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Nikishkin Nicolai I - - 2013
Transition metal-catalyzed reactions are generally used for carbon-carbon bond formation on pyrazines and include, but are not limited to, classical palladium-catalyzed reactions like Sonogashira, Heck, Suzuki, and Stille reactions. Also a few examples of carbon-heteroatom bond formation in pyrazines are known. This perspective reviews recent progress in the field of ...
Bristow Jessica K - - 2013
Al2O3 changes from transparent to a range of intense colours depending on the chemical impurities present. In blue sapphire, Fe and Ti are incorporated; however, the chemical process that gives rise to the colour has long been debated. Atomistic modelling identifies charge transfer from Ti(iii) to Fe(iii) as being responsible ...
Simão Tassiana Mesquita - - 2013
This case report describes the orthodontic treatment of an adult patient with iatrogenic absence of the maxillary canines, moderate maxillary and severe mandibular dental crowding, a Bolton discrepancy with a large mandibular anterior excess, a maxillary right lateral incisor crossbite, and Angle Class II molar relationships. The treatment consisted of ...
Fokoua Eric Numkam - - 2013
We formulate a simple model based on mass conservation to accurately predict the structural parameters of hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers from knowledge of the second stage preforms from which they are drawn. We show that combining this model with precalculated property maps can allow real-time prediction of the optical properties ...
Wang Tongzhou - - 2013
Detecting the existence of biomarkers is one of the most important issues in molecular diagnosis. This Letter presents a label-free decoding and detection method for biomarker tests based on hyperspectral imaging and interferometry. The decoding and detection results were extracted from a single hyperspectral image with different spectrum-to-thickness reconstructing algorithms, ...
Hered Robert W RW Eye Physicians of Central Florida, Maitland, FL 32751, USA. - - 2013
We determined the efficacy of pediatric-based preschool vision screening, as knowledge of vision screening effectiveness in primary care pediatrics is incomplete. Pediatricians and staff at nine primary care pediatric practices were trained in vision screening, and practices screened children aged 3-5 years from May 2007 through July 2008. Children failing ...
De Maeyer Catherine - - 2013
The syndrome of heart failure (HF) is a growing epidemic that causes a significant socio-economic burden. Despite considerable progress in the management of patients with HF, mortality and morbidity remain a major healthcare concern and frequent hospital admissions jeopardize daily life and social activities. Exercise training is an important adjunct ...
Ye Shengfa - - 2013
This perspective discusses the principles of the multistate scenario often encountered in transition metal catalyzed reactions, and is organized as follows. First, several important theoretical concepts (physical versus formal oxidation states, orbital interactions, use of (spin) natural and corresponding orbitals, exchange enhanced reactivity and the connection between valence bond and ...
Warner Digby F - - 2013
Fundamental aspects of the lifestyle of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Mycobacterium tuberculosis implicate DNA metabolism in bacillary survival and adaptive evolution. The environments encountered by M. tuberculosis during successive cycles of infection and transmission are genotoxic. Moreover, as an obligate pathogen, M. tuberculosis has the ability to persist for extended periods in ...
Jin Qi - - 2013
Non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) is considered to be a severe infertility factor due to impaired spermatogenesis with the consequent absence of spermatozoa in the ejaculate. However, the underlying etiology and mechanism(s) remain elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the mutation and association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ...
Brannsether B - - 2013
Background/objectives:To establish new reference values for triceps (TSF) and subscapular (SSF) skinfolds of Norwegian children 4-16 years of age, and to define cutoff values for overweight and obesity using the criteria of the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF).Subjects/methods:A cross-sectional sample of 4606 children 4-16 years of age, part of a ...
Phillips Miranda - - 2013
For patients with ST-elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI), time to primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is an important factor in saving myocardium. Helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) has become a vital component in regionalized cardiac care. The objective of this study is to assess the logistics of HEMS and ground EMS ...
Westberry D E - - 2013
At our institution surgical correction of symptomatic flat foot deformities in children has been guided by a paradigm in which radiographs and pedobarography are used in the assessment of outcome following treatment. Retrospective review of children with symptomatic flat feet who had undergone surgical correction was performed to assess the ...
