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Backfisch Benjamin - - 2013
Research in eye evolution has mostly focused on eyes residing in the head. In contrast, noncephalic light sensors are far less understood and rather regarded as evolutionary innovations. We established stable transgenesis in the annelid Platynereis, a reference species for evolutionary and developmental comparisons. EGFP controlled by cis-regulatory elements of ...
Akbaraly Tasnime N - - 2013
It has been suggested that dietary patterns are associated with future risk of depressive symptoms. However, there is a paucity of prospective data that have examined the temporality of this relation. We examined whether adherence to a healthy diet, as defined by using the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), was ...
Jia Xiaoxuan - - 2013
Neural activity in the gamma frequency range ("gamma") is elevated during active cognitive states. Gamma has been proposed to play an important role in cortical function, although this is debated. Understanding what function gamma might fulfill requires a better understanding of its properties and the mechanisms that generate it. Gamma ...
Thomases Daniel R - - 2013
A developmental disruption of prefrontal cortical inhibitory circuits is thought to contribute to the adolescent onset of cognitive deficits observed in schizophrenia. However, the developmental mechanisms underlying such a disruption remain elusive. The goal of this study is to examine how repeated exposure to the NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine maleate ...
Sasaki Kosei - - 2013
Although electrical coupling is present in many microcircuits, the extent to which it will determine neuronal firing patterns and network activity remains poorly understood. This is particularly true when the coupling is present in a population of heterogeneous, or intrinsically distinct, circuit elements. We examine this question in the Aplysia ...
Lu Fuqu - - 2013
The brain plays a central role in controlling energy, glucose, and lipid homeostasis, with specialized neurons within nuclei of the mediobasal hypothalamus, namely the arcuate (ARC) and ventromedial (VMH), tasked with proper signal integration. Exactly how the exquisite cytoarchitecture and underlying circuitry becomes established within these nuclei remains largely unknown, ...
Gao Hanwei - - 2013
The miniaturization of optoelectronic devices is essential for the continued success of photonic technologies. Nanowires have been identified as potential building blocks that mimic conventional photonic components such as interconnects, waveguides, and optical cavities at the nanoscale. Semiconductor nanowires with high optical gain offer promising solutions for lasers with small ...
Dangla Rémi - - 2013
The miniaturization of droplet manipulation methods has led to drops being proposed as microreactors in many applications of biology and chemistry. In parallel, microfluidic methods have been applied to generate monodisperse emulsions for applications in the pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and food industries. To date, microfluidic droplet production has been dominated by ...
Rulli Maria Cristina - - 2013
Societal pressure on the global land and freshwater resources is increasing as a result of the rising food demand by the growing human population, dietary changes, and the enhancement of biofuel production induced by the rising oil prices and recent changes in United States and European Union bioethanol policies. Many ...
Seredynski Aurore L - - 2013
Estrogens exert pleiotropic effects on reproductive traits, which include differentiation and activation of reproductive behaviors and the control of the secretion of gonadotropins. Estrogens also profoundly affect non-reproductive traits, such as cognition and neuroprotection. These effects are usually attributed to nuclear receptor binding and subsequent regulation of target gene transcription. ...
Davis Matthew J - - 2013
RAC1 is a small, Ras-related GTPase that was recently reported to harbor a recurrent UV-induced signature mutation in melanoma, resulting in substitution of P29 to serine (RAC1(P29S)), ranking this the third most frequently occurring gain-of-function mutation in melanoma. Although the Ras family GTPases are mutated in about 30% of all ...
Cenier Tristan - - 2013
The acquisition of sensory information during behavior shapes the neural representation, central processing, and perception of external stimuli. In mammals, a sniff represents the basic unit of odor sampling, yet how sniffing shapes odor representations remains poorly understood. Perhaps the earliest hypothesis of the role of sniffing in olfaction arises ...
Beier Kevin T - - 2013
The use of neurotropic viruses as transsynaptic tracers was first described in the 1960s, but only recently have such viruses gained popularity as a method for labeling neural circuits. The development of retrograde monosynaptic tracing vectors has enabled visualization of the presynaptic sources onto defined sets of postsynaptic neurons. Here, ...
