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Results 201 - 250 of 5164
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Wu Liang - - 2013
Proton-exchange membranes (PEM) display unique ion-selective transport that has enabled a breakthrough in high-performance proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Elemental understanding of the morphology and proton transport mechanisms of the commercially available Nafion® has promoted a majority of researchers to tune proton conductive channels (PCCs). Specifically, knowledge of the morphology-property ...
Jiang Tengfei - - 2013
In this paper, we have engineered the interface electronic structure in Cu2O/ZnO nanorod arrays, via adjusting the carrier concentration of Cu2O, and applied them to photocatalysis. The photoinduced charge transfer kinetics at the interface between Cu2O and ZnO were systematically investigated. The Cu2O (pH 11.0)/ZnO nanorod arrays have the largest ...
Navarro J - - 2013
During the past decade, parasites have been considered important components of their ecosystems since they can modify food-web structures and functioning. One constraint to the inclusion of parasites in food-web models is the scarcity of available information on their feeding habits and host-parasite relationships. The stable isotope approach is suggested ...
Alshawabkeh Laith I - - 2013
Aims: Surgery after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation may be associated with increased risk for perioperative stent thrombosis (ST). Methods and results: We evaluated the outcomes of 67 patients who underwent non-cardiac (n=51) or cardiac (n=16) surgery after DES implantation at our institution between 2008 and 2010 and who underwent preoperative ...
Hu Hanqiong - - 2013
Deposition of block copolymer thin films is most often accomplished in a serial process where material is spin coated onto a substrate and subsequently annealed, either thermally or by solvent vapor, to produce a well-ordered morphology. Here we show that under appropriate conditions, well-ordered block copolymer films may be continuously ...
Milek Magdalena - - 2013
A bisoxamate ligand containing three different types of coordination sites was designed and synthesized. The developed synthetic strategy was adopted to prepare a related 1,2-bis(2-hydroxybenzamido)benzene-derived ligand. Nickel(ii) complexes of both the novel ligands were obtained and characterized by X-ray crystallography, NMR, electronic absorption spectroscopy, and theoretical calculations.
Bryan Richard T - - 2013
OBJECTIVES: To compare patient and tumour characteristics at presentation from two large bladder cancer cohorts, with recruitment separated by 15-20 years To identify significant differences in the West Midlands' urothelial cancer of the bladder (UCB) population during this period. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data were collected prospectively from 1478 patients newly ...
Ceppi P - - 2013
Concepts and experimental models derived from basic research have been successfully applied to the field of molecular oncology, tremendously increasing our knowledge of the nature and the progression of tumors. The process of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, the cancer stem cell hypothesis, and their functional association and interdependence represent some of the ...
Maurer Frauke - - 2013
sigma-Alkyl iridium hydride complexes are generally postulated as intermediates in iridium-catalyzed hydrogenation. Fast reductive elimination results in the formation of the hydrogenation product. With an beta-enamidoketone as unsaturated substrate, such an intermediate could be trapped, because the semihydrogenated product coordinates trifold to the iridium, generating a stable 18e--complex, which does ...
Lee Dongju - - 2013
The influence of surface modifications on the mechanical properties of epoxy-hexagonal boron nitride nanoflake (BNNF) nanocomposites is investigated. Homogeneous distributions of boron nitride nanoflakes in a polymer matrix, preserving intrinsic material properties of boron nitride nanoflakes, is the key to successful composite applications. Here, a method is suggested to obtain ...
Santavirta Nina - - 2013
This paper combined data collected from war time government records with survey data including background characteristics, such as factors that affected eligibility, to examine the adult depression outcomes of individuals who were evacuated from Finland to temporary foster care in Sweden during World War II. Using war time government records ...
Vogel Daphne Ys - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Macrophages play a dual role in multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology. They can exert neuroprotective and growth promoting effects but also contribute to tissue damage by production of inflammatory mediators. The effector function of macrophages is determined by the way they are activated. Stimulation of monocyte-derived macrophages in vitro with ...
