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Korobova Farida F Department of Biochemistry, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH 03755, - - 2013
Mitochondrial fission is fundamentally important to cellular physiology. The dynamin-related protein Drp1 mediates fission, and interaction between mitochondrion and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) enhances fission. However, the mechanism for Drp1 recruitment to mitochondria is unclear, although previous results implicate actin involvement. Here, we found that actin polymerization through ER-localized inverted formin ...
Yang Chung S CS Department of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, 164 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854- 8020, USA. - - 2013
The major constituent of green tea, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG), has been shown to have cancer-preventive and therapeutic activities. Numerous molecular targets for EGCG have been proposed, but the mechanisms of its anticancer activities are not clearly understood. In this issue of the JCI, Kumazoe et al. report that EGCG activates 67-kDa ...
Wicha Max S MS University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Room 6302, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. - - 2013
There is increasing evidence that prostate cancers in rodent models and in men contain a cellular subpopulation that displays stem cell properties. These prostate cancer stem cells (PCSCs) lack androgen receptor expression and are increased in castration-resistant disease. In this issue of the JCI, a study from Yoshioka et al. ...
Kulu Y Y Division of Surgical Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114-2696, - - 2013
Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) replication in cancer cells leads to their destruction (viral oncolysis) and has been under investigation as an experimental cancer therapy in clinical trials as single agents, and as combinations with chemotherapy. Cellular responses to chemotherapy modulate viral replication, but these interactions are poorly understood. To investigate ...
Lichtenthaler Stefan F SF German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Munich, Germany. - - 2013
The cytokine TNF-α is a major drug target for rheumatoid arthritis, an inflammatory joint disorder. An alternative approach is to target the protease TNF-α convertase (TACE), which releases TNF-α from cells. However, because TACE cleaves other proteins involved in development and cancer, a tissue-specific inhibition of TACE in immune cells ...
Worman Howard J HJ Department of Medicine, College of Physician and Surgeons, Columbia University, 630 West 168th Street, New York, New York 10032, USA. - - 2013
The linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex connects the nuclear lamina to the cytoskeleton, in part to aid in nuclear positioning. Mutations in genes encoding LINC complex and lamina components cause a range of human diseases. In this issue of the JCI, Horn et al. report that mutations in ...
Lee J J Department of Ophthalmology and Shiley Eye Center and Institute for Genomic Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0838, - - 2013
To determine whether there is an association between hepatic lipase (LIPC) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in two independent Caucasian cohorts. A discovery cohort of 1626 patients with advanced AMD and 859 normal controls and a replication cohort of 2159 cases and 1150 controls were genotyped for two single-nucleotide polymorphisms ...
Van de Bittner Genevieve C GC Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, United - - 2013
In vivo molecular imaging holds promise for understanding the underlying mechanisms of health, injury, aging, and disease, as it can detect distinct biochemical processes such as enzymatic activity, reactive small-molecule fluxes, or post-translational modifications. Current imaging techniques often detect only a single biochemical process, but, within whole organisms, multiple types ...
Ogra Yasumitsu Y Laboratory of Chemical Toxicology and Environmental Health, Showa Pharmaceutical University, 3-3165 Higashi-Tamagawagakuen, Machida, Tokyo 194-8543, Japan. - - 2013
Many studies have examined the metabolic pathway of selenium (Se) compounds in Se-accumulating plants (hereafter "Se accumulators") when the plants are exposed to inorganic Se, such as selenite and selenate. However, if we were to consider Se circulation in the biosphere, the metabolism of organic Se, in particular, selenometabolites of ...
Ullmann N N Respiratory Paediatrics, Royal Brompton Hospital London and NHLI Imperial College London, London, - - 2013
The inflammatory phenotypes of severe asthma in adults may be reflected in peripheral blood. If this were true in children with severe therapy-resistant asthma (STRA), invasive tests could be avoided. At the moment there is no conclusive evidence in children. All patients underwent blood tests, exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), sputum ...
McLean W H Irwin WH Centre for Dermatology and Genetic Medicine, Division of Molecular Medicine, College of Life Sciences and Medicine, Dentistry and Nursing, University of Dundee, Dow Street, Dundee DD1 5EH, United Kingdom. - - 2013
Traditional remedies for common disorders have been known for centuries, but insight into their mechanism of action is often limited. In this issue of the JCI, Joost Schalkwijk's research group at the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre in The Netherlands advances our understanding of why topical coal tar is an ...
