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Results 251 - 300 of 3975
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Ruzycki Conor A - - 2013
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has recently seen increased use in the design of pharmaceutical inhalers. The use of CFD in the design of inhalers is made difficult by the complex nature of aerosol generation. At present, CFD has provided valuable insight into certain aspects of inhaler performance, though limitations in ...
Schnepf Rebecca - - 2013
The ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG2 can actively extrude a broad range of endogenous and exogenous substrates across biological membranes. Thereby, ABCG2 limits oral drug bioavailability, mediates hepatobiliary and renal excretion and participates functionally in the blood-brain barrier. The paper provides a review of the clinical evidence of the role of ...
Kubiak Xavier - - 2013
Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are polymorphic xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes catalyzing the acetylation of aromatic amine chemicals of pharmacological/toxicological relevance (drugs, carcinogens). NATs are primordial determinants of the detoxification and/or bioactivation of these compounds. These enzymes are found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Several NAT isoenzymes may be present in one organism, and ...
May Jonathan P - - 2013
Specific delivery of a drug to a target site is a major goal of drug delivery research. Using temperature-sensitive liposomes (TSLs) is one way to achieve this; the liposome acts as a protective carrier, allowing increased drug to flow through the bloodstream by minimizing clearance and non-specific uptake. On reaching ...
van Swaay Dirk D Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zurich, Zurich, - - 2013
Liposome structures have a wide range of applications in biology, biochemistry, and biophysics. As a result, several methods for forming liposomes have been developed. This review provides a critical comparison of existing microfluidic technologies for forming liposomes and, when applicable, a comparison with their analogous macroscale counterparts. The properties of ...
Yamaguchi Saori S Department of Microbiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, - - 2013
PspA, -B and -C regulate the bacterial phage shock protein stress response by controlling the PspF transcription factor. Here, we have developed complementary approaches to study the behaviour of these proteins at their endogenous levels in Yersinia enterocolitica. First, we observed GFP-tagged versions with an approach that resolves individual protein ...
Kasiske B L BL Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients, Minneapolis Medical Research Foundation, Minneapolis, MN, USA. - - 2013
The Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients is charged with providing program-specific reports for organ transplant programs in the United States. Monitoring graft survival for pancreas transplant programs has been problematic as there are three different pancreas transplant procedures that may have different outcomes, and analyzing them separately reduces events and ...
Walker Jennifer A JA MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, CB2 0QH, - - 2013
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are newly identified members of the lymphoid lineage that have emerging roles in mediating immune responses and in regulating tissue homeostasis and inflammation. Here, we review the developmental relationships between the various ILC lineages that have been identified to date and summarize their functions in protective ...
Caruso Massimo M University of Catania-AOU Policlinico-V. Emanuele, Department of Clinical and Molecular Bio-Medicine-Institute of Internal Medicine and Clinical Immunology, Catania, 95124, - - 2013
Patients with severe asthma have a significant unmet need with persistent symptoms and/or frequent exacerbations despite high intensity treatment. These severe unrelenting symptoms have a huge impact on heathcare resources due to frequent hospital admissions and requirement for intensive and expensive medications. There is a compelling need for more effective ...
Ananthakrishnan A N AN Division of Gastroenterology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. - - 2013
Psychiatric co-morbidity, in particular major depression and anxiety, is common in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Prior studies examining this may be confounded by the co-existence of functional bowel symptoms. Limited data exist examining an association between depression or anxiety and disease-specific endpoints such as bowel ...
Dyson Janet - - 2013
A model for cell-cell adhesion, based on an equation originally proposed by Armstrong et al. [A continuum approach to modelling cell-cell adhesion, J. Theor. Biol. 243 (2006), pp. 98-113], is considered. The model consists of a nonlinear partial differential equation for the cell density in an N-dimensional infinite domain. It ...
Hahn A A Department of Paediatrics, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH 43215, USA. - - 2013
The impact of human metapneumovirus (HMPV) in children aged >5 years and the risk factors associated with disease severity for all ages have not been well characterized. A retrospective cohort study of 238 children aged 0–15 years hospitalized over a 3-year period was performed. Medical records were reviewed for demographic ...
