Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 1074
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Brown Daniel L - - 2013
OBJECTIVE:To describe a practical solution for addressing body weight when using the Cockcroft-Gault equation to determine drug dosing.DATA SOURCES:A literature search was conducted using PubMed MEDLINE (1980-April 2013) using creatinine clearance, Cockcroft and Gault, Cockcroft-Gault, body weight, and obesity as search terms. Reference citations from publications reviewed were included.STUDY SELECTION ...
Lianidou E S - - 2013
Blood testing for circulating tumour cells (CTC) has emerged as one of the hottest fields in cancer research. CTC detection and enumeration can serve as a 'liquid biopsy' and an early marker of response to systemic therapy, whereas their molecular characterisation has a strong potential to be translated to individualised ...
Thompson Emily - - 2013
Liver transplant biopsies are routinely archived following formalin fixation and paraffin embedding and may provide an additional source of diagnostic information following transcriptomic biomarker analysis. This study was designed to compare gene transcription between resting and stressed biliary cells in culture, these cells after fixation and embedding and archival liver ...
Timeus Fabio - - 2013
Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal dominant disorder, characterized by short stature, multiple dysmorphisms and congenital heart defects. A myeloproliferative disorder (NS/MPD), resembling juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML), is occasionally diagnosed in infants with NS. In the present study, we performed a functional evaluation of the circulating hematopoietic progenitors in a ...
Munro A J - - 2013
Multidisciplinary team meetings (MDTs), also known as tumour boards or multidisciplinary case conferences, are an integral component of contemporary cancer care. There are logistical problems with setting up and maintaining participation in these meetings. An ill-defined concept, the virtual MDT (vMDT), has arisen in response to these difficulties. We have, ...
Berry Diane J DJ MRC Centre of Epidemiology for Child Health, Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom. - - 2013
Seasonal variations in health outcomes are commonly used to hypothesize a link with nutritional vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25(OH)D) status. The majority of vitamin D intake is from skin exposure to sunlight and varies seasonally in countries at a distance away from the Equator. However, despite the strong seasonality of ...
Er Ekrem Emrah EE Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, - - 2013
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that controls cell proliferation, growth, survival, metabolism, and migration by activating the PI3K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase)-AKT and ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase)-RSK (ribosomal S6 kinase) pathways. EGFR signaling to these pathways is temporally and spatially regulated. Endocytic trafficking controls the access ...
Button Brian B Cystic Fibrosis Research and Treatment Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7248, USA. - - 2013
The clearance of mucus from the airways protects the lungs from inhaled noxious and infectious materials. Proper hydration of the mucus layer enables efficient mucus clearance through beating of cilia on airway epithelial cells, and reduced clearance of excessively concentrated mucus occurs in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and ...
Barnes D R DR Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Centre for Cancer Genetic Epidemiology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, - - 2013
Pedigrees with multiple genotyped family members have been underutilised in breast cancer (BC) genetic-association studies. We developed a pedigree-based analytical framework to characterise single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations with BC risk using data from 736 BC families ascertained through multiple affected individuals. On average, eight family members had been genotyped for ...
Fenton Andrew K AK Centre for Bacterial Cell Biology, Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, Baddiley-Clark Building, Medical School, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, - - 2013
How bacteria coordinate cell growth with division is not well understood. Bacterial cell elongation is controlled by actin-MreB while cell division is governed by tubulin-FtsZ. A ring-like structure containing FtsZ (the Z ring) at mid-cell attracts other cell division proteins to form the divisome, an essential protein assembly required for ...
Lubas Michal M Centre for mRNP Biogenesis and Metabolism, Aarhus University, Aarhus C, - - 2013
Turnover of mRNA in the cytoplasm of human cells is thought to be redundantly conducted by the monomeric 5'-3' exoribonuclease hXRN1 and the 3'-5' exoribonucleolytic RNA exosome complex. However, in addition to the exosome-associated 3'-5' exonucleases hDIS3 and hDIS3L, the human genome encodes another RNase II/R domain protein-hDIS3L2. Here, we ...
Scheuermann Johanna C JC Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, - - 2013
Cardiogenesis in mammals requires exquisite control of gene expression and faulty regulation of transcriptional programs underpins congenital heart disease (CHD), the most common defect among live births. Similarly, many adult cardiac diseases involve transcriptional changes and sometimes have a developmental basis. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a novel class of ...
