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Orrell Catherine C Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town Faculty of Health Sciences, Cape Town, South Africa. - - 2013
We examined HIV-1 resistance in children failing first-line and second-line antiretroviral therapy in South Africa, all with clade C virus. Those exposed to full-dose ritonavir had multiple protease resistance mutations. Nineteen percent had wild-type virus. Appropriate antiretroviral therapy sequencing in sub-Saharan African children is essential for prolong treatment options.
Hylin Michael J MJ Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas 77225, - - 2013
The majority of people who sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI) have an injury that can be classified as mild (often referred to as concussion). Although head CT scans for most subjects who have sustained a mild TBI (mTBI) are negative, these persons may still suffer from neurocognitive and neurobehavioral ...
Morten Karl J KJ Nuffield Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, The Womens Centre, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, - - 2013
Inappropriate osteoclast activity instigates pathological bone loss in rheumatoid arthritis. We have investigated how osteoclasts generate sufficient ATP for the energy-intensive process of bone resorption in the hypoxic microenvironment associated with this rheumatic condition. We show that in human osteoclasts differentiated from CD14(+) monocytes, hypoxia (24 h, 2% O2 ): ...
Jackman Rachael P RP Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California, USA. - - 2013
Traumatic injury is a major human health problem, with many injured people supported by transfusion of allogeneic blood. Although trauma and transfusion have both been known to have immunomodulatory effects for some time, little is known about their combined effects or the scope and kinetics of such responses. Traumatic injury ...
Kuehl Hannah H Department of Medicine, Division of Health Promotion and Sports Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239, - - 2013
To identify and evaluate determinants of fire departments' wellness program adoption. The Promoting Healthy Lifestyles: Alternative Models' Effects fire service wellness program was offered for free to all medium-sized fire departments in Oregon and Washington. An invitation to participate was mailed to key fire department decision makers (chief, union president, ...
Roy Debanjana D Department of Biology, University of Texas, Arlington, VA, - - 2013
Consumption of fresh produce contaminated with bacterial human pathogens has resulted in various, sometimes deadly, disease outbreaks. In this study, we assessed plant defense responses induced by the fully pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL1344 in both Arabidopsis thaliana and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Unlike SL1344, ...
Wickham Stephanie S Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, - - 2013
GGT (γ-glutamyl transpeptidase) is an essential enzyme for maintaining cysteine homoeostasis, leukotriene synthesis, metabolism of glutathione conjugates and catabolism of extracellular glutathione. Overexpression of GGT has been implicated in many pathologies, and clinical inhibitors of GGT are under development for use in the treatment of asthma, cancer and other diseases. ...
Lu Mei-Jou - - 2013
Acupressure, a noninvasive form of acupuncture, may be used as a low-cost and noninvasive means of improving sleep quality. Although it has been evaluated to improve self-reported sleep quality, it has not been assessed with regard to effectiveness in improving perceived and objective measures of sleep quality outcomes. The aim ...
Simon Michael - - 2013
Patient falls in hospitals are a performance measure endorsed by the National Quality Forum. Agreement of staff classifications of fall situations is not documented. The aims of this study were to (a) investigate how experts classify fall scenarios according to the fall definition of the National Quality Forum; (b) investigate ...
Hart John J - - 2013
OBJECTIVES To assess cognitive impairment and depression in aging former professional football (National Football League [NFL]) players and to identify neuroimaging correlates of these dysfunctions. DESIGN We compared former NFL players with cognitive impairment and depression, cognitively normal retired players who were not depressed, and matched healthy control subjects. SETTING ...
Desai Tejas - - 2013
To determine whether laboratory markers of methanol ingestion and subsequent toxicity can serve as predictors of visual outcomes in patients. Retrospective medical record review of 122 patients in a cluster outbreak of methanol poisoning. Data collected included history, complete ocular and systemic examination details, time to presentation, amount of alcohol ...
Haslinger Peter - - 2013
Protein kinase B/AKT is critically involved in murine placental development and migration of human placental trophoblasts into maternal uterine tissue. However, localization of the three AKT isoforms within human placenta and their roles in extravillous trophoblasts have not been elucidated. Therefore, we analyzed the expression pattern and function of AKT1, ...
