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Results 351 - 400 of 1591
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Xin Lin - - 2013
In the last decade, phage-display technology for the generation of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has improved significantly. Several novel human mAbs directed to a wide range of targets have been generated for the treatment of common malignancies. These targets include antigens associated with apoptosis, angiogenesis and solid tumors, as well as ...
Donovan Johanna - - 2013
Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) and their receptors are major mitogens for many cell types of mensenchymal origin, including fibroblasts and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Their role in enhancing migratory and proliferative responses and extracellular matrix synthesis in these cells, make them key regulators of critical biological functions and in ...
Spina Annamaria - - 2013
Breast cancer is a major cause of cancer death in women in the world. Triple-negative breast cancers, which accounts for 10-20% of all mammary tumours, are characterised by an aggressive phenotype, are often found in younger women and have been associated with poor prognosis. Obesity increases the risk for triple-negative ...
Cappellani Alessandro - - 2013
Multiple factors have been described among the causes of non-hereditary colorectal cancer. In Western countries, the most common risk factors include upper-middle socioeconomic status and dietary regimens rich in proteins and animal fats. High consumption of red meats, smoked foods, cold cuts, or canned foods is believed to contribute to ...
Wang Ping - - 2013
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell dyscrasia characterized by bone lesions and production of a paraprotein. B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) and its receptor (BAFFR) were highly expressed on peripheral blood and bone marrow B cells in MM patients as compared to those with monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS) and ...
Zhong Lin - - 2013
Liver transplantation (LT) has emerged as a viable therapy for various end-stage liver diseases. Multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacilli (MDR-GNB) have emerged as predominant pathogens. The prevalence of MDR-GNB infection has been increasing in LT recipients, especially in early post-LT stages. MDR-GNB infection has become a main cause of death following ...
Khelwatty Said Abdullah - - 2013
Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths. At present, anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) cetuximab and panitumumab and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mAb bevacizumab have been incorporated into treatment paradigms for patients with refractory metastatic colorectal cancer. However, many patients simply do ...
Qu Feng - - 2013
The multilineage commitment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is controlled via unknown mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the regulation of the differentiation of MSCs into chondrocytes via the Wnt signaling pathway. Overexpression of WNT3A in MSCs activated both the canonical and non-canonical Wnt pathways, which were responsible for different ...
Box Carol - - 2013
Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) are key targets for novel cancer therapeutics since they activate multiple oncogenic signalling pathways. Also, they are inherently 'druggable' due to their small ATP-dependent kinase domains (inhibitable by small molecules) and cell surface location which renders them accessible to monoclonal antibody-based therapies. The epidermal growth factor ...
Lech Agnieszka - - 2013
Ovarian cancer is characterized by the highest mortality rate among gynecologic malignancies. Therefore, there is a growing need for innovative therapies and techniques for monitoring and prevention of this disease. The exact cause of most ovarian tumors usually remains unknown. Ovarian cancer is believed to be caused by a range ...
Simko Fedor - - 2013
Melatonin secreted by the pineal gland plays an important role in the regulation of blood pressure (BP) and its administration reduces hypertension both in animals and humans. There are two experimental models of melatonin-deficient hypertension: one induced by pinealectomy and another by continuous 24 hour exposure to light. Both models ...
Zhang Xiaoping - - 2013
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous, non-coding RNAs approximately 22 nucleotides in length that negatively regulate translation of the protein-coding genes. As such, miRNAs are fundamental mediators of cellular differentiation, proliferation, and survival. Each miRNA may functionally interact with a multitude of target genes to exert various effects on ...
Zhu Kai-Chang - - 2013
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among men in Western countries and is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths. The growth and progression of PCa is related to androgen levels. In cancer, nicroRNAs (miRs) function as either oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. In androgen-dependent PCa, ...
