göttingen, - - 2013
Nucleotide excision repair (NER) removes UV-induced DNA damage and other bulky DNA lesions, thereby maintaining genomic integrity. Dr Qingyi Wei's group demonstrated over the last decade that NER fidelity and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NER genes constitute melanoma risk biomarkers. In this issue, Li et al. provide evidence that SNPs ...
Ozyilmaz E E Department of Pulmonary Disease, Cukurova University Faculty of Medicine, Adana, Turkey. - - 2013
Severe exacerbations are the leading cause of fatal events in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The new Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease strategy included the number of exacerbations in the grading of the disease. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the potentially modifiable precipitating factors ...
Langan Sinéad M SM Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK. - - 2013
In this issue, Simpson and colleagues report a large-scale ecological study that reminds us of the importance of physical environmental factors in the development of atopic dermatitis. The mechanisms through which these factors influence AD development are incompletely understood, but further research in this area is likely to yield substantial ...
Olson Dan D Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado, Denver, CO, USA. - - 2013
To develop a new paediatric illness severity score, called inpatient triage, assessment and treatment (ITAT), for resource-limited settings to identify hospitalised patients at highest risk of death and facilitate urgent clinical re-evaluation. We performed a nested case-control study at a Malawian referral hospital. The ITAT score was derived from four ...
Pierorazio Phillip M PM The James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, - - 2013
WHAT'S KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT? AND WHAT DOES THE STUDY ADD?: Standard clinical care pathways to discharge have been established for a number of operations including radical prostatectomy (RP). The pathway after RP has changed dramatically over the past two decades due to improvements in surgical technique, anaesthesia and most ...
Gou Yanzi - - 2013
Synthetic glycopolymers are important natural oligosaccharides mimics for many biological applications. To develop glycopolymeric drugs and therapeutic agents, factors that control the receptor-ligand interaction need to be investigated. A library of well-defined glycopolymers has been prepared by the combination of copper mediated living radical polymerization and CuAAC click reaction via ...
- - 2013
Patients with mental health disorders (MHDs) use the emergency department (ED) for acute psychiatric emergencies, for injuries and illnesses complicated by or related to their MHD, or when psychiatric or primary-care options are inaccessible or unavailable. An estimated 5% of ambulatory-care visits in the United States during 2007-2008 were made ...
- - 2013
On June 12, 2013, the Thailand Ministry of Health and CDC published results from a randomized controlled trial of a daily oral dose of 300 mg of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) that showed efficacy in reducing the acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among injecting drug users (IDUs) (1). ...
- - 2013
Lymphatic filariasis (LF), also known as elephantiasis, results from mosquito-borne infection with filarial worm parasites, predominantly Wuchereria bancrofti, and can lead to severe disfigurement from lymphedema and hydrocele. The World Health Organization (WHO) has called for the elimination of LF using the strategy of annual mass drug administration (MDA). WHO ...
- - 2013
During the 2012-13 influenza season in the United States, influenza activity* increased through November and December before peaking in late December. Influenza A (H3N2) viruses predominated overall, but influenza B viruses and, to a lesser extent, influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 (pH1N1) viruses also were reported in the United States. This influenza ...
- - 2013
CDC continues to work in consultation with the World Health Organization (WHO) and other partners to better understand the public health risk posed by the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), formerly known as novel coronavirus, which was first reported to cause human infection in September 2012. The continued reporting ...
- - 2013
This report is a compendium of all current recommendations for the prevention of measles, rubella, congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), and mumps. The report presents the recent revisions adopted by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) on October 24, 2012, and also summarizes all existing ACIP recommendations that have been ...
- - 2013
On May 9, 2013, the Somalia Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization (WHO) reported a confirmed wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) case in a girl aged 32 months from Mogadishu (Banadir Region), with onset of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) on April 18, 2013. Subsequently, eight additional WPV1 cases ...
- - 2013
Rubella usually is a mild, febrile rash illness in children and adults; however, infection early in pregnancy, particularly during the first 16 weeks, can result in miscarriage, stillbirth, or an infant born with birth defects (i.e., congenital rubella syndrome [CRS]). As of 2013, goals to eliminate rubella have been established ...
Breyta Rachel - - 2013
Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) occurs in North America as 3 major phylogenetic groups designated U, M, and L. In coastal Washington State, IHNV has historically consisted of U genogroup viruses found predominantly in sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. M genogroup IHNV, which has host-specific virulence for rainbow and steelhead trout ...