Garg Shobit - - 2013
In schizophrenia, novel target sites for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), such as the cerebellum, are proposed to have a putative therapeutic role in treatment-resistant cases. We present a case of treatment-resistant schizophrenia that showed worsening of auditory verbal hallucinations after receiving high-frequency cerebellar vermal rTMS. We propose that cerebellar ...
McKetin Rebecca R Centre for Research on Ageing, Health and Well-being, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia. - - 2013
Methamphetamine is associated with psychotic phenomena, but it is not clear to what extent this relationship is due to premorbid psychosis among people who use the drug. To determine the change in the probability of psychotic symptoms occurring during periods of methamphetamine use. Longitudinal prospective cohort study. A fixed-effects analysis ...
Chang Zheng Z Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. - - 2013
The genetic and environmental link between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in childhood and the adult manifestation of the disorder is poorly understood because of a lack of longitudinal studies with cross-informant data. To explore the relative contribution of genetic and environmental influences on symptoms of attention problems from childhood to early adulthood. ...
Croarkin Paul E PE Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA. - - 2013
Converging lines of evidence implicate the glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid neurotransmitter systems in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder. Transcranial magnetic stimulation cortical excitability and inhibition paradigms have been used to assess cortical glutamatergic and γ-aminobutyric acid-mediated tone in adults with major depressive disorder, but not in children and adolescents. ...
Nock Matthew K MK Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA. - - 2013
Although suicide is the third leading cause of death among US adolescents, little is known about the prevalence, correlates, or treatment of its immediate precursors, adolescent suicidal behaviors (ie, suicide ideation, plans, and attempts). To estimate the lifetime prevalence of suicidal behaviors among US adolescents and the associations of retrospectively ...
Cohen Robert M RM Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California, - - 2013
The National Institute of Mental Health Affective Disorders Workgroup identified the assessment of an individual's burden of illness as an important need. The Individual Burden of Illness Index for Depression (IBI-D) metric was developed to meet this need. To assess the use of the IBI-D for multidimensional assessment of treatment ...
Prudic Joan J New York State Psychiatric Institute and Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA. - - 2013
To determine whether starting antidepressant medication at the start of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) reduces post-ECT relapse and to determine whether continuation pharmacotherapy with nortriptyline (NT) and lithium (Li) differs in efficacy or adverse effects from continuation pharmacotherapy with venlafaxine (VEN) and Li. During an acute ECT phase, 319 patients were ...
Rimchala Tharathorn T Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139, - - 2013
Angiogenesis requires coordinated dynamic regulation of multiple phenotypic behaviors of endothelial cells in response to environmental cues. Multi-scale computational models of angiogenesis can be useful for analyzing effects of cell behaviors on the tissue level outcome, but these models require more intensive experimental studies dedicated to determining the required quantitative ...
Nelson Elliot C EC Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. - - 2013
The genetic contribution to liability for opioid dependence is well established; identification of the responsible genes has proved challenging. To examine association of 1430 candidate gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with heroin dependence, reporting here only the 71 SNPs in the chromosome 11 gene cluster (NCAM1, TTC12, ANKK1, DRD2) that include ...
Lavine Jeremy A JA Departments of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI 53792, - - 2013
To determine whether β-adrenergic blockade inhibits choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in a mouse model of laser-induced CNV and to investigate the mechanism by which β-adrenoreceptor antagonism blunts CNV. Mice were subjected to laser burns, inducing CNV, and were treated with daily intraperitoneal injections of propranolol hydrochloride. Neovascularization was measured on choroidal-scleral ...
Straub Carolin J CJ Laboratory of Genetic Neuropharmacology, McLean Hospital and Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Belmont, Massachusetts, - - 2013
γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptors mediate the actions of several intravenous general anesthetics. However, the contribution of α3-containing GABAA receptors to the action of these drugs is unknown. The authors compared anesthetic endpoints (hypnosis, immobility, hypothermia) in response to various intravenous anesthetics in mice lacking the α3 subunit of the ...
Capdevila Jorge J Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, - - 2013
Cytochrome P450 (CYP)-epoxygenase is highly expressed in the kidney and its metabolism of arachidonic acid plays important roles in regulating renal Na transport and in modulating vasoactivity in the kidney. In the past several years, progress has been made not only in characterizing the specific CYP-epoxygenases responsible for the regulation ...