Draskovic Irena - - 2013
Telomeres are nucleoprotein structures at the ends of linear chromosomes that protect them from being recognized as DNA double stranded breaks. Telomeres shorten with every cell division and in the absence of the checkpoint mechanisms critical telomere shortening leads to chromosome end fusions and genomic instability. Cancer cells achieve immortality ...
Bernhardt Nadine Rabe - - 2013
While there is a rather large amount of data from pharmacological and anatomical studies of the murine locomotor CPG network, comprehensive information regarding the cellular and functional properties of the neuronal populations is lacking. Here we describe concepts arising from genetic studies of the locomotor network with a focus on ...
Siletsky Sergey A - - 2013
Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) terminates the respiratory chain in mitochondria and in plasmatic membrane of many aerobic bacteria. The enzyme reduces dioxygen molecule into water and the reaction is accompanied with generation of transmembrane difference of electric potentials. The energy conservation by COX is based on the vectorial organization of the chemical ...
Musacchio Tiziana - - 2013
The chance to selectively intervene and stop the development of any gene-dependent disease in different organs and pathologies makes siRNA an ideal therapeutic agent. However, serious issues should be addressed before the real therapeutic use of siRNA. The poor pharmacokinetic properties of siRNA, its short half-life, its low in vivo stability, its ...
Palande Karishma - - 2013
Following activation by their cognate ligands, cytokine receptors undergo intracellular routing towards lysosomes where they are degraded. Cytokine receptor signaling does not terminate at the plasma membrane, but continues throughout the endocytotic pathway. The modes of internalization and intracellular trafficking of specific receptors, the level of recycling towards the plasma ...
Bartolucci Simonetta - - 2013
Archaea occupy a considerable diversity of niches ranging from extreme of pH, salinity to temperature that cannot be tolerated by other forms of life. There is an increasing consciousness that they have a key role both on the biogeochemical cycling of elements and in the bioremediation of polluted habitat. A ...
Jiang Yun - - 2013
The tumor susceptibility gene 101 (TSG101) encodes a multidomain protein that contains a UEV (ubiquitin e2 variant) domain at is N-terminus and a putative DNA-binding motif at its C-terminus. In addition to being a bona fide component of the ESCRT (endosomal sorting complexes required for transport) complex 1 and playing a critical ...
Kim Wookhyun - - 2013
Naturally occurring protein-based materials have been found that function as critical components in biomechanical response, fibers and adhesives. A relatively small but growing number of recombinant protein-based materials that mimic the desired features of their natural sources, such as collagens, elastins and silks, are considered as an alternative to conventional ...
Dvir-Ginzberg Mona - - 2013
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease particularly affecting the elderly population. Although several genetic features have been characterized as risk factors for OA susceptibility, a growing body of evidence indicates that epigenetic effectors may also modulate gene expression and thus contribute to OA pathology. One such epigenetic regulator of ...
Wu Xin - - 2013
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are remarkably conserved in all living organisms. The upregulation of expression of HSPs is triggered by a variety of physiological and environmental insults. HSPs play an important role in protecting against protein denaturation and subsequent celluar stress, which damages the intestinal mucosa and reduces the protective ...
Lang Xiao-E - - 2013
Myocardial infarction is responsible for most cardiovascular mortality as well as the pathogenesis of myocardial damage during and after infarction. Efforts are underway to modulate the development of ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury. Recently, the protective effect of isoflurane against myocardial I-R injury emerged as a possibility. Nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthases, factors ...
Chu Cheng - - 2013
The biochemical activity of mammals is controlled by an internal timekeeping mechanism driving a clock to run in approximate 24-hour (circadian) cycles. In mammals, this circadian clock is located both in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) and peripheral oscillators. Recently, microRNAs have emerged as significant players in circadian clock timing. The ...
Wang Shuang - - 2013
Lung cancer is the most preventable cancer worldwide but has a poor prognosis. Recent advances in the study of lung cancer stem cell (CSC) populations has led to a growing recognition of the central importance of cells with stem cell-like properties in lung tumorigenesis. High number of CD133+ cells is associated with ...