Gallouzi Imed E IE Rosalind and Morris Goodman Cancer Center, Department of Biochemistry, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. - - 2013
Regulated degradation plays a major role in determining the levels of both non-coding (miRNA) and coding (mRNA) transcripts. Thus, insights into the factors and pathways that influence this process have broad, interdisciplinary implications. New findings by Malecki et al (2013), Lubas et al (2013), and Chang et al (2013) identify ...
Heidrich Nadja N Institute for Molecular Infection Biology, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, - - 2013
A Cas protein from the CRISPR defence system against foreign DNA, also functions in endogenous gene regulation. Sampson et al (2013) have revealed that in pathogenic Francisella bacteria, the Cas9 protein guided by small RNAs represses the mRNA of a lipoprotein. This novel mechanism of post-transcriptional regulation enables the infecting ...
Guthrie G J K GJ Academic Unit of Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Glasgow, Royal Infirmary, Glasgow, G31 2ER, UK. - - 2013
Cancer-associated inflammation, in the form of local and systemic inflammatory responses, appear to be linked to tumour necrosis and have prognostic value in patients with colorectal cancer. However, their relationship with circulating biochemical mediators is unclear. The aim of the present study was to examine the interrelationships between circulating mediators, ...
Takagi K K Department of Pathology and Histotechnology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, 980-8575 Sendai, - - 2013
Estrogens have important roles in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast. However, the significance of presurgical aromatase inhibitor treatment remains unclear. Therefore, we examined intratumoral concentration of estrogens and changes of clinicopathological factors in DCIS after letrozole treatment. Ten cases of postmenopausal oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive DCIS were examined. ...
Carbajo-Pescador S S Institute of Biomedicine (IBIOMED), University of León, Campus Universitario, 24071 León, - - 2013
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) growth relies on angiogenesis via vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) release. Hypoxia within tumour environment leads to intracellular stabilisation of hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (Hif1α) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3). Melatonin induces apoptosis in HCC, and shows anti-angiogenic features in several tumours. In ...
Wheeler B W BW European Centre for Environment and Human Health, University of Exeter Medical School, Royal Cornwall Hospital, Truro TR1 3HD, UK. - - 2013
This study investigates the geography of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in England, and ecological associations with three widespread environmental hazards: radon, arsenic and ultraviolet radiation from the sun. Age-/sex-standardised registration rates of NMSC were mapped for local authority (LA) areas (n=326), along with geographical data on bright sunshine, household radon ...
Verset L L Department of Pathology, Erasme University Hospital, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Route de Lennik 808, 1070 Brussels, - - 2013
Four-and-a-half LIM domains protein 2 (FHL2) is a component of the focal adhesion structures and has been suggested to have a role in cancer progression. It has been shown to be overexpressed in the colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we examined a possible prognostic value of FHL2 in CRC. Immunohistochemistry for ...
Gordziel C C Institute of Biochemistry II, University Hospital Jena, Jena, - - 2013
Aberrant activities of Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signalling pathways have been implicated in the development and spread of various cancer entities, among them colorectal carcinoma (CRC). Transcription factors STAT3 and STAT1, both downstream effectors of interleukin (IL)-6 and its receptor, are involved in growth and ...
Mangili G G Gynecology Department, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Olgettina 60, 20132 Milan, Italy. - - 2013
The aim of this study is to evaluate the long-term outcome of granulosa cell tumour (GCT) of the ovary in a large series of patients treated in MITO centres (Multicentre Italian Trials in Ovarian Cancer) and to define prognostic parameters for relapse and survival. A retrospective multi-institutional review of patients ...
Clarke C A CA Cancer Prevention Institute of California, 2201 Walnut Avenue, Suite 300, Fremont, CA 94538-2334, USA. - - 2013
Solid organ transplant recipients have high risk of lymphomas, including non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). A gap in our understanding of post-transplant lymphomas involves the spectrum and associated risks of their many histologic subtypes. We linked nationwide data on solid organ transplants from the US Scientific Registry of ...
Sherr Jennifer L JL Corresponding author: Jennifer L. Sherr, - - 2013
Afternoon exercise increases the risk of nocturnal hypoglycemia (NH) in subjects with type 1 diabetes. We hypothesized that automated feedback-controlled closed-loop (CL) insulin delivery would be superior to open-loop (OL) control in preventing NH and maintaining a higher proportion of blood glucose levels within the target blood glucose range on ...