Farrington Ken - - 2013
This post hoc analysis of the recently reported Frequent Hemodialysis Network Trials suggests that frequent nocturnal treatment, unlike frequent daily treatment, may be associated with more rapid loss of residual kidney function than conventional hemodialysis. Differences in blood pressure control, among other factors, may be implicated. The study invites reflection ...
Bleckmann Felix - - 2013
We demonstrate experimentally the manipulation of Airy surface plasmon beams in a linear potential. For this purpose, we fabricate dielectric-loaded plasmonic structures with a graded refractive index by negative-tone gray-scale electron beam lithography. Using such carefully engineered potentials, we show that the bending of an Airy surface plasmon beam can ...
Sievers Ashley E - - 2013
Although infrequent, helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) have been activated to transport police officers injured in the line of duty. The purpose of this study was to query current industry operating procedures in terms of law enforcement training and operations, specifically in terms of firearms restrictions and cotransport of injured ...
Pijls B G - - 2013
We welcome letters to the Editor concerning articles that have recently been published. Such letters will be subject to the usual stages of selection and editing; where appropriate the authors of the original article will be offered the opportunity to reply.
Cunha-Cruz Joana J Department of Oral Health Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Washington, Box 357475, Seattle, Wash. 98195-7475, USA. - - 2013
Saliva is one of the intraoral host factors that influence caries development. The authors conducted a study to investigate whether salivary characteristics are associated with recent dental caries experience. Dentist-investigators and dental staff members collected data pertaining to a two-year cumulative incidence of dental caries (previous 24 months) and salivary ...
Anttu Nicklas - - 2013
The absorption of light is at the core of photovoltaic applications. For many nanostructure-based devices, an assessment of the absorption in the nanostructures is complicated by a thick, opaque substrate that prohibits transmission measurements. Here, we show how a single reflection measurement can be used for approximating the amount of ...
Atif S M - - 2013
Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) has been widely studied in an inflammatory context, but the effect of TLR5 on the adaptive response to bacterial flagellin has received considerably less attention. Here, we demonstrate that TLR5 expression by dendritic cells (DCs) allows a 1,000-fold enhancement of T-cell sensitivity to flagellin, and this ...
Pidsley Ruth - - 2013
Background As the most stable and experimentally accessible epigenetic mark, DNA methylation is of great interest to the research community. The landscape of DNA methylation across tissues, through development and in disease pathogenesis is not yet well characterized. Thus there is a need for rapid and cost effective methods for ...
SokoĊ‚owski Kamil - - 2013
We report on the activation of CO2 by the well-defined alkylzinc hydroxide (tBuZnOH)6 in the absence and presence of tBu2Zn as an external proton acceptor. The slight modifications in reaction systems involving organozinc precursors enable control of the reaction products with high selectivity leading to the isolation of the mesoporous ...
Mizuno Yosuke - - 2013
A cost-effective technique for coupling a polymer optical fiber (POF) with 50 μm core diameter to a silica single-mode fiber (SMF) with 8 μm core diameter is proposed, which can, by exploiting a multimode fiber with 50 μm core diameter, avoid the damage or burning at the butt-coupled POF/SMF interface. Using this coupling ...
Linehan W Marston - - 2013
Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC) is a hereditary cancer syndrome in which affected individuals are at risk for development of cutaneous and uterine leiomyomas and an aggressive form of type II papillary kidney cancer. HLRCC is characterized by germline mutation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) enzyme, fumarate ...
Tursch Marcus - - 2013
A growing number of individuals with significant medical histories travel for business and holidays. Precise anticipation and stratification of transport-relevant illness severity in the planning stage of an air medical evacuation is crucial for mission success and patient safety. We developed a staging system (ie, Stratification of Air Medical Transport ...
Khanduja V - - 2013
The FRCS (Tr & Orth) examination has three components: MCQs, Vivas and Clinical Examination. The Vivas are further divided into four sections comprising Basic Science, Adult Pathology, Hands and Children's Orthopaedics and Trauma. The Clinical Examination section is divided into Upper and Lower limb cases. The aim of this section ...