Zhang Bao-Cun - - 2013
The family Iridoviridae consists of 5 genera of double-stranded DNA viruses, including the genus Megalocytivirus, which contains species that are important fish pathogens. In a previous study, we isolated the first rock bream iridovirus from China (RBIV-C1) and identified it as a member of the genus Megalocytivirus. In this report, ...
Wardziak Thomas - - 2013
Amphibians are the vertebrate group most affected by global change. Their highly permeable skin is involved in maintaining homeostasis (e.g. water and electrolyte equilibrium), which makes them particularly vulnerable to climate warming and skin pathogens. This study focused on the impacts of both desiccation (as a potential consequence of climate ...
Robertson Laura S - - 2013
Frogs secrete antimicrobial peptides onto their skin. We describe an assay to preserve and analyze antimicrobial peptide transcripts from field-collected skin secretions that will complement existing methods for peptide analysis. We collected skin secretions from 4 North American species in the field in California and 2 species in the laboratory. ...
Miao Liyun - - 2013
Discoidin domain receptors (DDRs) are a novel class of receptor tyrosine kinases that respond to several collagens and facilitate cell adhesion. DDR1 is highly expressed in a variety of human cancers, and it is clear that DDR1 is primarily expressed in epithelial cells including lung, colon and brain. Moreover, DDR1 ...
Zhang Baozhong - - 2013
Classical theory predicts that branching defects are unavoidable in large dendritic molecules when steric congestion is important. Here we report first experimental evidence of this effect via labelling measurements of an extended homologous series of generations g=1…6 of dendronized polymers. This system exhibits a single type of defect interrogated specifically ...
Gan Haiyun - - 2013
Little is known about how patterns of DNA methylation change during mammalian spermatogenesis. 5hmC has been recognized as a stable intermediate of DNA demethylation with potential regulatory functions in the mammalian genome. However, its global pattern in germ cells has yet to be addressed. Here, we first conducted absolute quantification ...
Wu Bo - - 2013
There has been much controversy over the incorporation of organic-ligand-encapsulated plasmonic nanoparticles in the active layer of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells, where both enhancement and detraction in performance have been reported. Here through comprehensive transient optical spectroscopy and electrical characterization, we demonstrate evidence of traps responsible for performance degradation ...
Di Michele Lorenzo - - 2013
Equilibrium self-assembly relies on the relaxation of disordered mixtures of building blocks towards an ordered ground state. The main drawback of this traditional approach lies in the kinetic traps that often interrupt the progression of the system towards equilibrium and lead to the formation of arrested phases. The latest techniques ...
Cerna R - - 2013
Non-linear interactions in coherent gases are not only at the origin of bright and dark solitons and superfluids; they also give rise to phenomena such as multistability, which hold great promise for the development of advanced photonic and spintronic devices. In particular, spinor multistability in strongly coupled semiconductor microcavities shows ...
Kwon Deug-Nam - - 2013
After the knock-out (KO) of α1,3 galactosyltransfease (Gal-T), the Hanganutziu-Deicher antigen became a major antigen of the "non-Gal antigen" that is implicated in subsequent xenograft rejection. For deletion of non-Gal antigen, we successfully produced zinc finger nuclease (ZFN)-mediated monoallelic/biallelic male and female CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase (CMAH) KO miniature pigs: the ...
Kim Hyoung Jun - - 2013
The geographic distribution of koi herpesvirus (KHV) has recently been analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, based on the alleles of 3 domains) and sequence analysis using 3 regions of KHV genomic DNA (SphI-5, 9/5, and the thymidine kinase gene). In this study, samples from 6 carp showing symptoms of ...
Pales Espinosa Emmanuelle - - 2013
Perkinsus marinus is an important protistan parasite of the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica. Recent findings showed that oyster pallial organs (mantle, gills) are a major portal of entry for the parasite. Therefore, mucus covering these organs represents the first host effectors encountered by P. marinus. This study consisted of several ...
Spies Narrissa P - - 2013
Growth anomaly (GA) is a coral disease characterized by enlarged skeletal lesions. Although negative effects of GA on several of coral's biological functions have been determined, the etiology and molecular pathology of this disease is very poorly understood. We studied the expression of 5 genes suspected to play a role ...
Binesh C P - - 2013
Heavy mortality was observed in an experimental lot of 2 ornamental fish species, zebrafish Danio rerio (F. Hamilton, 1822) and goldfish Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758). The fishes showed typical symptoms of viral nervous necrosis before death. Gross morphological examination revealed no visible lesions except in the brain, visible as a ...
