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Delker Rebecca K - - 2013
Protein-protein interactions are typically identified by either biochemical purification coupled to mass spectrometry or genetic approaches exemplified by the yeast two-hybrid assay; however, neither assay works well for the identification of cofactors for poorly soluble proteins. Solubility of a poorly soluble protein is thought to increase upon cofactor binding, possibly ...
Saito Keisuke - - 2013
Photosystem II uses light to drive water oxidation and plastoquinone (PQ) reduction. PQ reduction involves two PQ cofactors, Q(A) and Q(B), working in series. Q(A) is a one-electron carrier, whereas Q(B) undergoes sequential reduction and protonation to form Q(B)H(2). Q(B)H(2) exchanges with PQ from the pool in the membrane. Based ...
Monecke Thomas - - 2013
In eukaryotes, the nucleocytoplasmic transport of macromolecules is mainly mediated by soluble nuclear transport receptors of the karyopherin-β superfamily termed importins and exportins. The highly versatile exportin chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1) is essential for nuclear depletion of numerous structurally and functionally unrelated protein and ribonucleoprotein cargoes. CRM1 has been ...
Venkataraman Vivek V - - 2013
Paleoanthropologists have long argued--often contentiously--about the climbing abilities of early hominins and whether a foot adapted to terrestrial bipedalism constrained regular access to trees. However, some modern humans climb tall trees routinely in pursuit of honey, fruit, and game, often without the aid of tools or support systems. Mortality and ...
Stoddard Steven T - - 2013
Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease of growing global health importance. Prevention efforts focus on mosquito control, with limited success. New insights into the spatiotemporal drivers of dengue dynamics are needed to design improved disease-prevention strategies. Given the restricted range of movement of the primary mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, local human ...
Condon Robert H - - 2013
A perceived recent increase in global jellyfish abundance has been portrayed as a symptom of degraded oceans. This perception is based primarily on a few case studies and anecdotal evidence, but a formal analysis of global temporal trends in jellyfish populations has been missing. Here, we analyze all available long-term ...
Tan Li Hai - - 2013
Written Chinese as a logographic system was developed over 3,000 y ago. Historically, Chinese children have learned to read by learning to associate the visuo-graphic properties of Chinese characters with lexical meaning, typically through handwriting. In recent years, however, many Chinese children have learned to use electronic communication devices based ...
Little Max A - - 2013
Recent advances in our ability to watch the molecular and cellular processes of life in action--such as atomic force microscopy, optical tweezers and Forster fluorescence resonance energy transfer--raise challenges for digital signal processing (DSP) of the resulting experimental data. This article explores the unique properties of such biophysical time series ...
Thattai Mukund - - 2013
Living cells are controlled by networks of interacting genes, proteins and biochemicals. Cells use the emergent collective dynamics of these networks to probe their surroundings, perform computations and generate appropriate responses. Here, we consider genetic networks, interacting sets of genes that regulate one another's expression. It is possible to infer ...
Stewart David J - - 2013
Visible light excitation of the ligand-bridged assembly [(bpy)(2)Ru(a)(II)(L)Ru(b)(II)(bpy)(OH(2))(4+)] (bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine; L is the bridging ligand, 4-phen-tpy) results in emission from the lowest energy, bridge-based metal-to-ligand charge transfer excited state (L(-•))Ru(b)(III)-OH(2) with an excited-state lifetime of 13 ± 1 ns. Near-diffusion-controlled quenching of the emission occurs with added HPO(4)(2-) and ...
Liu Guoliang - - 2013
Although nanoparticles with exquisite properties have been synthesized for a variety of applications, their incorporation into functional devices is challenging owing to the difficulty in positioning them at specified sites on surfaces. In contrast with the conventional synthesis-then-assembly paradigm, scanning probe block copolymer lithography can pattern precursor materials embedded in ...
Bang Junhyeok - - 2013
Understanding and controlling of excited carrier dynamics is of fundamental and practical importance, particularly in photochemistry and solar energy applications. However, theory of energy relaxation of excited carriers is still in its early stage. Here, using ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) coupled with time-dependent density functional theory, we show a ...