Shushruth S - - 2013
In primary visual cortex (V1), neuronal responses to stimuli inside the receptive field (RF) are usually suppressed by stimuli in the RF surround. This suppression is orientation specific. Similarly, in human vision surround stimuli can suppress perceived contrast of a central stimulus in an orientation-dependent manner. The surround consists of ...
Lee Jihye - - 2013
Synaptic vesicle fusion mediates communication between neurons and is triggered by rapid influx of Ca(2+). The Ca(2+)-triggering step for fusion is regulated by the synaptic vesicle transmembrane protein Synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1). Syt1 contains two cytoplasmic C2 domains, termed C2A and C2B, which coordinate Ca(2+) binding. Although C2A and C2B share ...
Burke John F - - 2013
To test the hypothesis that neural oscillations synchronize to mediate memory encoding, we analyzed electrocorticographic recordings taken as 68 human neurosurgical patients studied and subsequently recalled lists of common words. To the extent that changes in spectral power reflect synchronous oscillations, we would expect those power changes to be accompanied ...
Jimura Koji - - 2013
A characteristic marker of impulsive decision making is the discounting of delayed rewards, demonstrated via choice preferences and choice-related brain activity. However, delay discounting may also arise from how subjective reward value is dynamically represented in the brain when anticipating an upcoming chosen reward. In the current study, brain activity ...
DesJardin Jacqueline T - - 2013
Stimulation of the intermediate and deep layers of superior colliculus (DLSC) in rodents evokes both orienting/pursuit (approach) and avoidance/flight (defense) responses (Dean et al., 1989). These two classes of response are subserved by distinct output projections associated with lateral (approach) and medial (defense) DLSC (Comoli et al., 2012). In non-human ...
Friesland Amy - - 2013
Signaling through the Rho family of small GTPases has been intensely investigated for its crucial roles in a wide variety of human diseases. Although RhoA and Rac1 signaling pathways are frequently exploited with the aid of effective small molecule modulators, studies of the Cdc42 subclass have lagged because of a ...
Vajpai Navratna - - 2013
Proteins denature not only at high, but also at low temperature as well as high pressure. These denatured states are not easily accessible for experiment, because usually heat denaturation causes aggregation, whereas cold or pressure denaturation occurs at temperatures well below the freezing point of water or pressures above 5 ...
Miskovic Vladimir - - 2013
Previous findings have established that cortical sensory systems exhibit experience-dependent biases toward stimuli consistently associated with threat. It remains unclear whether safety cues also facilitate perceptual engagement or how competition between learned threat and safety cues is resolved within visual cortex. Here, we used classical discrimination conditioning with simple luminance ...
O'Donnell Michael P - - 2013
The phylogenetically conserved Netrin family of chemoattractants signal outgrowth and attractive turning of commissural axons through the Deleted in Colorectal Carcinoma (DCC) family of receptors. Src family kinases are thought to be major signaling effectors of Netrin/DCC. In vertebrates, Src and the closely related Fyn kinases phosphorylate DCC and form ...
Chen Eric Y - - 2013
Previous studies have shown that motion onset is very effective at capturing attention and is more salient than smooth motion. Here, we find that this salience ranking is present already in the firing rate of retinal ganglion cells. By stimulating the retina with a bar that appears, stays still, and ...
Tolppanen Anna-Maija - - 2013
Stroke increases the risk of dementias, including Alzheimer disease (AD), but it is unknown whether persons with AD have a higher risk of strokes. We investigated whether noninstitutionalized persons with AD were more likely to experience incident stroke than persons without AD and whether there are differences in the incidence ...
Carneiro Ana Carolina Aguiar Vasconcelos - - 2013
Recent studies of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from animals in Brazil have revealed high genetic diversity. Many of these isolates are virulent to mice. It is speculated that these isolates may also be virulent to humans. However, there is very limited data regarding T. gondii strains from human infection. Therefore, it ...