Liu Jian-meng - - 2013
Beyond perinatal folic acid supplementation, the need for additional prenatal prophylaxis of iron with or without other micronutrients remains unclear. We aim to investigate the maternal and infant health effects of iron plus folic acid and multiple micronutrient supplements vs folic acid alone when provided to pregnant women with no ...
Whitelegge Julian P JP The Pasarow Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, The NPI-Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, The David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, 760 Westwood Plaza, Los Angeles, California 90095, United States. - - 2013
Integral membrane proteins reside within the bilayer membranes that surround cells and organelles, playing critical roles in movement of molecules across them and the transduction of energy and signals. While their extreme amphipathicity presents technical challenges, biological mass spectrometry has been applied to all aspects of membrane protein chemistry and ...
Tang Li L Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1304 West Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801, - - 2013
The size of a nanomedicine strongly correlates with its biodistribution, tissue penetration, and cell uptake. However, there is limited understanding how the size of nanomedicine impacts the overall antitumor efficacy. We designed and synthesized camptothecin-silica nanoconjugates (Cpt-NCs) with monodisperse particle sizes of 50 and 200 nm, two representative sizes commonly ...
Green Jonas B - - 2013
The development of "Top 5" lists across specialties and at regular intervals can help to remind physicians that optimal care is often possible at a lower cost. For purposes of cardiovascular risk reduction, generic statins, or their brand equivalents if priced similarly, remain the appropriate choice for dyslipidemic patients initiating ...
Gross Cary P CP Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research (COPPER) Center, Yale Comprehensive Cancer Center and Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. - - 2013
Little is known about the cost to Medicare of breast cancer screening or whether regional-level screening expenditures are associated with cancer stage at diagnosis or treatment costs, particularly because newer breast cancer screening technologies, like digital mammography and computer-aided detection (CAD), have diffused into the care of older women. Using ...
Moffat Jessica M JM Walter and Eliza Hall Institute, Parkville, Victoria, - - 2013
Bone marrow stromal cell-2 (BST-2) has major roles in viral tethering and modulation of interferon production. Here we investigate BST-2 as a receptor for the delivery of antigen to dendritic cells (DCs). We show that BST-2 is expressed by a panel of mouse and human DC subsets, particularly under inflammatory ...
Piehowski Paul D PD Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA99352, - - 2013
For bottom-up proteomics, there are wide variety of database-searching algorithms in use for matching peptide sequences to tandem MS spectra. Likewise, there are numerous strategies being employed to produce a confident list of peptide identifications from the different search algorithm outputs. Here we introduce a grid-search approach for determining optimal ...
Ji Chao C Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, - - 2013
Searching spectral libraries in MS/MS is an important new approach to improving the quality of peptide and protein identification. The idea relies on the observation that ion intensities in an MS/MS spectrum of a given peptide are generally reproducible across experiments, and thus, matching between spectra from an experiment and ...
Maasoumy Benjamin - - 2013
There are 160-170 million people with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection worldwide. The marketing of protease inhibitors (PIs) has been a milestone in the history of HCV therapy. In phase III studies, up to 75% of the patients achieved a sustained virological response (SVR) after triple therapy with pegylated-interferon ...
Beyer-Berjot Laura - - 2013
: Complex enterovisceral fistulas are internal fistulas joining a "diseased" organ to any intra-abdominal "victim" organ, with the exception of ileoileal fistulas. Few publications have addressed laparoscopic surgery for complex fistulas in Crohn's disease. : The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of such an approach. : ...
Bourlière Marc - - 2013
Of all hepatitis C virus patients, those with cirrhosis are most in need of treatment owing to increased morbidity and mortality. Treatment with pegylated interferon and ribavirin (PEG-IFN/RBV) has clearly shown the benefits of successful treatment by improving fibrosis, causing the regression of cirrhosis and reducing and preventing cirrhosis-related complications. ...
Liaw Yun-Fan - - 2013
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a dynamic state in which HBV replication is the key driving force of disease progression, resulting in the development of hepatic decompensation, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The primary aim of therapy is to eliminate or suppress HBV to reduce the activity of ...