Alvarez Meihwa Tanielle Bench - - 2013
Analysis of the protein/peptide composition of tissue has provided meaningful insights into tissue biology and even disease mechanisms. However, little has been published regarding top down methods to investigate lower molecular weight (MW) (500-5000 Da) species in tissue. Here we evaluate a tissue proteomics approach involving tissue homogenization followed by ...
Wu Shengli - - 2013
OBJECTIVE: To identify the optimal threshold of HbA1c and to evaluate the predictive performance of HbA1c levels in diagnosing diabetes and prediabetes in a middle-aged and elderly Han Chinese population from northwest China. METHODS: A total of 3354 participants aged 40 years or older with no history of diabetes from ...
Hayasaka Daisuke - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a causative agent of acute central nervous system disease in humans. It has three subtypes, far eastern (FE), Siberian (Sib) and European (Eu) subtypes, which are distributed over a wide area of Europe and Asia. The objective of this study was to develop a ...
Kong Junhua - - 2013
Silicon (Si) is a promising material for lithium ion battery (LIB) anodes due to its high specific capacity. To overcome its shortcomings such as insulation property and large volume change during the charge-discharge process, a novel hybrid system, Si nanoparticles encapsulated in hollow graphitized carbon nanofibers, is studied. First, electrospun ...
Brunn Anna - - 2013
AIM: The role of chemokines and their receptors, which regulate trafficking and homing of leukocytes to inflamed organs in human or murine autoimmune neuritis has not yet been elucidated in detail, Therefore, the role of the chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7 and their ligand CXCL12 was studied in autoimmune-mediated inflammation ...
Becker T M - - 2013
Approximately 50% of melanomas depend on mutant B-RAF for proliferation, metastasis and survival. The inhibition of oncogenic B-RAF with highly targeted compounds has produced remarkable albeit short-lived clinical responses in B-RAF mutant melanoma patients. Reactivation of signaling downstream of B-RAF is frequently associated with acquired resistance to B-RAF inhibitors, and ...
Johnson Jennifer E - - 2013
The distribution of nitrogen isotopes in the biosphere has the potential to offer insights into the past, present, and future of the nitrogen cycle, but it is challenging to unravel the processes controlling patterns of mixing and fractionation. We present a mathematical model describing a previously overlooked process: nitrogen isotope ...
Jia Chun-Lin - - 2013
A single layer of LaAlO3 with a nominal thickness of one unit cell, which is sandwiched between a SrTiO3 substrate and a SrTiO3 capping layer, is quantitatively investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. By the use of an aberration-corrected electron microscope and by employing sophisticated numerical image simulation procedures, significant ...
Ishiko Toshihiro - - 2013
Keloids are a proliferative fibrotic disease characterized by abnormal accumulation of extracellular matrix in the dermis. Keloid lesions lack skin plasticity due to deficiencies in elastic fiber formation in the extracellular matrix. The loss of elastic fiber is caused by excessive accumulation of chondroitin sulfate (CS), a sulfated glycosaminoglycan. However, ...
Giles Michelle L - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus continues to occur despite the interventions of hepatitis B vaccination and immunoglobulin. The most significant risk factor in transmission is high maternal viral load. Being aware of viral replicative activity permits risk stratification and allows the opportunity for additional preventative measures such ...
Rahnama'i Mohammad S - - 2013
OBJECTIVE: To study PDE5 localisation by visualising the product of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibition, namely cGMP, to determine the site of action of inhibitors in the urinary bladder. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bladders of nine male guinea pigs were dissected and treated in wells containing 2 mL Krebs' solution and 1 μM ...
Kim B I - - 2013
The direct and interactive effects of climate change on host species and infectious disease dynamics are likely to initially manifest\ at latitudinal extremes. As such, Alaska represents a region in the United States for introspection on climate change and disease. Rabies is enzootic among arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) throughout the ...
Wulffraat Nico M - - 2013
Introduction: Hitherto, some of the most severe forms of arthritis with onset in the neonatal period and early childhood have been resistant to conventional and anti-tumour necrosis factor agents. Recent results from drug trials of novel monoclonal antibodies will significantly alter the treatment of two of these diseases. This review ...