Abidi Maheen Z - - 2013
A 57-year-old woman with common variable immune deficiency and liver failure of unknown etiology presented with recurrent fevers over a 5-month period. She was found to have Helicobacter canis bacteremia. Immunocompromised hosts with exposure to cats or dogs may be at risk for infection with this organism, which may be ...
Lamp Boris - - 2013
Highly pathogenic Nipah virus (NiV) infections are transmitted via airway secretions and urine, commonly via the respiratory route. Epithelial surfaces represent important replication sites in both primary and systemic infection phases. NiV entry and spread from polarized epithelial cells therefore determine virus entry and dissemination within a new host and ...
Liu Ziqi - - 2013
The human cytomegalovirus UL34 gene encodes a sequence-specific DNA binding protein that downregulates expression of the viral immune evasion gene US3. Analysis of the viral genome identified 14 potential UL34 binding sites. Using mobility shift experiments, UL34 bound to all predicted sites that were assayed (7 of 14). Furthermore, the ...
Brooke Christopher B - - 2013
Segmentation of the influenza A virus (IAV) genome enables rapid gene reassortment at the cost of complicating the task of assembling the full viral genome. By simultaneously probing for the expression of multiple viral proteins in MDCK cells infected at a low multiplicity with IAV, we observe that the majority ...
Jia Kun-Tong - - 2013
Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) is the type species of the genus Megalocytivirus from the family Iridoviridae. ISKNV is one of the major agents that cause mortality and economic losses to the freshwater fish culture industry in Asian countries, particularly for mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi). In the present ...
Rockman Steven - - 2013
In preparing for the threat of a pandemic of avian H5N1 influenza virus, we need to consider the significant delay (4 to 6 months) necessary to produce a strain-matched vaccine. As some degree of cross-reactivity between seasonal influenza vaccines and H5N1 virus has been reported, this was further explored in ...
Tremaglio Chadene Z - - 2013
The mechanisms by which the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) initiates mRNA transcription and RNA replication are poorly understood. A previous study, using an RSV minigenome, suggested that the leader (Le) promoter region at the 3' end of the genome has two initiation sites, one at position ...
Zhu Qiyun - - 2013
The promotion of membrane fusion by most paramyxoviruses requires an interaction between the viral attachment and fusion (F) proteins to enable receptor binding by the former to trigger the activation of the latter for fusion. Numerous studies demonstrate that the F-interactive sites on the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) ...
Jiang Wei - - 2013
Influenza A virus is an important pathogenic virus known to induce host cell cycle arrest in G(0)/G(1) phase and create beneficial conditions for viral replication. However, how the virus achieves arrest remains unclear. We investigated the mechanisms underlying this process and found that the nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is required. ...
Pham Thanh H - - 2013
DNA-dependent activator of interferon regulatory factor (DAI) acts as a cytosolic B-form DNA sensor that induces type I interferons. However, DAI is not required for DNA sensing in certain cell types due to redundancy of the DNA sensing system. Here, we investigated the effect of DAI on herpes simplex virus ...
Kovjazin Riva - - 2013
The low protection by the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine and existence of drug-resistant strains require better anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis vaccines with a broad, long-lasting, antigen-specific response. Using bioinformatics tools, we identified five 19- to 40-mer signal peptide (SP) domain vaccine candidates (VCs) derived from M. tuberculosis antigens. All VCs were predicted ...
Fwu Chyng-Wen - - 2013
The occurrence of urolithiasis in the United States has increased; however, information on long-term trends, including recurrence rates, is lacking. Here we describe national trends in rates of emergency department visits, use of imaging, and drug treatment, primarily using the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey to describe trends and ...
Kannangai Rajesh - - 2013
The frequencies of 10 opportunistic DNA viruses were determined by multiplex real-time PCR in paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain tissue of HIV-infected individuals. In the CSF, viruses were detectable in 45/55 cases: JC virus (JCV) in 62%, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in 44%, cytomegalovirus (CMV) in 25%, varicella-zoster virus (VZV) ...