Goetsch Liliane - - 2013
c-Met is a tyrosine kinase receptor largely described to be involved in cancer progression and metastasis. In such pathologic situation, many alterations of this receptor were noticed that include transcriptional overexpression, gene amplification, somatic or germline mutations and/or ligand dependent autocrine/paracrine loops. More recently it has also been suggested that ...
Pedraza Escalona Martha - - 2013
Scorpion beta-toxins (beta-ScTxs) modify the activity of voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels, thereby producing neurotoxic effects in diverse organisms. For this reason, beta-ScTxs are essential tools not only for discriminating among different channel sub-types but also for studying the mechanisms of channel gating and the structure-function relationship involved in this process. ...
Zhang Jianfang - - 2013
Although microRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in fine-tuning gene networks, the roles of mmu-mir-143 (miR-143) in mammalian ovary development have not been studied in vitro. We investigated the expression and function of miR-143 in the mouse ovary during primordial follicle formation. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that miR-143 expression increased ...
Wang Taiji - - 2013
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) may have permanent stunting effects on muscle growth and development of the progeny. However, underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Recent studies comparing muscle fiber development and proteomes in IUGR and normal-body-weight (NBW) fetal pigs indicated that muscle fiber diameter were smaller in IUGR fetal pigs than ...
Yu Xinkai - - 2013
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as critical regulators of numerous biological processes by modulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. The discovery of miRNAs as new and important regulators of gene expression is expected to broaden our biological understanding of the regulatory mechanism in muscle by adding another dimension of regulation ...
Fanjul-Moles Maria Luisa - - 2013
This work reviews concepts regarding the endogenous circadian clock and the relationship between oxidative stress (OS), light and entrainment in different organisms including crustaceans, particularly crayfish. In the first section, the molecular control of circadian rhythms in invertebrates, particularly in Drosophila, is reviewed, and this model is contrasted with recent ...
Liu Yi-Xun - - 2013
The controlled target extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation generated by serine protease and regulated by serine protease inhibitor and ovarian paracrine/autocrine factors is an event that affects a wide variety of physiological and pathological processes in the ovary. Evidence cumulated in the past decade clearly showed that the hormone-induced coordinated expression ...
Lucchese Guglielmo - - 2013
The present report describes the peptide commonality between JC virus (JCV) and the human proteome at the heptamer level. In total, 53 viral heptapeptides occur in functionally important human proteins with potential consequences for host functions and JCV pathogenesis. A paradigmatic example of a crucial peptide match is the SGKTTLA ...
Kaji Takao - - 2013
Homeobox genes contribute to the regionalization, patterning and cell differentiation during embryogenesis and organ development. During mammalian embryonic development, homeobox genes, including orthopedia (Otp), a brain-specific homeobox transcription factor (Bsx) and a thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), are expressed in the hypothalamus. The genetic ablation of these genes indicated that Otp ...
Zhang Qiang - - 2013
Tendon injuries are very common in occupational and athletic settings, and the elderly population. Tendons repair and regenerate slowly and inefficiently in vivo after injury. The limited ability of tendons to self-repair and the general inefficiency of current treatment strategies have intensified the need for an effective therapeutic approach. Tendon-derived stem cells ...
Jiang Lingling - - 2013
Mast cells are of paramount importance in allergic reactions, pathogen immune responses during infection, and angiogenesis, as well as innate and adaptive immune regulation. Beyond all these roles, mast cells are now increasingly being recognized as modulators of tumor biology and fate. Notwithstanding mounting evidence of mast cell accumulation in ...
Li Hong - - 2013
Graves' disease (GD) is a systemic autoimmune syndrome manifesting complications in thyroid and orbital connective tissues. The thyroid gland plays a major role in the human body by producing the hormones necessary for appropriate energy levels and an active life. At the same time, the thyroid is highly vulnerable to ...