Yang Min M Department of Pathology and Center for Infection and Immunology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, - - 2013
B cells are generally considered to be positive regulators of the immune response because of their capability to produce antibodies, including autoantibodies. The production of antibodies facilitates optimal CD4(+) T-cell activation because B cells serve as antigen-presenting cells and exert other modulatory functions in immune responses. However, certain B cells ...
Lotrecchiano G R - - 2013
This field report outlines the goals of providing a blended learning model for an interdisciplinary training program for healthcare professionals who care for children with disabilities. The curriculum blended traditional face-to-face or on-site learning with integrated online interactive instruction. Credit earning and audited graduate level online coursework, community engagement experiences, ...
Ch'ng Joanne W M - - 2013
Protection motivation theory components were used to predict sun protection behaviors (SPBs) using four outcome measures: typical reported behaviors, previous reported behaviors, current sunscreen use as determined by interview, and current observed behaviors (clothing worn) to control for common method bias. Sampled from two SE Queensland public beaches during summer, ...
Martinho A - - 2013
The choroid plexus (CP) participates in the synthesis, secretion and regulation of the cerebrospinal fluid, in the removal of its toxic compounds and in the regulation of the availability of essential metal ions to the brain. It expresses and secretes metallothioneins 1/2 (MT-1/2) which are key components in the maintenance ...
Bai Lu - - 2013
This study was to investigate the association of inflammation-related factors with the risk of lung cancer. All subjects were unrelated ethnic Han Chinese in Liaoning province. Our study conducted a hospital-based case-control study, the case group consisted of 193 histologically diagnosed lung cancer patients, and 211 controls were selected from ...
Sirakov Maria - - 2013
The study of the mammalian intestinal epithelium concerns several aspects of cellular and molecular biology. In fact, most of these studies aim to define molecular components or mechanisms related with the control of stemness and the balance between cell proliferation and differentiation in physiopathological conditions. It is worth mentioning that ...
Hauton David - - 2013
Chronic catecholamine production is associated with desensitisation and down-regulation of adrenergic receptors and occurs in conditions, such as heart failure and myocardial infarction. The effects of further acute adrenergic stimulation, which may occur during exercise, and their subsequent effects on chemosensitivity and ventilation are unclear. Chronic isoprenaline (ISO) increased ventilation ...
Zvoleff Alex - - 2013
Humans have transformed much of Earth's land surface, giving rise to loss of biodiversity, climate change, and a host of other environmental issues that are affecting human and biophysical systems in unexpected ways. To confront these problems, environmental managers must consider human and landscape systems in integrated ways. This means ...
Shivapooja Phanindhar - - 2013
Dynamic change of surface area and topology of elastomers is used as a general, environmentally friendly approach for effectively detaching micro- and macro-fouling organisms adhered on the elastomer surfaces. Deformation of elastomer surfaces under electrical or pneumatic actuation can debond various biofilms and barnacles. The bio-inspired dynamic surfaces can be ...
Xu Weigao - - 2013
Graphene is exploited to serve as a seamless and inert veil to fabricate a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrate with a passivated surface. This novel approach inherits the concept of metal-molecule isolation (for more well-defined surface interactions) and results in a few superiorities. We find the SERS performance of a ...
Maltais Simon - - 2013
Introduction: Significant advances have been made to understand the mechanisms involved in cardiac cell-based therapies. The early translational application of basic science knowledge has led to several animal and human clinical trials. The initial promising beneficial effect of stem cells on cardiac function restoration has been eclipsed by the inability ...
Barvkar Vitthal T - - 2013
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (20-24 nucleotide long) endogenous regulatory RNAs that play important roles in plant growth and development. They regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by translational repression or target degradation and gene silencing. In this study, we identified 116 conserved miRNAs belonging to 23 families from the ...
Masood Aisha - - 2013
Hodgkin's Lymphoma (HL) is highly chemoresponsive, and majority of patients respond to therapy except for a small number which require high-dose therapy and stem cell rescue for salvage. We report the results of a single-center experience in 41 patients with relapsed HL treated with high-dose therapy at the time of ...