Naumova E - - 2013
Ageing is a process characterised by progressive loss of function in multiple different organ systems, such as the nervous, endocrine and immune systems. Current data showing that ageing processes may be associated with alterations in the immune system suggest that some of the genetic determinants of senescence might be polymorphic ...
Martinot-Peignoux Michelle - - 2013
Since its discovery by Blumberg in 1965, the hepatitis B virus antigen (HBsAg) is used as the fingerprint of hepatitis B infection. The HBsAg level is a reflection of the transcriptional activity of cccDNA. It is an important marker that not only indicates active hepatitis B infection but can also ...
Liu Lifang - - 2013
BACKGROUND:: Compared with the general population, patients with a previous colorectal cancer are at higher risk for a second colorectal cancer, but detailed risk analysis by subsite is scarce. OBJECTIVE:: Our goal was to investigate the risk of a second cancer in relation to subsite as a basis for planning ...
Sturchio Glenn M - - 2013
ABSTRACT: Three protective eyewear models were evaluated to determine effectiveness in reducing radiation dose to a fluoroscopist's eyes. The performance of the protective eyewear was measured using radiation dosimeters in a fluoroscopy suite. An Eyewear Protection Factor was determined for each model in each of three exposure orientations. The protection ...
Piratvisuth Teerha - - 2013
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in pregnancy presents a unique and important challenge. Over 50% of chronic HBV carriers in endemic areas acquire infection vertically from their mothers. More importantly, over 90% of perinatally acquired infections progress to chronic HBV infection. Thus, management of chronic HBV during pregnancy and ...
Zoulim Fabien - - 2013
The management of treatment failure in patients with chronic hepatitis B, remains a clinical concern. Incomplete viral suppression and the emergence of drug resistance are key determinants of treatment failure. The correct choice of a potent first-line therapy to achieve sustained long-term suppression of viral replication provides the best chance ...
Holman Fabian A - - 2013
: Surgery for locally advanced and recurrent rectal carcinoma sometimes requires partial resection of the perineum and/or vagina necessitating subsequent reconstruction. : The aim of this study was to describe the surgical and functional outcomes of reconstructing the vagina and/or the perineum by using the vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap ...
Grassi Eleonora - - 2013
Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Genotype 2 accounts for 10% of the patients with chronic HCV worldwide. The current standard of care (SOC) in these patients is 24 weeks of Pegylated Interferon (PEG-IFN) plus Ribavirin (RBV), with sustained virological response rates (SVR) of 80-90%. However, there are subgroups of patients with HCV-2, ...
Duldulao Marjun P - - 2013
: The standard treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer is preoperative cheimoradiation and total mesorectal excision. After surgery, tumors are classified according to the depth of tumor invasion, nodal involvement, and tumor regression grade. However, these staging systems do not provide information about the distribution of residual cancer cells within ...
Ma Hong - - 2013
Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is a worldwide public health problem which represents an enormous economic and social burden. Convincing evidence has shown that persistent active viral replication is an independent predictor of disease progression. Therefore, sustained suppression of HBV replication is the cornerstone for preventing the progression of disease and ...
Lemos João - - 2013
This work reviews saccadic intrusions focusing on recent developments in pathophysiology and treatment. Saccadic intrusions have been recognized as features of oculomotor apraxia type 2 and neuromyelitis optica. Novel fixation instabilities have been identified such as 'staircase' square wave jerks, or the pervasive ocular microtremor seen in Parkinson's disease. Although ...
Ratto Carlo - - 2013
: Fistulotomy plus primary sphincteroplasty for complex anal fistulas is regarded with scepticism, mainly because of the risk of postoperative incontinence. : The aim of this study was to evaluate safety and effectiveness of this technique in medium-term follow up and to identify potential predictive factors of success and postoperative ...
Gerber Ludmila - - 2013
The characterization of the viral life cycle facilitated the development of directly acting antiviral drugs. Among those, several inhibitors of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase have proven effectiveness in clinical trials. The characteristics of different nucleos(t)ide and non-nucleoside polymerase inhibitors, as well as their clinical applications and combinations with other ...
Reif Ronald H - - 2013
ABSTRACT: Implementing a laser safety program at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) presents many challenges and opportunities for improving safety performance. Getting all laser users to take ownership of safety and comply with all laser safety requirements are key ingredients of a successful laser safety program. WHOI's laser safety ...
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