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Petrov Georgi I - - 2013
We propose and experimentally validate a technique for four-wave mixing background suppression in coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy. It is based on the interaction of the signals generated from the Kerr third-order nonlinearity and the cascaded quadratic process in a nonlinear crystal. Theoretical analysis agrees well with the experimental results, which ...
Shi Yaoyao - - 2013
Crosstalk between thymocytes and thymic epithelial cells is critical for T cell development and the establishment of central tolerance. Medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) play important roles in the late stage of T cell development, especially negative selection and Treg generation. The function of mTECs is highly dependent on their ...
Hsieh David T - - 2013
Rufinamide is a novel anticonvulsant medication approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2008 for the treatment of seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome in patients 4 years of age and older, based upon clinical trials demonstrating clinical efficacy and tolerability. Rufinamide is especially effective for tonic-atonic seizures ...
Ekmann Kim S - - 2013
The effects of varying dietary digestible protein (DP) and digestible energy (DE) content on performance, nutrient retention efficiency and the de novo lipogenesis of DP origin were examined in triplicate groups of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), fed nine extruded experimental diets. In order to trace the metabolic fate of ...
Shi Wen-Jing - - 2013
A bis(permethylated β-cyclodextrin)-substituted aza-BODIPY has been prepared, which forms stable 1 : 1 host-guest complexes with metal-free and zinc(ii) tetrasulfonated porphyrins in water. The resulting complexes exhibit predominantly a photoinduced energy or electron transfer process depending on the porphyrin-based guest.
Sievers Ashley E - - 2013
Although infrequent, helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) have been activated to transport police officers injured in the line of duty. The purpose of this study was to query current industry operating procedures in terms of law enforcement training and operations, specifically in terms of firearms restrictions and cotransport of injured ...
Pijls B G - - 2013
We welcome letters to the Editor concerning articles that have recently been published. Such letters will be subject to the usual stages of selection and editing; where appropriate the authors of the original article will be offered the opportunity to reply.
Cunha-Cruz Joana - - 2013
Saliva is one of the intraoral host factors that influence caries development. The authors conducted a study to investigate whether salivary characteristics are associated with recent dental caries experience. Dentist-investigators and dental staff members collected data pertaining to a two-year cumulative incidence of dental caries (previous 24 months) and salivary ...
Anttu Nicklas - - 2013
The absorption of light is at the core of photovoltaic applications. For many nanostructure-based devices, an assessment of the absorption in the nanostructures is complicated by a thick, opaque substrate that prohibits transmission measurements. Here, we show how a single reflection measurement can be used for approximating the amount of ...
Atif S M - - 2013
Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) has been widely studied in an inflammatory context, but the effect of TLR5 on the adaptive response to bacterial flagellin has received considerably less attention. Here, we demonstrate that TLR5 expression by dendritic cells (DCs) allows a 1,000-fold enhancement of T-cell sensitivity to flagellin, and this ...
SokoĊ‚owski Kamil - - 2013
We report on the activation of CO2 by the well-defined alkylzinc hydroxide (tBuZnOH)6 in the absence and presence of tBu2Zn as an external proton acceptor. The slight modifications in reaction systems involving organozinc precursors enable control of the reaction products with high selectivity leading to the isolation of the mesoporous ...
Sheth Rushikesh - - 2013
Limb development relies on an exquisite coordination between growth and patterning, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Anterior-posterior and proximal-distal specification initiates in early limb bud concomitantly with the proliferative expansion of limb cells. Previous studies have shown that limb bud growth initially relies on fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) produced ...
Hung Yu-Han - - 2013
To distribute microwaves over fibers, optical single-sideband (SSB) modulation signals are preferred to optical double-sideband (DSB) modulation signals. This study investigates an optically injected semiconductor laser at period-one nonlinear dynamics for optical DSB-to-SSB conversion. For the operating microwave frequencies up to 40 GHz investigated in this study, the proposed system regenerates ...
