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Results 401 - 450 of 3561
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Piagkou Maria - - 2013
Enlarged parietal foramina (>5 mm) is an extremely rare developmental defect of the parietal bone, which is distinguished from the normal small parietal foramina, as genes associated with this entity have been identified, suggesting that it is hereditary in nature. We describe a dry skull of a 35-year-old female, with enlarged ...
Xiong Yan - - 2013
Meristems encompass stem/progenitor cells that sustain postembryonic growth of all plant organs. How meristems are activated and sustained by nutrient signalling remains enigmatic in photosynthetic plants. Combining chemical manipulations and chemical genetics at the photoautotrophic transition checkpoint, we reveal that shoot photosynthesis-derived glucose drives target-of-rapamycin (TOR) signalling relays through glycolysis ...
Bolzati Cristina - - 2013
[(99m)Tc(N)(DBODC)(PNP5)](+) [DBODC is bis(N-ethoxyethyl)dithiocarbamato; PNP5 is bis(dimethoxypropylphosphinoethyl)ethoxyethylamine], abbreviated as (99m)Tc(N)-DBODC(5), is a lipophilic cationic mixed compound investigated as a myocardial imaging agent. The findings that this tracer accumulates in mitochondrial structures through a mechanism mediated by the negative mitochondrial membrane potential and that the rapid efflux of (99m)Tc(N)-DBODC(5) from nontarget tissues seems ...
Jiménez J - - 2013
The prevalence of mental health problems in the general population should be carefully considered. The literature has reported a high co-morbidity of medical and mental illnesses; therefore, collaborative efforts incorporating psychological services into medical settings are imperative. In Puerto Rico, this is not a regular practice in general hospitals. Improving ...
Brock Jon - - 2013
Atypical auditory perception is a widely recognised but poorly understood feature of autism. In the current study, we used magnetoencephalography to measure the brain responses of 10 autistic children as they listened passively to dichotic pitch stimuli, in which an illusory tone is generated by sub-millisecond inter-aural timing differences in ...
Antonini G - - 2013
The standard surgical management of hip fractures is associated with tissue trauma and bleeding which are added to the fracture injury. The percutaneous compression plate (PCCP) is a minimally invasive device that has been demonstrated in previous studies to reduce postoperative complications and blood loss. This prospective, multi-center, observational study ...
Bellows C F - - 2013
PURPOSE: Biologic grafts are rarely used for inguinal herniorrhaphy. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes between patients undergoing a Lichtenstein's hernioplasty with a porcine mesh versus a standard synthetic. METHODS: A prospective, randomized, double-blinded multicenter, evaluation of inguinal hernia repair was conducted between 2008 and ...
Knight Victoria - - 2013
A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted for articles published between 1993 and 2012 to determine the degree to which technology-based interventions can be considered an evidence-based practice to teach academic skills to individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Criteria developed by Horner et al. (Except Child 71:165-178, 2005) ...
Karaman Rafik - - 2013
Introduction: The revolution in computational chemistry greatly impacted the drug design and delivery fields, in general, and recently the utilization of the prodrug approach in particular. The use of ab initio, semiempirical and molecular mechanics methods to understand organic reaction mechanisms of certain processes, especially intramolecular reactions, has opened the ...
Galeotti Francesca - - 2013
Influenza vaccination has been implicated in Guillain Barré Syndrome (GBS) although the evidence for this link is controversial. A case-control study was conducted between October 2010 and May 2011 in seven Italian Regions to explore the relation between influenza vaccination and GBS. The study included 176 GBS incident cases aged ...
Lee Jasmine - - 2013
Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses a hierarchical quorum sensing (QS) network consisting of las, pqs and rhl regulatory elements to coordinate the expression of bacterial virulence genes. However, clinical isolates frequently contain loss-of-function mutations in the central las system. This motivated us to search for a mechanism that may functionally substitute las. ...
Bardehle Sophia - - 2013
Astrocytes are thought to have important roles after brain injury, but their behavior has largely been inferred from postmortem analysis. To examine the mechanisms that recruit astrocytes to sites of injury, we used in vivo two-photon laser-scanning microscopy to follow the response of GFP-labeled astrocytes in the adult mouse cerebral ...