Jensen Stephen C - - 2013
The photofragmentation of butyrophenone yields benzoate and a propyl radical on oxidized TiO2(110). Oxygen dissociates in native oxygen vacancies to produce reactive oxygen adatoms which react with butyrophenone to create photoactive butyrophenone-O complexes that are sensitive to hole oxidation created upon UV illumination. The same O adatoms also trap one ...
Hayn Ernesto - - 2013
A foetal bovine dermal repair scaffold (PriMatrix, TEI Biosciences) was used to treat complex surgical or traumatic wounds where the clinical need was to avoid skin flaps and to build new tissue in the wound that could be reepithelialised from the wound margins or closed with a subsequent application of ...
Kang Lei - - 2013
With the rapid developments of the all-solid-state deep-ultraviolet (deep-UV) lasers, the good nonlinear optical (NLO) crystal applied in this spectral region is currently lacking. Here, we design two novel NLO carbonates KBeCOF and RbAlCOF from the first-principles theory implemented in the molecular engineering expert system especially for NLO crystals. Both ...
Couët Nicolas - - 2013
BACKGROUND: We have no clear overview of the extent to which health-care providers involve patients in the decision-making process during consultations. The Observing Patient Involvement in Decision Making instrument (OPTION) was designed to assess this. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review studies that used the OPTION instrument to observe the extent to ...
Zhao Lixia - - 2013
We report the surprising chemiluminescence (CL) behavior of fluorescent carbon dots in the presence of a strong alkaline solution, such as NaOH or KOH. The CL intensity was dependent on the concentration of the base and carbon dots in a certain range. A possible CL mechanism was studied by UV-Vis, ...
Ma Weiguang - - 2013
OH radicals as reactive oxygen species in an organism were applied to assay antioxidant capacity since the obtained results present high biological relevance. As a proper photocatalyst, titanium dioxide was employed to generate OH radicals under ultraviolet light irradiation. However, ultraviolet light can damage molecular probe (DNA or protein) during ...
Peura D A - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Higher body mass index (BMI) is a recognised risk factor for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Data regarding the impact of BMI on proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy are conflicting. AIM: To assess the impact of BMI on baseline heartburn symptom severity and frequency and response to PPI therapy in ...
Zehetner Claus - - 2013
Purpose:  To determine whether glycemic control of patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR) due to type 2 diabetes was related to VEGF plasma levels. Methods:  The prospective study included 30 patients with DR due to type 2 diabetes. Retinopathy was classified according to the international clinical DR disease severity scale. The ...
Dickenson Nicholas E - - 2013
The Shigella flexneri type III secretion system (T3SS) senses contact with human intestinal cells and injects effector proteins that promote pathogen entry as the first step in causing life threatening bacillary dysentery (shigellosis). The Shigella type III secretion apparatus (T3SA) consists of an anchoring basal body, an exposed needle, and ...
Wan Dehui - - 2013
A facile, robust approach to the synthesis of Au cubic nanoframes is described. The synthesis involves three major steps: 1) preparation of Au-Ag alloyed nanocages using a galvanic replacement reaction between Ag nanocubes and HAuCl4 ; 2) deposition of thin layers of pure Au onto the surfaces of the nanocages ...
Wang Yan - - 2013
The electrochemical dealloying of rapidly solidified Al2(Au,X) (X = Pt, Pd, PtPd, Ni, Co and NiCo) precursors in a 1.0 M NaCl aqueous solution has been systematically investigated using electrochemical measurements including open-circuit measurement, potentiodynamic polarization and potentiostatic polarization, and microstructural analysis. The results show that the kind of alloying ...
Pham Ngoc Minh - - 2013
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between the consumption of green tea, coffee and caffeine and depressive symptoms. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. Consumption of green tea and coffee was ascertained with a validated dietary questionnaire and the amount of caffeine intake was estimated from these beverages. Depressive symptoms were measured using the ...
Langenbucher Achim - - 2013
PURPOSE: To demonstrate a mathematical algorithm for calculating the refractive power of keratoprostheses and to estimate vignetting effects. METHODS: A paraxial calculation scheme based on vergence transformation is developed for determination of the front surface radius or front surface refractive power of a Boston type I or II keratoprosthesis based ...