Huang Kuo-Jien - - 2013
The phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system (PTS) is ubiquitous in eubacteria and absent from eukaryotes. The system consists of two phosphoryl carriers, enzyme I (EI) and the histidine-containing phosphoryl carrier protein (HPr), and several PTS transporters, catalyzing the concomitant uptake and phosphorylation of several carbohydrates. Since a deficiency of EI in bacterial ...
Peischl S - - 2013
Chromosomal inversions are common in natural populations and are believed to be involved in many important evolutionary phenomena, including speciation, the evolution of sex chromosomes and local adaptation. While recent advances in sequencing and genotyping methods are leading to rapidly increasing amounts of genome-wide sequence data that reveal interesting patterns ...
Schughart Klaus - - 2013
Experimental animal models are essential to obtain basic knowledge of the underlying biological mechanisms in human diseases. Here, we review major contributions to biomedical research and discoveries that were obtained in the mouse model by using forward genetics approaches and that provided key insights into the biology of human diseases ...
Lin Hongtao - - 2013
We demonstrated high-index-contrast, waveguide-coupled As<sub>2</sub>Se<sub>3</sub> chalcogenide glass resonators monolithically integrated on silicon fabricated using optical lithography and a lift-off process. The resonators exhibited a high intrinsic quality factor of 2×10<sup>5</sup> at 5.2 μm wavelength, which is among the highest values reported in on-chip mid-infrared (mid-IR) photonic devices. The resonator can serve ...
Prakash Om - - 2013
The half sandwich complexes [(η(6)-C6H6)Ru()Cl][PF6] () have been synthesized by the reactions of (2-arylchalcogenomethyl)pyridine [ = ] and bis(2-pyridylmethyl)chalcogenide [ = ] (chalcogen = S, Se; Ar = Ph/2-pyridyl for S, Ph for Se) with [(η(6)-C6H6)RuCl2]2, at room temperature followed by treatment with NH4PF6. Their HR-MS, (1)H, (13)C{(1)H} and (77)Se{(1)H} ...
Itokawa K - - 2013
Insecticide resistance develops as a genetic factor (allele) conferring lower susceptibility to insecticides proliferates within a target insect population under strong positive selection. Intriguingly, a resistance allele pre-existing in a population often bears a series of further adaptive allelic variants through new mutations. This phenomenon occasionally results in replacement of ...
Numpang Ben - - 2013
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is associated with impaired neurodevelopmental outcomes in affected newborns. The pathogenesis of FGR-associated neurodevelopmental impairment implicates abnormal hippocampal function. The steroid hormone estrogen and its receptor, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), are involved in the normal programming of hippocampal development and structure. However, the impact of FGR ...
Bokrantz Rasmus - - 2013
We consider multicriteria radiation therapy treatment planning by navigation over the Pareto surface, implemented by interpolation between discrete treatment plans. Current state of the art for calculation of a discrete representation of the Pareto surface is to sandwich this set between inner and outer approximations that are updated one point ...
Sumoza-Toledo Adriana - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Airway inflammation and asthma have been linked to oxidative stress and the melastatin-related transient receptor potential cation channel, member 2 (TRPM2), which can be activated by reactive oxygen species (ROS), has emerged as a potential therapeutic target for inflammatory diseases. OBJECTIVE: Using TRPM2 deficient (TRPM2-/-) mice, we investigated whether ...
Cerecero Patricia - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that serum uric acid (SUA) can be an inexpensive and easy-to-obtain indicator of cardiovascular risk (CR). This is especially important in developing countries with high prevalence of cardiovascular disease. We examined the association between SUA levels and 10-year global CR among university workers from the State ...
He Peng - - 2013
BACKGROUND: In recent years, a disease caused by Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) has resulted in significant loss in rice production in Southern China and has spread quickly throughout East and Southeast Asia. This virus is transmitted by an insect vector, white-backed planthopper (WBPH) Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), in ...