Cozier Yvette - - 2013
In the United States, incidence and mortality from sarcoidosis, a chronic, granulomatous disease, are increased in black women. In data from the Black Women's Health Study, a follow-up of US black women, we assessed two SNPs (rs2076530 and rs9268480) previously identified in the BTNL2 gene (chromosome 6p21), of which rs4424066 ...
Vaienti L - - 2013
Lower limb reconstruction with pedicled or free flaps can be commonly compromised by venous insufficiency. This complication often leads to partial/complete flap necrosis and increases the risk of superinfection. Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is known to increase local blood flow, decrease edema, promote tissue granulation, and reduce the likelihood of ...
Cortejoso Lucía - - 2013
Oxaliplatin or irinotecan is usually administered jointly with fluoropyrimidines in colorectal cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. Both drugs have different toxicity patterns. Biomarkers for predicting high-risk severe adverse reactions can help select the best treatment. A retrospective analysis of 106 colorectal cancer patients receiving an oxaliplatin-based treatment and 56 receiving ...
Vichaya Elisabeth G - - 2013
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy is a major complication in the treatment for cancer, including multiple myeloma (MM). Patients may develop painful and non-painful (e.g., numbness) neuropathy symptoms that impair function and often persist after therapy is terminated. This study tested the hypothesis that baseline subclinical neuropathy, as assessed by sensory thresholds, ...
Aiken A M - - 2013
PURPOSE: Evidence regarding whether or not antibiotic prophylaxis is beneficial in preventing post-operative surgical site infection in adult inguinal hernia repair is conflicting. A recent Cochrane review based on 17 randomised trials did not reach a conclusion on this subject. This study aimed to describe the current practice and determine ...
Zhang Bo - - 2013
American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was transformed with a wheat oxalate oxidase (oxo) gene in an effort to degrade the oxalic acid (OA) secreted by the fungus Cryphonectria parasitica, thus decreasing its virulence. Expression of OxO was examined under two promoters: a strong constitutive promoter, CaMV 35S, and a predominantly vascular ...
Afonin Kirill A - - 2013
Split-protein systems, an approach that relies on fragmentation of proteins with their further conditional re-association to form functional complexes, are increasingly used for various biomedical applications. This approach offers tight control of protein functions and improved detection sensitivity. Here we report a similar technique based on a pair of RNA-DNA ...
Keestra A Marijke - - 2013
Our innate immune system distinguishes microbes from self by detecting conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns. However, these are produced by all microbes, regardless of their pathogenic potential. To distinguish virulent microbes from those with lower disease-causing potential the innate immune system detects conserved pathogen-induced processes, such as the presence of microbial ...
Dibbens Leanne M - - 2013
The majority of epilepsies are focal in origin, with seizures emanating from one brain region. Although focal epilepsies often arise from structural brain lesions, many affected individuals have normal brain imaging. The etiology is unknown in the majority of individuals, although genetic factors are increasingly recognized. Autosomal dominant familial focal ...
Ishida Saeko - - 2013
The main familial focal epilepsies are autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy, familial temporal lobe epilepsy and familial focal epilepsy with variable foci. A frameshift mutation in the DEPDC5 gene (encoding DEP domain-containing protein 5) was identified in a family with focal epilepsy with variable foci by linkage analysis and ...
Jones Amy J - - 2013
Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) occurs as a result of infection with the protozoan parasites Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and T.b. rhodesiense and is nearly always fatal without treatment. However, current therapeutic options are severely limited and there is a desperate need for new compounds to treat the disease. Whole-cell high-throughput screening ...
Schenkel Jason M - - 2013
CD8(+) T cells eliminate intracellular infections through two contact-dependent effector functions: cytolysis and secretion of antiviral cytokines. Here we identify the following additional function for memory CD8(+) T cells that persist at front-line sites of microbial exposure: to serve as local sensors of previously encountered antigens that precipitate innate-like alarm ...
Chen Bill B - - 2013
Uncontrolled activation of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF) proteins may result in profound tissue injury by linking surface signals to cytokine release. Here we show that a ubiquitin E3 ligase component, Fbxo3, potently stimulates cytokine secretion from human inflammatory cells by destabilizing a sentinel TRAF inhibitor, Fbxl2. Fbxo3 and ...
Dus Monica - - 2013
Animals can determine the nutritional value of sugar without the influence of taste. We examined a Drosophila mutant that is insensitive to the nutritional value of sugars, responding only to the concentration (that is, sweetness). The affected gene encodes a sodium/solute co-transporter-like protein, designated SLC5A11 (or cupcake), which is structurally ...