Melo R C N RC Laboratory of Cellular Biology, Department of Biology, Federal University of Juiz de Fora (UFJF), Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, - - 2013
Over the past two decades, our understanding of eosinophils has evolved from that of categorically destructive effector cells to include active participation in immune modulation, tissue repair processes, and normal organ development, in both health and disease. At the core of their newly appreciated functions is the capacity of eosinophils ...
Boulaftali Yacine Y McAllister Heart Institute, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, - - 2013
Platelets play a critical role in maintaining vascular integrity during inflammation, but little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms. Here we report that platelet immunoreceptor tyrosine activation motif (ITAM) signaling, but not GPCR signaling, is critical for the prevention of inflammation-induced hemorrhage. To generate mice with partial or complete ...
Nagaraja Archana S AS Department of Gynecologic Oncology and Reproductive Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, - - 2013
Behavioral stress is known to promote tumor progression in experimental models, but the role of behavioral stress in cancer initiation is less clear. In this issue, Hassan et al. focus on the signaling and biological effects induced by stress hormones that lead to tumor cell evasion from apoptosis, resulting in ...
Srinivasan S S Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Ayr, Ayr, Scotland, UK. - - 2013
To report visual and refractive outcomes, and endothelial cell loss following primary and secondary 'piggyback' toric intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in patients with high post-penetrating keratoplasty (PK) astigmatism. Prospective case series. Nine eyes of nine patients with post-PK astigmatism were consecutively recruited for implantation of a customized toric IOL. Six ...
Andrew N H NH South Australian Institute of Ophthalmology and the Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia. - - 2013
The purpose of this study is to assess the utility of intraorbital injection of triamcinolone acetonide as a primary treatment option for orbital reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (RLH). Retrospective, single-centre, interventional case series. Intraorbital injection of triamcinolone acetonide was associated with complete resolution of all symptoms and signs in four cases ...
Chaurasia S S Cornea and Anterior Segment Services, LV Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India. - - 2013
To describe the results of endothelial keratoplasty (EK) in the management of irido-corneal endothelial (ICE) syndrome. Retrospective, consecutive, interventional case series. Eight eyes of seven patients underwent EK for corneal edema owing to ICE syndrome. Simultaneous cataract surgery was performed in five eyes. The charts were reviewed for demographics, clinical ...
Seidlits Stephanie K SK Northwestern University, Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering, 2145 Sheridan Rd, Tech Building E-136, Evanston, IL 60208, - - 2013
Gene delivery from hydrogel biomaterials provides a fundamental tool for a variety of clinical applications including regenerative medicine, gene therapy for inherited disorders and drug delivery. The high water content and mild gelation conditions of hydrogels support their use for gene delivery by preserving activity of lentiviral vectors and acting ...
Bhalla Ritu R Michigan Center for Translational Pathology, Ann Arbor, MI, - - 2013
Identification of new molecular markers has led to the molecular classification of prostate cancer based on driving genetic lesions. The translation of these discoveries for clinical use necessitates the development of simple, reliable and rapid detection systems to screen patients for specific molecular aberrations. We developed two dual-color immunohistochemistry-based assays ...
Giovinazzi S S Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, - - 2013
A large number of patients are resistant to taxane-based chemotherapy. Functional mitotic checkpoints are essential for taxane sensitivity. Thus, mitotic regulators are potential markers for therapy response and could be targeted for anticancer therapy. In this study, we identified a novel function of ubiquitin (Ub)-specific processing protease-7 (USP7) that interacts ...
Issuree Priya Darshinee A PD Arthritis and Tissue Degeneration Program, Autoimmunity and Inflammation Program, Hospital for Special Surgery, Weill Cornell University, New York, New York, - - 2013
iRHOM2, encoded by the gene Rhbdf2, regulates the maturation of the TNF-α convertase (TACE), which controls shedding of TNF-α and its biological activity in vivo. TACE is a potential target to treat TNF-α-dependent diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, but there are concerns about potential side effects, because TACE also protects ...
Gandhirajan Rajesh Kumar RK Department of Biochemistry, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, - - 2013
During sepsis, acute lung injury (ALI) results from activation of innate immune cells and endothelial cells by endotoxins, leading to systemic inflammation through proinflammatory cytokine overproduction, oxidative stress, and intracellular Ca2+ overload. Despite considerable investigation, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) leading to LPS-induced ALI remain elusive. To determine whether stromal interaction ...
Lin Chia-I CI Division of Medicinal Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712, - - 2013
Carbohydrates serve many structural and functional roles in biology. While the majority of monosaccharides are characterized by the chemical composition (CH2O)n, modifications including deoxygenation, C-alkylation, amination, O- and N-methylation, which are characteristic of many sugar appendages of secondary metabolites, are not uncommon. Interestingly, some sugar molecules are formed via modifications ...
