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Niu Yuge - - 2013
A novel heteropolysaccharide (GPP-TL) was isolated from tetraploid Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Makino) leaf by hot water extraction, and anion-exchange and gel-permeation chromatography. GPP-TL had a molecular weight of 9.3×103 Da and was mainly composed of glucose, galactose and arabinose, with a molar ratio of 43:5:1. Chemical structure of GPP-TL was characterized ...
Hjorth Jens - - 2013
The observed association between supernovae and gamma-ray bursts represents a cornerstone in our understanding of the nature of gamma-ray bursts. The collapsar model provides a theoretical framework for this connection. A key element is the launch of a bipolar jet (seen as a gamma-ray burst). The resulting hot cocoon disrupts ...
Matsumoto Makoto M Department of Immunology and Medical Zoology, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, - - 2013
The host deploys a subset of immune responses to expel helminths, which differs depending on the nature of the helminth. Strongyloides venezuelensis, a counterpart of the human pathogen S. stercoralis, naturally infects rodents and has been used as an experimental model. Here we show that induction of immunoglobulin G (IgG) ...
Kitabayashi Chizuko - - 2013
End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) have a high prevalence of cardiovascular events. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in dialysis patients has been shown to be susceptible to in vitro peroxidation; therefore, oxidized-LDL (ox-LDL) could be generated in these patients. Moreover, myeloperoxidase (MPO) released from activated neutrophils may play a ...
Davis Nicola G - - 2013
Wound closure is fundamental to maintaining tissue homeostasis; a plethora of processes and signals must be coordinated, and gap junctions play a critical role. Some tissues exhibit privileged healing, such as buccal mucosa, repairing more rapidly, but gap junction connexin dynamics during wound healing in such tissues have not been ...
Rosenberger Alfred L - - 2013
Appreciation has grown for the impact of tropical forest seasonality and fallback foods on primate diets, behaviors, and morphology. As critically important resources in times of shortage, seasonal fallback foods may have an outsized role in selecting for form and function while the diversity of preferred plant foods has played ...
Liu Xiangrui X MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge CB2 0QH, - - 2013
The p53 cancer mutant Y220C is an excellent paradigm for rescuing the function of conformationally unstable p53 mutants because it has a unique surface crevice that can be targeted by small-molecule stabilizers. Here, we have identified a compound, PK7088, which is active in vitro: PK7088 bound to the mutant with ...
Sherratt Katherine A L - - 2013
Neurobiological theories predict decreased approach motivation and increased avoidance motivation in depression, but the results of previous studies have been equivocal. This study addressed a key limitation of previous research by assessing participants' underlying motivation for adopting their goals. Depressed (N=26) and non-depressed (N=33) participants listed approach and avoidance goals ...
Reyes R - - 2013
This study aimed to analyze the in vitro and in vivo release kinetics and evaluate the grades of repair induced by either the release of 50 ng of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) or 2.5 or 5 µg of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) from a bilayer scaffold of segmented polyurethane/polylactic-co-glycolic (SPU/PLGA) ...
Campisi Michele - - 2013
With this work we present two new methods for the generation of thermostated, manifestly Hamiltonian dynamics and provide corresponding illustrations. The basis for this new class of thermostats are the peculiar thermodynamics as exhibited by logarithmic oscillators. These two schemes are best suited when applied to systems with a small ...
Babigumira Joseph B - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Most cases of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) occur in low- and middle-income countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently recommended that countries accelerate the uptake of rubella vaccination and the GAVI Alliance is now supporting large scale measles-rubella vaccination campaigns. We performed a review of health ...
Alsterberg Christian - - 2013
It is well known that ocean acidification can have profound impacts on marine organisms. However, we know little about the direct and indirect effects of ocean acidification and also how these effects interact with other features of environmental change such as warming and declining consumer pressure. In this study, we ...
Draper Michael P MP Paratek Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Boston, Massachusetts, USA. - - 2013
With increasing resistance to existing antimalarials, there is an urgent need to discover new drugs at affordable prices for countries in which malaria is endemic. One approach to the development of new antimalarial drugs is to improve upon existing antimalarial agents, such as the tetracyclines. Tetracyclines exhibit potent, albeit relatively ...
Lightdale Jenifer R - - 2013
Recent comprehensive guidelines developed by the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition define the common entities of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) as the physiologic passage of gastric contents into the esophagus and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) as reflux associated with troublesome symptoms or complications. The ability to distinguish ...