Fonseca Fernando - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Maquet III procedure, unloved due to its complications (2% to 59%), has been progressively abandoned. At long-term follow-up, what happens to patients with complications that exceeded the initial ones (Acta Orthop Scand 60:20, 1989)? We retrospectively studied patients who were submitted to Maquet III procedure, by functional and radiologic ...
Ramly Mazliza - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Besides its classical role in musculoskeletal diseases, vitamin D deficiency has recently been found to be associated with cardiometabolic risks such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia. Although Malaysia is a sunshine-abundant country, recent studies found that vitamin D deficiency prevalence was significantly high. However, few published studies that ...
Bjerkaas Eivind - - 2013
PURPOSE: Recently, The International Agency for Research on Cancer classified cigarette smoking as possibly carcinogenic to the human breast. Since some new cohort studies have suggested that this risk is confined to women who started to smoke before first childbirth, we wanted to examine the association between smoking and breast ...
Gagala Jacek - - 2013
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical and radiological outcomes of autologous osteochondral transfer (OATS) for femoral head osteonecrosis. METHODS: Twenty-one hips in 20 patients (one woman and 19 men), average patients' age at the time of surgery of 35.4 (range 20-56) years, were treated with OATS ...
Dobson Simon R M - - 2013
Global use of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines to prevent cervical cancer is impeded by cost. A 2-dose schedule for girls may be possible. To determine whether mean antibody levels to HPV-16 and HPV-18 among girls receiving 2 doses was noninferior to women receiving 3 doses. Randomized, phase 3, postlicensure, multicenter, ...
Serenius Fredrik - - 2013
Active perinatal care increases survival of extremely preterm infants; however, improved survival might be associated with increased disability among survivors. To determine neurodevelopmental outcome in extremely preterm children at 2.5 years (corrected age). Population-based prospective cohort of consecutive extremely preterm infants born before 27 weeks of gestation in Sweden between ...
Wachman Elisha M - - 2013
Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) caused by in utero opioid exposure is a growing problem; genetic factors influencing the incidence and severity have not been previously examined. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the μ-opioid receptor (OPRM1), multidrug resistance (ABCB1), and catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) genes are associated with risk for opioid addiction in adults. ...
Howard Laura - - 2013
The somatosensory and sympathetic innervation of the vertebrate head is derived principally from the neurons of trigeminal and superior cervical ganglia (SCG), respectively. During development, the survival of both populations of neurons and the terminal growth and branching of their axons in the tissues they innervate is regulated by the ...
Lee Hedwig - - 2013
Consistent findings show that black Americans have high rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and related behavioral risk factors. Despite this body of work, studies on black Americans are generally limited to the 50 U.S. states. We examined variation in CVD and related risk factors among black Americans by comparing those ...
Roszak Andrzej - - 2013
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Data on the Val762Ala (rs1136410) polymorphism in the poly(adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) gene as a risk factor for various types of cancers in different ethnicities are inconsistent. We studied this association in a Caucasian population. METHODS: Using high-resolution melting curve analysis (HRM), we studied the ...
Woo Se Joon - - 2013
To investigate the relationship between cytokine levels in cord blood and perinatal factors and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in gestational age-matched, preterm, newborn infants. Each of 20 premature singleton infants with ROP (gestational age < 32 weeks) was matched for gestational age, birth weight, and sex with two control infants ...
Jongenelen Sien - - 2013
To study the influence of macular pigment on retinal straylight in healthy eyes. This prospective study included 150 eyes of 75 healthy subjects between 12 and 81 years of age (mean, 46.1 years) without a history of ocular surgery or ocular disease known to influence straylight (e.g., cataract). Retinal straylight ...
Wachter Rolf - - 2013
Diagnosis of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) in stroke patients is challenging, but highly clinically relevant. The percentage of stroke patients with permanent AF increases with age, but limited data are available for the age-dependent yield of paroxysmal AF by Holter monitoring. Patients with acute cerebral ischemia were included into the ...