Oubaid V - - 2013
The recruitment of trainee surgeons is a demanding topic. Not only the question whether the number of applicants is sufficient but also the selection of the right candidates are of great importance. Therefore, it is of vital interest to establish the occupational requirements and to develop reliable and valid methods ...
Koubar Mohamad - - 2013
Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent of 90 % of Legionnaires' disease cases. This bacterium lives naturally in fresh water and can colonize biofilms, which play an important role in the protection of Legionella against environmental stress factors. Relationship between the presence of minerals in water and Legionella adherence to surfaces ...
Ishitobi Makoto - - 2013
BACKGROUND: There is little information about the impact of breast cancer subtype on prognosis after ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR). METHODS: One hundred eighty-five patients were classified according to breast cancer subtype, as approximated by estrogen receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and Ki-67, of IBTR, and we ...
Kahlert Philipp - - 2013
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a novel treatment option for patients with severe, symptomatic aortic valve stenosis considered inoperable or at high risk for surgical aortic valve replacement. Despite rapid adoption of this technology into clinical application, however, recent randomized controlled clinical trials have raised safety concerns regarding an ...
Mohmood Iram - - 2013
Water scarcity is being recognized as a present and future threat to human activity and as a consequence water purification technologies are gaining major attention worldwide. Nanotechnology has many successful applications in different fields but recently its application for water and wastewater treatment has emerged as a fast-developing, promising area. ...
Karthikeyan S - - 2013
Nanoporous activated carbon prepared from rice husk through precarbonisation at 400 °C and phosphoric acid activation at 800 °C was used as fluidized bed in Fenton oxidation of the o, p and m-cresols in aqueous solution. The efficiencies of homogeneous Fenton oxidation, fluidized Fenton oxidation and aerobic biological oxidation systems for the ...
Koch O O - - 2013
PURPOSE: Closure of the esophageal hiatus is an important step during laparoscopic antireflux surgery and hiatal hernia surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the preoperatively determined hiatal hernia size and the intraoperative size of the esophageal hiatus. METHODS: One hundred patients with documented chronic ...
Ferrini Francesco - - 2013
A major unresolved issue in treating pain is the paradoxical hyperalgesia produced by the gold-standard analgesic morphine and other opiates. We found that hyperalgesia-inducing treatment with morphine resulted in downregulation of the K(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter KCC2, impairing Cl(-) homeostasis in rat spinal lamina l neurons. Restoring the anion equilibrium potential reversed ...
Yazarloo Fatemeh - - 2013
Cancer testis antigens (CTAs) have normal expression restricted in the testis and also inappropriate expression in various tumor types. Special and favorable characteristics of these genes, as being immunogenic and therefore having the potential to be used as tumor vaccine, have made them as one of the star attractions of ...
Traquete Rui - - 2013
One of the major problems in cancer therapy is the lack of specificity of chemotherapeutic agents towards cancer cells, resulting in adverse side effects. One means to counter this is to selectively deliver the drug to the cancer cell. Cancer cells accumulate increased concentrations of polyamines compared to normal cells, ...
Budnik Lygia Therese - - 2013
OBJECTIVES: After cargo with PCB-containing transformer oil waste was damaged in heavy seas, the vessel crew exposed to PCB developed itching and acne-form eruption of the skin. The objective of our study was to analyse this work-related incident and its effects on health. METHODS: Air and wipe test samples were ...
Wu Fuyong - - 2013
A pot trial was conducted to investigate the effects of three arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi species, including Glomus geosporum BGC HUN02C, G. versiforme BGC GD01B, and G. mosseae BGC GD01A, on grain yield and arsenic (As) uptake of upland rice (Zhonghan 221) in As-spiked soils. Moderate levels of AM colonization ...
Klanjscek Tin - - 2013
A mechanistic model of bacterial growth based on dynamic energy budget (DEB) theory is utilized to investigate mechanisms of toxicity of CdSe quantum dots (QDs). The model of QD toxicity is developed by extending a previously published DEB model of cadmium ion toxicity to include a separate model of QD ...