Baselski Vickie - - 2013
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a leading cause of health care-associated infection. It has a high rate of attributed mortality, and this mortality is increased in patients who do not receive appropriate empirical antimicrobial therapy. As a result of the overuse of broad-spectrum antimicrobials such as the carbapenems, strains of Acinetobacter, ...
Veenemans J - - 2013
We compared 2 chromogenic media (Oxoid Brilliance MRSA 2 agar [Thermo Fisher Scientific] and MRSA-ID [bioMérieux]) for the detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in 1,368 hospital samples. For both media, broth enrichment was essential to obtain satisfactory diagnostic performance. Although with direct cultures only, the diagnostic performance (particularly sensitivity) ...
Chen Liang - - 2013
Clonal complex 30 (CC30), one of the major Staphylococcus aureus lineages, has caused extensive hospital-acquired and community-acquired infections worldwide. Recent comparative genomics studies have demonstrated that three CC30 clones-phage type 80/81, Southwest Pacific (SWP), and contemporary EMRSA-16 associated (Con) strains-shared a recent common ancestor more than 100 years ago. Panton-Valentine ...
Chen Cheng-Yen - - 2013
Macrolide treatment failure in syphilis patients is associated with a single point mutation (either A2058G or A2059G) in both copies of the 23S rRNA gene in Treponema pallidum strains. The conventional method for the detection of both point mutations uses nested PCR combined with restriction enzyme digestions, which is laborious ...
Avidor Boaz - - 2013
Detection of low-abundance drug resistance mutations (DRMs) of HIV-1 is an evolving approach in clinical practice. Ultradeep pyrosequencing has shown to be effective in detecting such mutations. The lack of a standardized commercially based assay limits the wide use of this method in clinical settings. 454 Life Sciences (Roche) is ...
Stamm Ivonne - - 2013
Yersinia enterocolitica is the main cause of yersiniosis in Europe, one of the five main bacterial gastrointestinal diseases of humans. Beside pigs, companion animals, especially dogs and cats, were repeatedly discussed in the past as a possible source of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica. To investigate the presence and types of Y. ...
Gouali Malika - - 2013
The performance of CHROMagar STEC and CHROMagar STEC O104 (CHROMagar Microbiology, Paris, France) media for the detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) was assessed with 329 stool specimens collected over 14 months from patients with suspected STEC infections (June 2011 to August 2012). The CHROMagar STEC medium, after an ...
Pietilä Maija K - - 2013
Extremophilic archaea, both hyperthermophiles and halophiles, dominate in habitats where rather harsh conditions are encountered. Like all other organisms, archaeal cells are susceptible to viral infections, and to date, about 100 archaeal viruses have been described. Among them, there are extraordinary virion morphologies as well as the common head-tailed viruses. ...
Lu Xiaonan - - 2013
Conformational changes in the glycoproteins of enveloped viruses are critical for membrane fusion, which enables viral entry into cells and the pathological cell-cell fusion (syncytia) associated with some viral infections. However, technological capabilities for identifying viral glycoproteins and their conformational changes on actual enveloped virus surfaces are generally scarce, challenging, ...
Chen Longyun - - 2013
The phosphoprotein (P) of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) plays essential roles in viral RNA synthesis. It associates with nascent nucleoprotein (N) to form N(0)-P (free of RNAs), thereby preventing the N from binding to cellular RNAs and maintaining the N in a viral genomic RNA encapsidation-competent form for transcription and ...
Desforges Marc - - 2013
Most betacoronaviruses possess an hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) protein, which appears to play a role in binding to or release from the target cell. Since this HE protein possesses an acetyl-esterase activity that removes acetyl groups from O-acetylated sialic acid, a role as a receptor-destroying enzyme has been postulated. However, the precise ...
Hütter Sylvia - - 2013
Foamy viruses (FVs) are unique among retroviruses in performing genome reverse transcription (RTr) late in replication, resulting in an infectious DNA genome, and also in their unusual Pol biosynthesis and encapsidation strategy. In addition, FVs display only very limited Gag and Pol processing by the viral protease (PR) during particle ...
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