Ren Deyong D Rice Research Institute, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, - - 2013
The spikelet is a unique inflorescence structure of grass. The molecular mechanism that controls the development of the spikelet remains unclear. In this study, we identified a rice (Oryza sativa) spikelet mutant, multi-floret spikelet1 (mfs1), that showed delayed transformation of spikelet meristems to floral meristems, which resulted in an extra ...
Luo Jin-Hua - - 2013
The adsorption properties of water molecules on an MgSO4 (100) surface were investigated by using density functional theory (DFT) and supercell models. Optimized stable geometries of one and more than one water molecules adsorbed on an ideal MgSO4 (100) surface were obtained. The configurations with water molecules adsorbed on atoms ...
Hussain Afzal - - 2013
Abstract Objective: The conventional liposomal amphotericin B causes many unwanted side effects like blood disorder, nephrotoxicity, dose-dependent side effects, highly variable oral absorption and formulation-related instability. The objective of the present investigation was to develop cost-effective nanoemulsion as nanocarreir for enhanced and sustained delivery of amphotericin B into the skin. ...
Hinton J A - - 2013
Cosmic explosions dissipate energy into their surroundings on a very wide range of time scales: producing shock waves and associated particle acceleration. The historical culprits for the acceleration of the bulk of Galactic cosmic rays are supernova remnants: explosions on approximately 10(4) year time scales. Increasingly, however, time-variable emission points ...
Walker Kimberly A KA Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA. - - 2013
The highly pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica strains have a chromosomally encoded type III secretion system (T3SS) that is expressed and functional in vitro only when the bacteria are cultured at 26 °C. Mutations that render this system nonfunctional are slightly attenuated in the mouse model of infection only following an oral ...
von Drygalski Annette A Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA. - - 2013
Hypertension (HTN) is a major risk factor for intracranial hemorrhage. We, therefore, investigated the prevalence, treatment, and control of HTN in adult patients with hemophilia (PWH). PWH≥18 years (n=458) from 3 geographically different cohorts in the United States were evaluated retrospectively for HTN and risk factors. Results were compared with ...
Edfeldt Lennart - - 2013
Abstract Conclusion: Functional hearing results with round window vibroplasty in chronically disabled middle ears were comparable and, at high frequencies, superior to the results achieved with previously used conventional hearing aids even after extended surgery. Soft tissue transfer appears to be more important than floating mass transducer (FMT) alignment with ...
Li Kuang-Chu - - 2013
Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is traditionally viewed as an instance of Pavlovian conditioning. This interpretation rests on the lack of an instrumental contingency between the tastant and the gastric malaise in a standard procedure of CTA. To investigate a role for instrumental punishment in CTA, we present 2 tastants sequentially ...
Rao Aparna - - 2013
ABSTRACT Purpose: To report a case of late postoperative endophthalmitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and conjunctival necrosis by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Mycobacterium fortuitum following Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) surgery in a young patient. Methods: Case report of a 13-year-old boy with purulent exudates and extensive conjunctival necrosis two months following ...
Shima Fumi F Division of Molecular Biology, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017, Japan. - - 2013
Mutational activation of the Ras oncogene products (H-Ras, K-Ras, and N-Ras) is frequently observed in human cancers, making them promising anticancer drug targets. Nonetheless, no effective strategy has been available for the development of Ras inhibitors, partly owing to the absence of well-defined surface pockets suitable for drug binding. Only ...
Mahlknecht Georg G Department of Immunology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, - - 2013
Aptamers, oligonucleotides able to avidly bind cellular targets, are emerging as promising therapeutic agents, analogous to monoclonal antibodies. We selected from a DNA library an aptamer specifically recognizing human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (ErbB-2/HER2), a receptor tyrosine kinase, which is overexpressed in a variety of human cancers, including breast ...
Ho Reginald T - - 2013
BACKGROUND: -Diagnosing atypical AVN - dependent long RP SVTs can be challenging. METHODS AND RESULTS: -Nineteen patients with 20 SVTs (atypical AVNRT without (n=11)/ with (n=3) a bystander nodo-fascicular (NF) accessory pathway (AP), orthodromic reciprocating tachycardia (ORT) using a decremental atrio-ventricular (PJRT, n=4) or nodo-fascicular (NFRT, n=2)) AP underwent electrophysiologic ...