Voss I - - 2013
When plants are exposed to stress, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is often one of the first responses. In order to survive, cells attempt to down-regulate the production of ROS, while at the same time scavenging ROS. Photorespiration is now appreciated as an important part of stress responses in ...
Haas Matilda - - 2013
During brain development, many factors influence the assembly and final positioning of cortical neurons, and this process is essential for proper circuit formation and normal brain function. Among many important extrinsic factors that guide the maturation of embryonic cortical neurons, the secreted neurotransmitter GABA has been proposed to influence both ...
Chen Chen - - 2013
Nanocomposites have significant potential in the development of advanced materials for numerous applications. Tin dioxide (SnO2) is a functional material with widely prospects because of its high electronic mobility and wide band gap. Graphene as the basic plane of graphite is a single atomic layer two dimensional sp2 hybridized carbon ...
Wu Chia-Chen - - 2013
A general approach for selective, differential functionalization of the interior and exterior surfaces of mesoporous Si is reported. The method employs two immiscible liquids, one inert and the other chemically reactive with the porous Si nanostructure. First, a porous Si sample is prepared by electrochemical etch and then it is ...
Kapatos Gregory - - 2013
Within the brain, the reduced pteridine cofactor 6R-L-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is absolutely required for the synthesis of the monoamine (MA) neurotransmitters dopamine (DA), norepinephrine, epinephrine (E), and serotonin (5-HT), the novel gaseous neurotransmitter nitric oxide and the production of yet to be identified 1-O-alkylglycerol-derived lipids. GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH) catalyzes the ...
O'Dwyer Siobhan T - - 2013
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this pilot study was to gather preliminary evidence on suicidal ideation in family carers of people with dementia. METHODS: An online, cross-sectional survey was conducted with 120 family carers, the majority of whom were located in Australia and USA. The survey included measures of suicidality, self-efficacy, ...
Grunberger George - - 2013
Medical professionals initially only had insulin at their disposal when they wished to lower glucose levels pharmacologically in their patients with diabetes. It took over three decades (from the early 1920's to mid-1950's) before the next pharmaceuticals - sulfonylureas - appeared on the horizon to help lower glucose levels. The ...
Li Fuxiang - - 2013
Recently, magnons, which are quasiparticles describing the collective motion of spins, were found to undergo Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) at room temperature in films of Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG). Unlike other quasiparticle BEC systems, this system has a spectrum with two degenerate minima, which makes it possible for the system to ...
Zhang Xuming - - 2013
Plasmonic photocatalysis has recently facilitated the rapid progress in enhancing photocatalytic efficiency under visible light irradiation, increasing the prospect of using sunlight for environmental and energy applications such as wastewater treatment, water splitting and carbon dioxide reduction. Plasmonic photocatalysis makes use of noble metal nanoparticles dispersed into semiconductor photocatalysts and ...
Ito Taisuke - - 2013
Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome (TRPS) is an autosomal-dominant congenital hair loss disease characterized by sparse and slow-growing scalp hair, craniofacial and skeletal abnormalities, pear-shaped nose, thin upper lip, brittle and thin toenails, and bilateral brachydactyly of the big toes. We report a case of TRPS1 exhibiting these clinical features with a novel ...
Zhang Zhaoyang - - 2013
Extensive studies have been recently carried out to achieve dynamic control of cell-material interactions primarily through physicochemical stimulation. The purpose of this study was to apply reversible intermolecular hybridization to program cell-hydrogel interactions in physiological conditions based on DNA-antibody chimeras and complementary oligonucleotides. The results showed that DNA oligonucleotides could ...
Nottingham L K - - 2013
The inhibitor-κB kinase-nuclear factor-κB (IKK-NF-κB) and epidermal growth factor receptor-activator protein-1 (EGFR-AP1) pathways are often co-activated and promote malignant behavior, but the underlying basis for this relationship is unclear. Resistance to inhibitors of IKKβ or EGFR is observed in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). Here, we reveal that ...
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