Padmanaba Michael - - 2013
Conventional biodiversity surveys play an important role in ensuring good conservation friendly management in tropical forest regions but are demanding in terms of expertise, time, and budget. Can local people help? Here, we illustrate how local knowledge can support low cost conservation surveys. We worked in the Malinau watershed, East ...
Gallo Sina - - 2013
Vitamin D supplementation in infancy is required to support healthy bone mineral accretion. A supplement of 400 IU of vitamin D per day is thought to support plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations between 40 and 50 nmol/L; some advocate 75 to 150 nmol/L for bone health. To investigate the efficacy ...
Pidsley Ruth - - 2013
Background As the most stable and experimentally accessible epigenetic mark, DNA methylation is of great interest to the research community. The landscape of DNA methylation across tissues, through development and in disease pathogenesis is not yet well characterized. Thus there is a need for rapid and cost effective methods for ...
Morledge Thomas J - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Chronic stress affects many Americans. Stress management programs may be prohibitively expensive or have limited access. PURPOSE: This study aims to determine feasibility of an 8-week Internet-based stress management program (ISM) based on mindfulness principles in reducing stress in a 12-week, parallel, randomized, controlled trial. METHODS: Participants were randomly ...
Dudic Alexander - - 2013
The purpose of this study was to investigate the variations of orthodontically induced tooth movement in the maxillary and mandibular arches between patients and the factors such as age, sex, and presence of an interference that might influence the amount of tooth displacement. By using a standardized experimental orthodontic tooth ...
Ghosh S - - 2013
In adults with brachial plexus injuries, lack of active external rotation at the shoulder is one of the most common residual deficits, significantly compromising upper limb function. There is a paucity of evidence to address this complex issue. We present our experience of isolated latissimus dorsi (LD) muscle transfer to ...
Stölting Gabriel - - 2013
ClC-2 is a voltage-dependent chloride channel that activates slowly at voltages negative to the chloride reversal potential. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and other nucleotides have been shown to bind to carboxy-terminal cystathionine-ß-synthase (CBS) domains of ClC-2, but the functional consequences of binding are not sufficiently understood. We here studied the effect ...
Strang John - - 2013
The naloxone investigation (N-ALIVE) randomized trial commenced in the UK in May 2012, with the preliminary phase involving 5,600 prisoners on release. The trial is investigating whether heroin overdose deaths post-prison release can be prevented by prior provision of a take-home emergency supply of naloxone. Heroin contributes disproportionately to drug ...
McDonough Alicia A - - 2013
Renal K(+) excretion is increased rapidly following dietary K(+) intake, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Sorensen and colleagues show that K(+) intake in mice provoked rapid and near-complete dephosphorylation of the renal distal convoluted tubule NaCl cotransporter, temporally associated with increases in both Na(+) and K(+) excretion. ...
Karam-Hage M - - 2013
Education about substance use disorders in medical schools and, subsequently, physicians' identification of and intervention in these diagnoses lag behind that of most other disabling disorders. To reduce barriers and improve access to education about this major public health concern, medical schools are increasingly adopting web-based instruction on substance use ...
Motyka Jacek - - 2013
Long-term extensive mining of Zn-Pb ores in the Olkusz area resulted in significant changes of water table levels and chemical composition of water in all aquifers in this area. Within the Permian aquifer, hydrochemical type of water evolved in two general stages. Short-term effect was freshening in the zones of ...
Loh Joon-Khim - - 2013
PURPOSE: The prognosis of children with low-grade cerebellar astrocytoma who have partial resection of tumor is largely unpredictable. The purpose of this study was to review the long-term outcome of such patients. METHODS: The medical charts, imaging findings, operative notes, histopathological reports, and survival times of 12 patients with cerebellar ...
Pikor Larissa - - 2013
Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer that leads to an increase in genetic alterations, thus enabling the acquisition of additional capabilities required for tumorigenesis and progression. Substantial heterogeneity in the amount and type of instability (nucleotide, microsatellite, or chromosomal) exists both within and between cancer types, with epithelial tumors ...
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