Ho Melissa E ME Department of Urology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-6100, - - 2013
The combination of expression patterns of AGR2 (anterior gradient 2) and CD10 by prostate cancer provided four phenotypes that correlated with clinical outcome. Based on immunophenotyping, CD10(low)AGR2(high), CD10(high)AGR2(high), CD10(low)AGR2(low), and CD10(high)AGR2(low) were distinguished. AGR2(+) tumors were associated with longer recurrence-free survival and CD10(+) tumors with shorter recurrence-free survival. In high-stage ...
Yoshioka Toshiaki T Cell Biology Program, Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), New York, New York, - - 2013
The contextual signals that regulate the expansion of prostate tumor progenitor cells are poorly defined. We found that a significant fraction of advanced human prostate cancers and castration-resistant metastases express high levels of the β4 integrin, which binds to laminin-5. Targeted deletion of the signaling domain of β4 inhibited prostate ...
Ellison David H DH Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, CH12R, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA. - - 2013
Liddle syndrome is monogenic hypertension caused by mutations in the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) that interfere with its ubiquitylation by Nedd4-2. In this issue, Ronzaud and colleagues found that deleting Nedd4-2 from kidney tubules in adult mice led to ENaC accumulation, but not at the plasma membrane, as predicted from ...
Nakazawa Tadao - - 2013
Cribriform-morular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (CMVPTC) usually occurs in the setting of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) although it can rarely arise sporadically. Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) is a follicular cell-derived neoplasm with more aggressive behavior than well-differentiated carcinomas such as CMVPTC. We report the case of a 35-year-old ...
Squires Adam M - - 2013
We demonstrate a method by which we can produce an oriented film of an inverse bicontinuous cubic phase (QIID) formed by the lipid Monoolein (MO). By starting with the lipid as a disordered precursor (the L3 phase), in the presence of butanediol, we can obtain a film of QIID phase ...
Carels Robert A - - 2013
This study compared treatment outcomes for a new weight loss program that emphasized reducing unhealthy relationships with food, body image dissatisfaction, and internalized weight bias (New Perspectives) to a weight loss program that emphasizes environmental modification and habit formation and disruption (Transforming Your Life). Fifty-nine overweight and obese adults (body ...
Arcenegui Juan J - - 2013
Electrorotation (ROT) data for solid titanium micrometer-sized spheres in an electrolyte are presented for three different ionic conductivities, over the frequency range of 10 Hz to 100 kHz. The direction of rotation was found to be opposite to the direction of rotation of the electric field vector (counter-field electrorotation), with ...
Melief Sara Marie - - 2013
Background Multipotent stromal cells exhibit immunomodulatory capacities and have been applied in transplantation and autoimmune diseases. One of the effects of MSC involves the inhibition of dendritic cell differentiation. Since IL-6 and IL-10 are known to play a role in inhibiting immature dendritic cell differentiation, we hypothesized that these cytokines ...
Vos J J - - 2013
BACKGROUND: /st>Dynamic preload variables to predict fluid responsiveness are based either on the arterial pressure waveform (APW) or on the plethysmographic waveform (PW). We compared the ability of APW-based variations in stroke volume (SVV) and pulse pressure (PPV) and of PW-based plethysmographic variability index (PVI) to predict fluid responsiveness and ...
Riwanto Meliana - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Endothelial dysfunction and injury are thought to play an important role in progression of coronary-artery-disease (CAD). High-density-lipoprotein from healthy subjects (HDLHealthy) has been proposed to exert endothelial anti-apoptotic effects that may represent an important anti-atherogenic property of the lipoprotein. The present study therefore aimed to compare effects of HDLCAD ...
Bhalla Vandana - - 2013
Nanoaggregates of a supramolecular ensemble of triphenylene derivative and Cu(2+) ions exhibit 'turn-on' response towards CN(-) ions in an aqueous medium and can detect the trace amount of inorganic cyanide ions (NaCN) in tap water and blood serum milieu.
Iwashita Jun - - 2013
In oocyte maturation in Xenopus laevis, nuclear material induces rapid maturation and is required for entry into meiosis II. Nuclear material contains a large number of RNAs and proteins, including histone deacetylase (HDAC); however, it is not known which materials induce accelerated maturation. The HDAC activity modifies transcription rate and ...
Meyerhoefer Chad D - - 2013
Chronic tooth decay is the most common chronic condition in the United States among children ages 5-17 and also affects a large percentage of adults. Oral health conditions are preventable, but less than half of the US population uses dental services annually. We seek to examine the extent to which ...