Kapatai G G School of Cancer Sciences, Vincent Drive, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, - - 2013
Mutation of the RB1 gene is necessary but not sufficient for the development of retinoblastoma. The nature of events occurring subsequent to RB1 mutation is unclear, as is the retinal cell-of-origin of this tumour. Gene expression profiling of 21 retinoblastomas was carried out to identify genetic events that contribute to ...
Adjeitey Cyril Nii-Klu CN Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, - - 2013
Enhancement of proton leaks in muscle tissue represents a potential target for obesity treatment. In this study, we examined the bioenergetic and physiological implications of increased proton leak in skeletal muscle. To induce muscle-specific increases in proton leak, we used mice that selectively express uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) in skeletal muscle ...
Stephenson Erin J EJ School of Medical Sciences, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Bundoora, - - 2013
Impaired visceral white adipose tissue (WAT) metabolism has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several lifestyle-related disease states, with diminished expression of several WAT mitochondrial genes reported in both insulin-resistant humans and rodents. We have used rat models selectively bred for low- (LCR) or high-intrinsic running capacity (HCR) that present ...
Kong Ping P The Wilf Family Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine Cardiology Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, - - 2013
As a typical matricellular protein, thrombospondin (TSP)-1, binds to the structural matrix and regulates cellular behavior by modulating growth factor and cytokine signaling. Obesity and diabetes are associated with marked upregulation of TSP-1 in adipose tissue. We hypothesized that endogenous TSP-1 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of ...
Pillai Resmi R Center for Hypertension and Personalized Medicine, University of Toledo College of Medicine and Life Sciences, Toledo, Ohio, - - 2013
Interactions or epistasis between genetic factors may contribute to "missing heritability." While linkage analyses detect epistasis, defining the limits of the interacting segments poses a significant challenge especially when the interactions are between loci in close proximity. The goal of the present study was to isolate two such epistatic blood ...
Kelly K J KJ Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, - - 2013
Despite advances in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy (DN), currently available therapies have not prevented the epidemic of progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD). The morbidity of CKD, and the inexorable increase in the prevalence of end-stage renal disease, demands more effective approaches to prevent and treat progressive CKD. We undertook ...
Kulkarni Smita R - - 2013
OBJECTIVETo study the relationship between maternal circulating fuels and neonatal size and compare the relative effects of glucose and lipids.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSThe Pune Maternal Nutrition Study (1993-1996) investigated the influence of maternal nutrition on fetal growth. We measured maternal body size and glucose and lipid concentrations during pregnancy and ...
Vestberg Daniel - - 2013
OBJECTIVETo investigate the potential relationship between overweight, obesity, and severe obesity and the risk of hospitalization for heart failure (HF) in patients with type 1 diabetes.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSWe studied patients with type 1 diabetes included in the Swedish National Diabetes Register during 1998-2003, and they were followed-up until hospitalization ...
Lajous Martin - - 2013
OBJECTIVEThe objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between childhood and adult secondhand smoke and type 2 diabetes.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSWe conducted a prospective cohort study among 37,343 French women from the E3N-EPIC (Etude Epidémiologique auprès des femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l'Education Nationale-European Prospective Investigation into ...
Newsom Sean A - - 2013
OBJECTIVEThe purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a relatively modest session of exercise on insulin sensitivity and fatty acid uptake the next day in obese adults.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSEleven sedentary obese adults (male/female: 3/8; BMI 37 ± 1 kg/m(2); peak oxygen uptake [VO2peak] 20 ± 1 ...
Guyer Autumn Chandler - - 2013
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The use of anticholinergic medications is well established as maintenance therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There is a growing interest in the use of anticholinergic medications in the treatment of moderate to severe asthma. The purpose of this review is to summarize the scientific evidence ...
Rada Tommaso - - 2013
Cells constitute one of the fundamental components of any cartilage tissue engineering approach. Adipose tissue derived stem cells (ASCs) have a promising future considering the abundance of this tissue in the human body, ease of harness, and the high number of stem cells that can be isolated from small amounts ...
Ahluwalia Amrita - - 2013
In this article we review the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in colon cancer growth and the underlying mechanisms. Angiogenesis, the growth of new capillary blood vessels in the body, is critical for tissue injury healing and cancer growth. In 1971, Judah Folkman proposed the concept that tumor ...
Chen Enfu - - 2013
This study reports the first death caused by a novel avian influenza A (H7N9) virus in Zhejiang Province, China. The patient had chronic hepatitis B and history of exposure to poultry. The patient initially complained of diarrhea and influenza-like symptoms on March 7 and 14 respectively. The disease progressed to ...