Chen Chunlai - - 2013
During protein synthesis, the ribosome translates nucleotide triplets in single-stranded mRNA into polypeptide sequences. Strong downstream mRNA secondary structures, which must be unfolded for translation, can slow or even halt protein synthesis. Here we used single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer to determine reaction rates for specific steps within the elongation ...
Xu Yanping - - 2013
Voltage-gated ion channels underlie rapid electric signaling in excitable cells. Electrophysiological studies have established that the N-terminal half of the fourth transmembrane segment ((NT)S4) of these channels is the primary voltage sensor, whereas crystallographic studies have shown that (NT)S4 is not located within a proteinaceous pore. Rather, (NT)S4 and the ...
Pedersen Bjørn P - - 2013
Phosphate is crucial for structural and metabolic needs, including nucleotide and lipid synthesis, signalling and chemical energy storage. Proton-coupled transporters of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) are essential for phosphate uptake in plants and fungi, and also have a function in sensing external phosphate levels as transceptors. Here we report ...
Wang Chenran - - 2013
Despite recent studies showing that inhibition of autophagy depletes the hematopoietic stem cell pool and increases intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), it remains unknown whether autophagy is essential in the maintenance of other stem cells. Moreover, it is unclear whether and how the aberrant ROS increase causes depletion of stem ...
Kim Minsuk M Department of Medicine, Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mt. Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, - - 2013
Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists exert antihypertensive actions through incompletely understood mechanisms. Here we demonstrate that cardiac Glp1r expression is localized to cardiac atria and that GLP-1R activation promotes the secretion of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and a reduction of blood pressure. Consistent with an indirect ANP-dependent mechanism for the ...
Schartl Manfred M Physiological Chemistry, University of Würzburg, Biozentrum, Am Hubland, Würzburg, Germany. - - 2013
Several attributes intuitively considered to be typical mammalian features, such as complex behavior, live birth and malignant disease such as cancer, also appeared several times independently in lower vertebrates. The genetic mechanisms underlying the evolution of these elaborate traits are poorly understood. The platyfish, X. maculatus, offers a unique model ...
Voorhees Rebecca M RM Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, - - 2013
Decoding of the AUA isoleucine codon in bacteria and archaea requires modification of a C in the anticodon wobble position of the isoleucine tRNA. Here, we report the crystal structure of the archaeal tRNA2(Ile), which contains the modification agmatidine in its anticodon, in complex with the AUA codon on the ...
Garcia-Arcos Itsaso I Department of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032, - - 2013
Adipose fat storage is thought to require uptake of circulating triglyceride (TG)-derived fatty acids via lipoprotein lipase (LpL). To determine how LpL affects the biology of adipose tissue, we created adipose-specific LpL knock-out (ATLO) mice, and we compared them with whole body LpL knock-out mice rescued with muscle LpL expression ...
Feng Zongdi Z Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7292, - - 2013
Animal viruses are broadly categorized structurally by the presence or absence of an envelope composed of a lipid-bilayer membrane, attributes that profoundly affect stability, transmission and immune recognition. Among those lacking an envelope, the Picornaviridae are a large and diverse family of positive-strand RNA viruses that includes hepatitis A virus ...
Kang Shin H SH The Solomon H. Snyder Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, - - 2013
Oligodendrocytes associate with axons to establish myelin and provide metabolic support to neurons. In the spinal cord of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mice, oligodendrocytes downregulate transporters that transfer glycolytic substrates to neurons and oligodendrocyte progenitors (NG2(+) cells) exhibit enhanced proliferation and differentiation, although the cause of these changes in oligodendroglia ...
Bock Roland R Laboratory for Integrative Neuroscience, National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, US National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, - - 2013
A hallmark of addiction is the loss of control over drug intake, which is seen in only a fraction of those exposed to stimulant drugs such as cocaine. The cellular mechanisms underlying vulnerability or resistance to compulsive drug use remain unknown. We found that individual variability in the development of ...
Friese Christopher R CR University of Michigan, 400 North Ingalls #4162, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. - - 2013
Adjuvant endocrine therapy for breast cancer reduces recurrence and improves survival rates. Many patients never start treatment or discontinue prematurely. A better understanding of factors associated with endocrine therapy initiation and persistence could inform practitioners how to support patients. We analyzed data from a longitudinal study of 2,268 women diagnosed ...