Cianfarani Francesca - - 2013
Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) are gaining increasing consideration in tissue repair therapeutic application. Recent evidence indicates that ASCs enhance skin repair in animal models of impaired wound healing. To assess the therapeutic activity of autologous vs. allogeneic ASCs in the treatment of diabetic ulcers, we functionally characterized diabetic ASCs ...
Dezutter Jessie - - 2013
Objectives: The present study investigated the relationship between Antonovsky's sense of coherence (SOC) and well-being in a sample of Flemish elderly. In addition, the mediating role of Erikson's developmental task of integrity versus despair was examined in the relationship between SOC, depression, and life satisfaction. Method: Data on sociodemographic variables, ...
Stephenson Holly N HN Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Unit, Institute of Child Health, University College London, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, United - - 2013
Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis. C. jejuni lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is a potent activator of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4-mediated innate immunity. Structural variations of the LOS have been previously reported in the oligosaccharide (OS) moiety, the disaccharide lipid A (LA) backbone, and the phosphorylation of the LA. ...
Nairz Manfred - - 2013
Nitric oxide (NO) generated by inducible NO synthase 2 (NOS2) affects cellular iron homeostasis, but the underlying molecular mechanisms and implications for NOS2-dependent pathogen control are incompletely understood. In this study, we found that NO up-regulated the expression of ferroportin-1 (Fpn1), the major cellular iron exporter, in mouse and human ...
Martínez Alberto - - 2013
"Fisching" for complexity: The chiral Brønsted acid (R)-STRIP catalyzes the asymmetric Fischer indolization of a range of monosubstituted cyclopentanones and cyclohexanones to give chiral fused indolines bearing a quaternary stereogenic center at the 3-position. The method has been extended to include substrates bearing a tethered nucleophile, thus allowing for enantioselective ...
Giaretti Walter - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Chromosomal Instability and aneuploidy may represent biomarkers of oral exposure to damaging agents and early signs of clinical disease according to the theory of "oral field cancerization". METHODS: The hypothesis was tested that the DNA Index values, obtained by high-resolution DNA flow cytometry, may potentially contribute to oral cancer ...
Draper Mark C - - 2013
We propose and outline a novel technique designed to utilise the unique surface repulsion present between aqueous droplets and customisable superhydrophobic surfaces for the on-chip spatial and temporal manipulation of droplets within inline continuous flow architecture. Through the integration of carefully designed and pre-patterned superhydrophobic surfaces into polymer microfluidic chipsets ...
Veerasamy Nagarathanam N Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, 153 Gilbert Hall, Corvallis, Oregon 97331, - - 2013
The formal syntheses of C5-epi-senepodine G and C5-epi-cermizine C have been accomplished through a novel diastereoselective, intramolecular amide Michael addition process. The total synthesis of cermizine D has been achieved through use of an organocatalyzed, heteroatom Michael addition to access a common intermediate. Additional key steps of this sequence include ...
Zhang Zhijie - - 2013
A novel BiErWO6 photocatalyst with infrared responsive property was designed and synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method. The BiErWO6 photocatalyst exhibited high photocatalytic activity under an infrared lamp (λ > 700 nm).
Sánchez Ivelisse - - 2013
An expansion of glutamines within the human ataxin-1 protein underlies spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1), a dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by ataxia and loss of cerebellar Purkinje neurons. Although the mechanisms linking the mutation to the disease remain unclear, evidence indicates it involves a combination of both gain and ...
Otsuka Kensuke - - 2013
Tissue stem cells have self-renewal capability throughout their whole life, which is high enough to lead to the accumulation of DNA damage in a stem cell pool. Whether radiation-induced damage accumulates in tissue stem cells remains unknown, but could be investigated if the fate of tissue stem cells could be ...
Qian Zhaohui Z Department of Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, - - 2013
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are critical homeostatic components in preventing the development of autoimmunity, and are a major focus for their therapeutic potential for autoimmune diseases. To enhance the efficacy of Tregs in adoptive therapy, we developed a strategy for generating engineered Tregs that have the capacity to target autoimmune ...