Schroeder Scott A - - 2013
Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is an autosomal recessive multiorgan disease characterized by progressive neurologic deterioration in which the most common causes of death are diseases of the respiratory system and cancer. This retrospective case-series characterizes the pulmonary disease seen in 101 cancer-free A-T patients who were living with chronic respiratory symptoms or ...
Xie B - - 2013
WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT: Initial evidence from recent studies indicated a relationship between the high-activity MAOA uVNTR polymorphism and lower risk of obesity even though findings were varied across populations, and hence replication studies with population-based samples are clearly warranted. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS: Our findings confirmed ...
Zhang Dong-Yang - - 2013
A novel negative pressure and microwave assisted extraction technique (NMAE) was first proposed and applied for extraction of phenolic compounds from pyrola. [C4MIM]BF4 aqueous solution was selected as extraction solvent. Optimal extraction conditions were microwave power 700 W, negative pressure -0.07 MPa, temperature 40 °C, liquid-solid ratio 20 : 1, ionic liquid ...
Miguel Ana - - 2013
PURPOSE: This study aimed to detect and characterize adverse drug reactions (ADRs) that occurred during hospitalization (ADRIn ) and ADRs associated with admission (ADRAd ) in Portugal from 2000 to 2009. We also intended to compare the results of this methodology with spontaneous reporting. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide study ...
Xu Xiaoming - - 2013
To assay the dissolution samples of a drug product from several sources, a simple but broadly applicable analytical method is always desired. For the liquid-filled cyclosporine capsules, while analyzing the dissolution samples, the current compendial and literature HPLC methods have been found to be inadequate to provide satisfactory separation of ...
Lou H - - 2013
The purpose of this study is to enhance the dissolution rate of prednisone by co-grinding with Neusilin to form a complex that can be incorporated into a mini-tablet formulation for pediatrics. Prednisone-Neusilin complex was co-grinded at various ratios (1:1, 1:3, 1:5, and 1:7). The physicochemical properties of the complex were ...
Xue Li - - 2013
Biotherapeutic-reactive antibodies in treatment-naïve subjects (i.e., pre-existing antibodies) have been commonly detected during clinical immunogenicity assessments; however information on pre-existing antibody prevalence, physiological effects, and impact on posttreatment anti-drug antibody (ADA) induction remains limited. In this analysis, pre-existing antibody prevalence and impact on posttreatment ADA induction were determined using ADA ...
Oppermann Frank - - 2013
Naming an object in the context of other objects requires the selection and processing of the target object at different levels, while the processing of competing representations activated by context objects has to be constrained. At what stage are these competing representations attenuated? To address this question, we presented pairs ...
Kobus Thiele - - 2013
In many studies, it has been demonstrated that (1) H MRSI of the human prostate has great potential to aid prostate cancer management, e.g. in the detection and localisation of cancer foci in the prostate or in the assessment of its aggressiveness. It is particularly powerful in combination with T2 ...
Gil Lorenzo Andrea Fernanda - - 2013
A series of signaling cascades are activated after angiotensin II binds to angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R), a peptide that is an important mediator of oxidative stress. Hsp70 regulates a diverse set of signaling pathways through interactions with proteins. Here, we tested the hypothesis of angiotensin II AT1R inhibition ...
Memtsoudis Stavros G - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) can be associated with considerable postoperative pain. Ischemic preconditioning of tissue before inducing procedure-related underperfusion may reduce the postoperative inflammatory response, which further may reduce associated pain. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: In this prospective, randomized study, we aimed at evaluating the impact of ischemic preconditioning on postoperative pain ...
Mu Xiaodong - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Epigenetics is the study of changes in gene expression or cellular phenotype caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence. It is widely accepted that cancer has genetic and epigenetic origins. The idea of epigenetic reprogramming of cancer cells by an embryonic microenvironment possesses potential interest ...
Bossen Jeroen K J - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Diagnostic MRI reports can be distressing for patients with limited health literacy. Humans tend to prepare for the worst particularly when we are in pain, and words like "tear" can make us feel damaged and in need of repair. Research on words used in provider-patient interactions have shown an ...
Mobargha Nathalie - - 2013
BACKGROUND: The complex configuration of the thumb carpometacarpal (CMC-1) joint relies on musculotendinous and ligamentous support for precise circumduction. Ligament innervation contributes to joint stability and proprioception. Evidence suggests abnormal ligament innervation is associated with osteoarthritis (OA) in large joints; however, little is known about CMC-1 ligament innervation characteristics in ...
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