Lemaire Mathieu M Department of Genetics, Yale University School of Medicine, and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, New Haven, Connecticut, - - 2013
Pathologic thrombosis is a major cause of mortality. Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) features episodes of small-vessel thrombosis resulting in microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and renal failure. Atypical HUS (aHUS) can result from genetic or autoimmune factors that lead to pathologic complement cascade activation. Using exome sequencing, we identified recessive mutations in ...
Karas Bogumil J BJ Department of Synthetic Biology and Bioenergy, J. Craig Venter Institute, San Diego, California, USA. - - 2013
Transfer of genomes into yeast facilitates genome engineering for genetically intractable organisms, but this process has been hampered by the need for cumbersome isolation of intact genomes before transfer. Here we demonstrate direct cell-to-cell transfer of bacterial genomes as large as 1.8 megabases (Mb) into yeast under conditions that promote ...
Lavoie Smith Ellen M - - 2013
PURPOSE: This clinimetric analysis was conducted to evaluate the reliability, validity, and responsiveness to changeover time of the QLQ-CIPN20 when used to quantify patient-reported chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). METHODS: Participants recruited to four cooperative group trials were pooled to create two groups (n = 376, 575): those who did versus did not ...
Hosseinzadeh Zohreh - - 2013
Janus kinase-2 (JAK2) participates in the signaling of several hormones, growth factors and cytokines. Further stimulators of JAK2 include osmotic cell shrinkage, and the kinase activates the cell volume regulatory Na(+)/H(+) exchanger. The kinase may thus participate in cell volume regulation. Cell shrinkage is known to inhibit K(+) channels. Volume-regulatory ...
Biktashev Vadim N - - 2013
We consider a simple mathematical model of gradual Darwinian evolution in continuous time and continuous trait space, due to intraspecific competition for common resource in an asexually reproducing population in constant environment, while far from evolutionary stable equilibrium. The model admits exact analytical solution. In particular, Gaussian distribution of the ...
Jauchem James R - - 2013
In previous studies hematocrit has been consistently increased in an anesthetized animal model after exposures to TASER(®) conducted energy weapons (CEWs). In the present study we analyzed changes in blood cell counts and red blood cell membrane proteins following two 30-s applications of a TASER C2 device (which is designed ...
Sun Jian-Ling - - 2013
To study the response of the cardiovascular system, to exercise tolerance in-patients over 75 years old with coronary heart disease (CHD), and to evaluate the significance of the parameters of the treadmill exercise test (TET). 110 patients received TET and coronary artery angiography. They were divided into two groups: the elderly ...
Wang Kaiyun - - 2013
Myostatin is a well-known negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. Inhibition of myostatin activity results in increased muscle mass. Myostatin propeptide, as a myostatin antagonist, could be applied to promote meat production in livestock such as pigs. In this study, we generated a transgenic mouse model expressing porcine myostatin propeptide ...
van Besien Herman - - 2013
Abstract Statins are HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors that act on the mevalonate pathway and inhibit synthesis of cholesterol, geranylgeranylpyrophosphate (GGPP) and farnesylpyrophospate (FPP). In preclinical studies, these agents have been shown to inhibit proliferation, trigger apoptosis and promote cell differentiation of leukemia. Proposed mechanisms include cholesterol deprivation and inhibition of isoprenylation ...
Abu Hashim Hatem - - 2013
BACKGROUND: The introduction of laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) by Gjönnaess in 1984 as a substitute for ovarian wedge resection created opportunities for extensive research given its worldwide application for ovulation induction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PURPOSE: To critically evaluate and summarize the current body of literature regarding ...
Viard Brice - - 2013
Clavicle duplication is a rare anatomical variation of the scapular belt: only seven cases have been reported in the literature to date, and only one took note of the existence of a duplication of the acromioclavicular joint. Two hypotheses have been proposed to interpret this variation: genetic factors, or trauma ...
Woodruff R C - - 2013
Traditionally, the accumulation of new deleterious mutations in populations or species in low numbers is expected to lead to a reduction in fitness and mutational meltdown, but in this study the opposite was observed. Beginning with a highly inbred populations of Drosophila melanogaster, new mutations that accumulated in experiments of ...
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