Choudhary Dhagla R - - 2013
Ondansetron, selective serotonin (5-HT3) receptor blocker, used in treating chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting in cancer patients. Mouth dissolving films containing ondansetron were developed to have better onset and patients compliances. The drug content of prepared films was within 85% -115%. The film were stable for 4 months when stored ...
Wanderer Jonathan P - - 2013
BACKGROUND:: The allocation of intensive care unit (ICU) beds for postoperative patients is a challenging daily task that could be assisted by the real-time detection of ICU needs. The goal of this study was to develop and validate an intraoperative predictive model for unplanned postoperative ICU use. METHODS:: With the ...
Bundgaard-Nielsen Morten - - 2013
BACKGROUND:: Early mobilization is important for postoperative recovery but is limited by orthostatic intolerance (OI) with a prevalence of 50% 6 h after major surgery. The pathophysiology of postoperative OI is assumed to include hypovolemia besides dysregulation of vasomotor tone. Stroke volume-guided fluid therapy, so-called goal-directed therapy (GDT), corrects functional ...
Boom Merel - - 2013
INTRODUCTION:: Integrating opioid risk and benefit into a single function may give a useful single measure of the opioid's positive and negative effects. An explorative study on the effects of fentanyl on antinociception and respiratory depression was performed to construct fentanyl risk-benefit (utility) functions. METHODS:: Twelve volunteers received a 3.5-μg/kg ...
Sun Yuan - - 2013
BACKGROUND:: The regulation of gene expression in nociceptive pathways contributes to the induction and maintenance of pain sensitization. Histone acetylation is a key epigenetic mechanism controlling chromatin structure and gene expression. Chemokine CC motif receptor 2 (CXCR2) is a proinflammatory receptor implicated in neuropathic and inflammatory pain and is known ...
Bernstein Jonathan A - - 2013
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to briefly discuss methods for classifying Nonallergic rhinitis (NAR), the current understanding of its immunopathogenesis, scientific evidence-based treatment options along with anecdotal clinical experience for selecting different treatment regimens for these challenging patients. RECENT FINDINGS: NAR also known as idiopathic rhinitis, ...
Choudhery Mahmood Saba - - 2013
MSCs can be isolated from adult sources such as bone marrow and adipose tissue. In contrast to these adult tissue sources, harvesting MSCs from cord tissue is a non-invasive procedure and poses no risk to the donor. Stem cell banks offer the opportunity to cryopreserve cord tissue as a source ...
Dylag Katarzyna - - 2013
A growing body of experimental and clinical evidence supports the hypothesis that the intestinal microbiota markedly influences function and the structure of the mucosal lining. Intestinal microbiota can potentially cause damage to the mucosa either directly by releasing toxins or indirectly by causing a detrimental immune response. Probiotic bacteria have ...
Sikiric Predrag - - 2013
We reviewed stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157-NO-system-relation, its close participation in Moncada's (maintained vascular integrity, platelets control) homeostatic healing response of NO-system to injury. Namely, BPC 157 particular healing effect also affects all events after vascular integrity loss (dependent on circumstances, it reduces either thrombosis (abdominal aorta anastomosis) or bleeding/thrombocytopenia ...
Xia Zuping - - 2013
3'-O-Retinoyl-5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (RFUdR) is a putative dual-acting, mutually-masking (DAMM) prodrug for the treatment of cancer. As part of the proof of principle for the DAMM concept, the concentrations of RFUdR and its post-hydrolysis active metabolites, 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (FUdR) and all-trans-retinoic acid (RA), were determined in plasma and selected tissues following either bolus ...
Rostami-Charati Faramarz - - 2013
An efficient synthesis of 1,3-oxathiolan-2-yliden derivatives is described via a simple reactions between CH-acids, CS2 and oxiranes in the presence of triethylamine at 70°C in water as the solvent. The mild reaction conditions and high yields of the products exhibit the good synthetic advantage of this method.
Apisarnthanarak Anucha - - 2013
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review will focus on the epidemiology of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) after extensive blackwater flooding as well as preventive measures. RECENT FINDINGS: There is evidence suggesting an increased incidence of HAIs and pseudo-outbreaks due to molds after extensive flooding in healthcare facilities. However, there is no strong ...
Rollins Nigel - - 2013
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the past 5 years, research has identified antiretroviral drug interventions that significantly reduce HIV transmission through breastfeeding. This evidence is reflected in WHO guidelines that now recommend national health authorities to adopt a public health approach for HIV and infant feeding, namely to promote and support ...
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