Castaman Giancarlo G Department of Cell Therapy and Hematology, San Bortolo Hospital, Vicenza, Italy. - - 2013
Von Willebrand disease is a common autosomal inherited bleeding disorder caused by quantitative or qualitative defects of von Willebrand factor, a multi-adhesive protein that binds platelets to exposed subendothelium and carries factor VIII in circulation. As a result of von Willebrand factor deficiency or abnormality, levels of factor VIII, the ...
Kulchin Y N - - 2013
Separate nanoholes with the minimum size down to 35 nm (∼λ/15) and nanohole arrays with the hole size about 100 nm (∼λ/5) were fabricated in a 50 nm optically "thick" Au/Pd film, using single 532 nm pump nanosecond laser pulses focused to diffraction-limited spots by a specially designed apertureless dielectric fiber probe. Nanohole fabrication ...
Zhu Yuanyuan - - 2013
Heterostructures and interfacial defects in a 40-nm-thick SrTiO3 (STO) film grown epitaxially on a single-crystal MgO (001) were investigated using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and geometric phase analysis. The interface of STO/MgO was found to be of the typical domain-matching epitaxy with a misfit dislocation network having a Burgers ...
Mackenzie Robert - - 2013
Simultaneous LSPR and electronic sensing of potential induced ion adsorption onto gold nanowire arrays is presented. The formation of a Stern layer upon applying an electrochemical potential generated a complex optical response. Simulation of a lossy atomic layer on the nanowire array using the Multiple Multipole Program (MMP) corresponded very ...
Abley Katie - - 2013
Tissue cell polarity plays a major role in plant and animal development. We propose that a fundamental building block for tissue cell polarity is the process of intracellular partitioning, which can establish individual cell polarity in the absence of asymmetric cues. Coordination of polarities may then arise through cell-cell coupling, ...
Xiang Zhiyu - - 2013
This Letter proposes a generalized unified model (GUM) for the calibration of noncentral catadioptric cameras. Releasing the constraint on the projection center and the orientation of the imaging plane that the traditional unified projection model has, the new model is able to well compensate the misalignment between the mirror and ...
Bass Ori - - 2013
A multilayer photonic XOR gate is presented. The XOR is implemented by the interconnect layers of a microelectronic chip and is suitable for fabrication in a standard VLSI fabrication process. The proposed device features an inherent insertion loss compensation mechanism by utilization of nanometric holes, making it possible to implement ...
Bjerkaas Eivind - - 2013
PURPOSE: Recently, The International Agency for Research on Cancer classified cigarette smoking as possibly carcinogenic to the human breast. Since some new cohort studies have suggested that this risk is confined to women who started to smoke before first childbirth, we wanted to examine the association between smoking and breast ...
McGurk Ross J - - 2013
This study aims to quantify how filter choice affects several fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) segmentation methods and present the use of model fitting via generalized estimating equations (GEEs) to appropriately account for the properties of a common segmentation quality metric (Dice similarity coefficient). Spherical and irregularly shaped 'hot' objects ...
Strang John - - 2013
The naloxone investigation (N-ALIVE) randomized trial commenced in the UK in May 2012, with the preliminary phase involving 5,600 prisoners on release. The trial is investigating whether heroin overdose deaths post-prison release can be prevented by prior provision of a take-home emergency supply of naloxone. Heroin contributes disproportionately to drug ...
Ozarda Yesim - - 2013
Abstract The reference intervals (RIs) given in laboratory reports have an important role in aiding clinicians in interpreting test results in reference to values of healthy populations. In this report, we present a proposed protocol and standard operating procedures (SOPs) for common use in conducting multicenter RI studies on a ...
Le Cong Minh - - 2013
The purpose of this study was to describe the safety profile of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) using the Oxylog 3000 transport ventilator (Drager Medical, Lübeck, Germany) by air medical retrieval teams from the Queensland Section of the Royal Flying Doctor Service of Australia. Over a 3-year period, patients identified ...