Liang Wenqing - - 2013
Osteosarcoma is an aggressive sarcoma of the bone characterized by a high level of genetic instability and recurrent DNA deletions and amplifications. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding small RNAs, usually 18-25 nucleotides in length, which repress translation and cleave mRNA by base-pairing to the 3 untranslated region of the target genes. ...
de Lange Willem J - - 2013
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) caused by mutations in cardiac myosin-binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) is a heterogenous disease in which the phenotypic presentation is influenced by genetic, environmental, and developmental factors. Though mouse models have been used extensively to study the contractile effects of cMyBP-C ablation, early postnatal hypertrophic and dilatory remodeling may ...
Milani-Nejad Nima - - 2013
Dynamic force generation in cardiac muscle, which determines cardiac pumping activity, depends on both the number of sarcomeric cross-bridges and on their cycling kinetics. The Frank-Starling mechanism dictates that cardiac force development increases with increasing cardiac muscle length (corresponding to increased ventricular volume). It is, however, unclear to what extent ...
Kim Kyunghee X - - 2013
Vibration of the stereociliary bundles activates calcium-permeable mechanotransducer (MT) channels to initiate sound detection in cochlear hair cells. Different regions of the cochlea respond preferentially to different acoustic frequencies, with variation in the unitary conductance of the MT channels contributing to this tonotopic organization. Although the molecular identity of the ...
Jadey Snehal - - 2013
A primary target for nicotine is the acetylcholine receptor channel (AChR). Some of the ability of nicotine to activate differentially AChR subtypes has been traced to a transmitter-binding site amino acid that is glycine in lower affinity and lysine in higher affinity AChRs. We studied the effects of mutations of ...
Terrenoire Cecile - - 2013
Understanding the basis for differential responses to drug therapies remains a challenge despite advances in genetics and genomics. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offer an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the pharmacology of disease processes in therapeutically and genetically relevant primary cell types in vitro and to interweave clinical and basic ...
Li Qingdi Quentin - - 2013
β-Elemene is a new anticancer compound extracted from the Chinese medicinal herb Rhizoma zedoariae. We have shown previously that β-elemene increases cisplatin cytotoxicity and enhances cisplatin sensitivity via blocking cell cycle progression at G2/M phase in resistant ovarian tumor cells. In the current study, we asked whether β-elemene-augmented cisplatin activity ...
Indiani Chiara - - 2013
Chromosome replication is performed by numerous proteins that function together as a "replisome". The replisome machinery duplicates both strands of the parental DNA simultaneously. Upon DNA damage to the cell, replisome action produces single-strand DNA to which RecA binds, enabling its activity in cleaving the LexA repressor and thus inducing ...
Macdonald Patrick P Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, - - 2013
Brightness analysis provides a powerful tool for the study of protein interactions both in solution and in living cells. We provide a brief survey of some widely used techniques for extracting brightness from fluorescent fluctuation spectroscopy experiments. While all the techniques are equivalent under ideal conditions, we touch upon their ...
Wu Bin B Department of Anatomy and Structural Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, - - 2013
Time-integrated fluorescence cumulant analysis (TIFCA) is a data analysis technique for fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy (FFS) that extracts information from the cumulants of the integrated fluorescence intensity. It is the first exact theory that describes the effect of sampling time on FFS experiment. Rebinning of data to longer sampling times helps ...
Wu Roland S RS Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, - - 2013
Large-conductance voltage- and Ca(2+)-gated K(+) channels are negative-feedback regulators of excitability in many cell types. They are complexes of α subunits and of one of four types of modulatory β subunits. These have intracellular N- and C-terminal tails and two transmembrane (TM) helices, TM1 and TM2, connected by an ∼100-residue ...
Durmowicz Anthony G AG Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Rheumatology Products, Office of New Drugs, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, US Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD 20993, USA. - - 2013
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening inherited disease caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR), which encodes for the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) ion channel that regulates chloride and water transport across the surface of epithelial cells. Ivacaftor, a drug recently approved by the US ...
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