Tang Lin - - 2013
Novel DNA-MMT hybrid supported metal nanoparticle catalysts, such as Pt/DNA-MMT, Pd/DNA-MMT, Au/DNA-MMT, were prepared for application in highly selective aerobic oxidation of primary alcohols to aldehydes, acids and esters, respectively. Taking advantage of the water-soluble reversibility of these catalysts, all the transformations could be performed smoothly in water and reuse ...
Oresic Matej M VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland. - - 2013
Previous studies show that children who later progress to type 1 diabetes (T1D) have decreased preautoimmune concentrations of multiple phospholipids as compared with nonprogressors. It is still unclear whether these changes associate with development of β-cell autoimmunity or specifically with clinical T1D. Here, we studied umbilical cord serum lipidome in ...
Kalin Jay H - - 2013
The ensuing Perspective provides an in depth look at the numerous disease states in which histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) has been implicated. The physiological pathways, protein-protein interactions and non-histone substrates relating to different pathological conditions are discussed with regard to HDAC6. Furthermore, the compounds and methods used to modulate HDAC6 ...
Cristino Luigia L Endocannabinoid Research Group, Institute of Cybernetics Eduardo Caianiello, Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, 80078 Pozzuoli, Italy. - - 2013
Acute or chronic alterations in energy status alter the balance between excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission and associated synaptic plasticity to allow for the adaptation of energy metabolism to new homeostatic requirements. The impact of such changes on endocannabinoid and cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1)-mediated modulation of synaptic transmission and ...
Kokotos Christoforos G - - 2013
A cheap and fast construction of both enantiomers of substituted succinimides is reported. α- or β-amino acids, such as β-phenylalanine and α-tert-butyl aspartate, were found to be efficient organocatalysts for the reaction between α,α-disubstituted aldehydes and maleimides. Products containing contiguous quaternary-tertiary stereogenic centers are obtained in high to quantitative yields ...
Lakshmi Vellanki - - 2013
A Wittig reaction was employed to synthesize conjugated BODIPYs in high yields by treating formylated BODIPYs with alkyl/aryl ylides under simple room temperature conditions. Treatment of 3,5-diformyl BODIPYs or -formyl 3-pyrrolyl BODIPY with different alkyl/aryl ylides in CH2Cl2 at room temperature for 2 h followed by straightforward column chromatographic purification ...
Farag Tamer H - - 2013
Diarrhea is a leading cause of child mortality worldwide. Early recognition of symptoms and referral to medical treatment are essential. In 2007, we conducted a Healthcare Utilization and Attitudes Survey (HUAS) of 1,000 children randomly selected from a population census to define care-seeking patterns for diarrheal disease in Bamako, Mali, ...
Zhou Yusheng - - 2013
By combining contact-mode AFM and scanning Kevin probe microscopy (SKPM), we demonstrated an in-situ method for quantitative characterization of the triboelectrification process at nano-scale. We systematically investigated the triboelectric charge distribution, multi-friction effect on charge accumulation, as well as subsequent charge diffusion on the dielectric surface: i) the triboelectric charges ...
Chandler Joshua D JD Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado 80045, - - 2013
The endogenously produced oxidant hypothiocyanous acid (HOSCN) inhibits and kills pathogens but paradoxically is well tolerated by mammalian host tissue. Mammalian high molecular weight thioredoxin reductase (H-TrxR) is evolutionarily divergent from bacterial low molecular weight thioredoxin reductase (L-TrxR). Notably, mammalian H-TrxR contains a selenocysteine (Sec) and has wider substrate reactivity ...
Pierre-Jerome Edith - - 2013
How does auxin provoke such a diverse array of responses? This long-standing question is further complicated by a remarkably short nuclear auxin signalling pathway. To crack the auxin code, several potential sources of specificity need to be evaluated. These include: specificity of interactions among the core auxin response components, specificity ...
Fiejdasz Sylwia - - 2013
The progress in tissue regeneration is strongly dependent on the development of biocompatible materials with properties resembling those of a native tissue. Also, the application of noninvasive methods of delivering the scaffold into the tissue defect is of great importance. In this study we present a group of biopolymer-based materials ...
Aarts Maureen J - - 2013
PURPOSEEarly breast cancer is commonly treated with anthracyclines and taxanes. However, combining these drugs increases the risk of myelotoxicity and may require granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) support. The highest incidence of febrile neutropenia (FN) and largest benefit of G-CSF during the first cycles of chemotherapy lead to questions about the ...
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