Gasanova Irina - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block has been shown to provide pain relief after abdominal procedures. However, TAP block combined with multimodal analgesia technique have not been assessed in a randomized controlled trial. This randomized, controlled, observer-blinded study was designed to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of bilateral ultrasound-guided TAP blocks ...
Msaouel Pavlos - - 2013
Introduction: Replication-competent oncolytic measles virus (MV) strains preferentially infect and destroy a wide variety of cancer tissues. Clinical translation of engineered attenuated MV vaccine derivatives is demonstrating the therapeutic potential and negligible pathogenicity of these strains in humans. Areas covered: The present review summarizes the mechanisms of MV tumor selectivity ...
Zotz Gerhard - - 2013
The velamen radicum, a spongy, usually multiple epidermis of the roots, which at maturity consists of dead cells, is frequently described as an important adaptation of epiphytic orchids. Yet, quantitative evidence for the alleged functions, e.g., efficient water and nutrient uptake, nutrient retention, reduction of water loss, mechanical protection, or ...
Barker Tyler - - 2013
The purpose of this study was to identify circulating cytokines, skeletal muscle strength, and peak power output in young adults with contrasting serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. Serum 25(OH)D, inflammatory cytokines, muscle strength, and peak power output were, therefore, measured in young adults (25-42 years). Data were collected during the winter ...
Dubois Rebecca M - - 2013
Little is known about the three-dimensional organization of rubella virus, which causes a relatively mild measles-like disease in children but leads to serious congenital health problems when contracted in utero. Although rubella virus belongs to the same family as the mosquito-borne alphaviruses, in many respects it is more similar to ...
Komura Tomomi - - 2013
Lactobacilli and bifidobacteria are probiotic bacteria that modify host defense systems and have the ability to extend the lifespan of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Here, we attempted to elucidate the mechanism by which bifidobacteria prolong the lifespan of C. elegans. When the nematode was fed Bifidobacterium infantis (BI) mixed at ...
Shelke Pradip B - - 2013
Active control over the assembly of colloidal and nanoparticles has important applications for the design of new nanostructured materials, but it is a difficult task. Here, a new method is presented to control the morphology of colloidal aggregates using critical Casimir forces. Via direct temperature control of critical Casimir forces, ...
Ivanova Elena P - - 2013
A non-pigmented, motile, Gram-negative bacterium designated H 17(T) was isolated from a seawater sample collected in Port Phillip Bay (the Tasman Sea, Pacific Ocean). The new organism displayed optimal growth between 4 and 37 °C, was found to be neutrophilic and slightly halophilic, tolerating salt water environments up to 10 % NaCl. ...
Yoshida Takeichi - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation triggered by Helicobacter pylori causes altered DNA methylation in stomach mucosae, which is deeply involved in gastric carcinogenesis. This study aimed to elucidate the correlation between altered mucosal DNA methylation levels and activity of H. pylori-related gastritis, because inflammatory activity shows particular correlations with the development of ...
De la Rossa Andres - - 2013
The molecular mechanisms that control how progenitors generate distinct subtypes of neurons, and how undifferentiated neurons acquire their specific identity during corticogenesis, are increasingly understood. However, whether postmitotic neurons can change their identity at late stages of differentiation remains unknown. To study this question, we developed an electrochemical in vivo ...
Italiano Antoine - - 2013
Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare and aggressive malignancy with poor outcome occurring in adolescents and young adults. Therapeutic options for patients with advanced disease are limited. Preclinical studies have shown that VEGFR-2 and VEGFA are overexpressed in DSRCT and that DSRCT xenografts were highly responsive to ...
Wang Qi - - 2013
RLIP76, a GTPase-activating protein, is a central regulator in multiple pathways that respond to redox states and control cell growth, motility, division, and apoptosis in many malignant cancer cells. In this study, human glioblastoma cell lines U87 and U251 were stably transfected with a lentivirus vector expressing a short hairpin ...
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