Colaris J W - - 2013
Forearm fractures in children have a tendency to displace in a cast leading to malunion with reduced functional and cosmetic results. In order to identify risk factors for displacement, a total of 247 conservatively treated fractures of the forearm in 246 children with a mean age of 7.3 years (sd ...
Chi Donald L DL Department of Oral Health Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Washington, Box 357475, Seattle, Wash. 98195, USA. - - 2013
The authors examined the correlates of root caries experience for middle-aged adults (aged 45-64 years) and older adults (65 years and older) to test the hypothesis that the factors related to root caries are different for middle-aged adults than they are for older adults. The authors conducted an observational cross-sectional ...
Mohammed Altaf A Center for Cancer Prevention and Drug Development, Hematology-Oncology Section, Department of Medicine, PC Stephenson Cancer Center, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, - - 2013
Preclinical studies have shown that gefitinib, licofelone, atorvastatin, and α-difluoromethylornithine (GLAD) are promising colon cancer chemopreventive agents. Because low-dose combination regimens can offer potential additive or synergistic effects without toxicity, GLAD combination was tested for toxicity and chemopreventive efficacy for suppression of intestinal tumorigenesis in adenomatous polyposis coli (APC)(Min/+) mice. ...
Otsuka Kenju - - 2013
We report a simple method for generating cylindrical vector beams directly from laser-diode (LD)-pumped microchip solid-state lasers by using dual end-pumping beams. Radially as well as azimuthally polarized vector field emissions have been generated from the common c-cut Nd:GdVO<sub>4</sub> laser cavity merely by controlling the focus positions of orthogonally polarized ...
Fan Fei - - 2013
The state conversion and terahertz (THz) wave modulation based on a plasmonic device composed of silicon column arrays with vanadium dioxide (VO<sub>2</sub>) coating were experimentally demonstrated. For double 45° tilted optical pumping, a state conversion from dielectric photonic crystal (PC) to metallic PC was demonstrated due to the insulator-metal transition ...
Karam-Hage M - - 2013
Education about substance use disorders in medical schools and, subsequently, physicians' identification of and intervention in these diagnoses lag behind that of most other disabling disorders. To reduce barriers and improve access to education about this major public health concern, medical schools are increasingly adopting web-based instruction on substance use ...
Weber Diana W - - 2013
Although natural head position has proven to be reliable in the sagittal plane, with an increasing interest in 3-dimensional craniofacial analysis, a determination of its reproducibility in the coronal and axial planes is essential. This study was designed to evaluate the reproducibility of natural head position over time in the ...
Kurien T - - 2013
We reviewed 59 bone graft substitutes marketed by 17 companies currently available for implantation in the United Kingdom, with the aim of assessing the peer-reviewed literature to facilitate informed decision-making regarding their use in clinical practice. After critical analysis of the literature, only 22 products (37%) had any clinical data. ...
Zhou Xikun X State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, - - 2013
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in a variety of human malignancies, including pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer, and non-small cell lung cancer. Overexpression of EGFR is a predictive marker of therapeutic response and several lines of evidence suggest that EGFR is an excellent target for tumor therapy. ...
Peng Yandong - - 2013
The affiliation of the third author in an earlier paper [Opt. Lett.37, 3333 (2012)] was incorrect and is clarified here. In addition, a grant number, omitted from the original paper, is included here.
Zervas Michalis N - - 2013
We demonstrate that single polarization, hi-bi fiber DFB lasers are, in general, characterized by elliptical state of polarization (SOP), due to the in-built fiber birefringence axis rotation. Externally applied birefringence axis twist is shown to provide accurate control of the output SOP. Continuous tuning from circular to linear polarization, with ...
Geraghty Estella M EM University of California, Davis, Division of General Medicine, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA. - - 2013
Insecticides reduce vector-borne pathogen transmission but also pose health risks. In August 2005, Sacramento County, California, underwent emergency aerial ultralow-volume (ULV) application of pyrethrin insecticide to reduce the population of West Nile virus (WNV)-infected mosquitoes and thereby interrupt enzootic and tangential transmission. We assessed the association between aerially applied pyrethrin ...
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