Sugimoto Yuki - - 2013
Scleraxis (Scx) is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is a marker for the tendon/ligament cell lineage. The approximately 11 kb genomic region from the mouse Scx gene locus faithfully recapitulates the endogenous Scx expression pattern in ScxGFP transgenic (Tg) mice. We have established two Tg mouse lines expressing Cre-recombinase ...
Corona Giovanni - - 2013
INTRODUCTION: Hypoactive sexual desire is defined as a persistent or recurrent deficient or absent sexual fantasies or desire for sexual activity that should not be comorbid with other medical conditions or with the use of psychoactive medications. Reduced libido is a symptom referring more to a reduction in sexual drive ...
Sasaki Eiji - - 2013
Glutamine is an important amino acid for immune function. Though high intensity and prolonged exercise decreases plasma glutamine concentration and causes immune suppression, the relationship between neutrophil functions and glutamine has not yet been found. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impacts of glutamine supplementation on neutrophil ...
Rodrigues H Catarina M L - - 2013
Chervenak and McCullough, authors of the most acknowledged ethical framework for maternal-fetal surgery, rely on the 'ethical-obstetrical' concept of the fetus as a patient in order to determine what is morally owed to fetuses by both physicians and the women who gestate them in the context of prenatal surgery. In ...
Wiezel Cláudia E V - - 2013
OBJECTIVES: Proper ancestral populations are required to determine accurate ancestry estimates for Afro-derived Brazilian populations. Herein, we have genotyped Y-STRs in Amazonian Amerindians to determine the ancestral contribution in quilombo remnant communities. METHODS: The frequencies for five Y-chromosome linked microsatellites (DYS19, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, and DYS393) were characterized in four ...
Estevez Samanta - - 2013
When examining microscopically lymph nodes removed as part of the surgical therapy for thyroid carcinoma, one should be aware of the fact that high endothelial venules, when dilated and near the capsule, can lead to a wrong diagnosis of metastasis. We present a case in which such a situation arose.
Tøien Oivind - - 2013
Sustaining high quality respirometry measurements on animals for estimating metabolic rate and fuel use is challenging. I present a general discussion and selected methods for automated measurements spanning over >4 months with little need for adjustments or maintenance: 1) Lack of compensation for respiratory volume change may cause 6% error ...
Dasgupta Angira - - 2013
Clinical trials do not report sputum eosinophil data in a consistent method and this makes it difficult to compare across studies and to evaluate the sample sizes estimated in these studies. The objectives of the paper are 1) to systemically review reporting effect size and sample calculations in randomized controlled ...
Estacio Emee Vida - - 2013
The concept of health literacy is evolving. The re-emergence of Freireian-inspired health literacy projects moves the conceptualisation of health literacy from merely the ability to apply functional literacy skills in a health-care context to a wider ability to exert control over the determinants of health. This article presents an example ...
Davis Maria - - 2013
There are several well-described acclimation responses to excess light in green algae but the effect on metabolism has not been thoroughly investigated. This study examines the metabolic changes during photoacclimation to high-light (HL) stress in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. Using principal component analysis, a clear ...
Bera Abhijit - - 2013
We formed magnetic moment assisted layer-by-layer (LbL) films of a Prussian Blue analogue (PB). We applied an external magnetic field to each monolayer of PB to orient magnetic moment of the molecules perpendicular to the substrate. Aligned moments or orientation of the magnetic molecules themselves were immobilized in each monolayer, ...
McClaren Belinda J - - 2013
Purpose:Newborn screening for cystic fibrosis is increasingly available, but cascade testing following the diagnosis in a child has received little attention. We previously reported low levels of cascade testing over time, and this study investigated motivators as well as barriers to testing.Methods:Parents were interviewed about communicating the genetic information and ...
Chaijale Nayla N - - 2013
Classically, opioids produce their effects by activating Gi-proteins that inhibit adenylate cyclase activity. Previous studies proposed that mu-opioid receptors can also stimulate adenylate cyclase due to an initial transient coupling to Gs-proteins. Treatment with ultra-low doses of the nonselective opioid antagonist (-)-naloxone or its inactive enantiomer (+)-naloxone blocks this excitatory ...
Whitehead Kimberley - - 2013
PURPOSE: Although differences in illness perceptions between neurologists and patients with epilepsy or psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are likely to be clinically relevant, this is the first study to attempt a direct comparison. In addition, this study compares the illness perceptions of patients with epilepsy with those of patients with ...
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