Grenha Rosa - - 2013
The quorum-sensing regulator PlcR is the master regulator of most known virulence factors in Bacillus cereus. It is a helix-turn-helix (HTH)-type transcription factor activated upon binding of its cognate signaling peptide PapR on a tetratricopeptide repeat-type regulatory domain. The structural and functional properties of PlcR have defined a new family ...
Conrady Deborah G - - 2013
Staphylococcal bacteria, including Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus, cause chronic biofilm-related infections. The homologous proteins Aap and SasG mediate biofilm formation in S. epidermidis and S. aureus, respectively. The self-association of these proteins in the presence of Zn(2+) leads to the formation of extensive adhesive contacts between cells. This study ...
Wakamatsu Ei - - 2013
Costimulatory molecules of the CD28 family on T lymphocytes integrate cues from innate immune system sensors and modulate activation responses in conventional CD4(+) T cells (Tconv) and their FoxP3(+) regulatory counterparts (Treg). To better understand how costimulatory and coinhibitory signals might be integrated, we profiled the changes in gene expression ...
Baudoin Michael - - 2013
When you reach with your straw for the final drops of a milkshake, the liquid forms a train of plugs that flow slowly initially because of the high viscosity. They then suddenly rupture and are replaced with a rapid airflow with the characteristic slurping sound. Trains of liquid plugs also ...
Kochanowski Karl - - 2013
Regulation of metabolic operation in response to extracellular cues is crucial for cells' survival. Next to the canonical nutrient sensors, which measure the concentration of nutrients, recently intracellular "metabolic flux" was proposed as a novel impetus for metabolic regulation. According to this concept, cells would have molecular systems ("flux sensors") ...
Vajrala Neeraja - - 2013
The ammonia-oxidizing archaea have recently been recognized as a significant component of many microbial communities in the biosphere. Although the overall stoichiometry of archaeal chemoautotrophic growth via ammonia (NH(3)) oxidation to nitrite (NO(2)(-)) is superficially similar to the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, genome sequence analyses point to a completely unique biochemistry. The ...
Promeneur Dominique - - 2013
Tragically common among children in sub-Saharan Africa, cerebral malaria is characterized by rapid progression to coma and death. In this study, we used a model of cerebral malaria appearing in C57BL/6 WT mice after infection with the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei ANKA. Expression and cellular localization of the brain ...
Selvakumar Balakrishnan - - 2013
NMDA receptor activation can elicit synaptic plasticity by augmenting conductance of the AMPA receptor GluA1 subsequent to phosphorylation at S831 by Ca(2+)-dependent kinases. NMDA receptor activation also regulates synaptic plasticity by causing endocytosis of AMPA receptor GluA1. We demonstrate a unique signaling cascade for these processes mediated by NMDA receptor-dependent ...
Walsh Ali Morton - - 2013
In higher organisms such as vertebrates, it is generally believed that lateral transfer of genetic information does not readily occur, with the exception of retroviral infection. However, horizontal transfer (HT) of protein coding repetitive elements is the simplest way to explain the patchy distribution of BovB, a long interspersed element ...
Oruganty Krishnadev - - 2013
The protein kinase catalytic domain contains several conserved residues of unknown functions. Here, using a combination of computational and experimental approaches, we show that the function of some of these residues is to maintain the backbone geometry of the active site in a strained conformation. Specifically, we find that the ...
Heijde Marc - - 2013
Plants require the UV-B photoreceptor UV resistance locus 8 (UVR8) for acclimation and survival in sunlight. Upon UV-B perception, UVR8 switches instantaneously from a homodimeric to monomeric configuration, which leads to interaction with the key signaling protein constitutively photomorphogenic 1 (COP1) and induction of UV-B-protective responses. Here, we show that ...
Korgaonkar Aishwarya - - 2013
Most infections result from colonization by more than one microbe. Within such polymicrobial infections, microbes often display synergistic interactions that result in increased disease severity. Although many clinical studies have documented the occurrence of synergy in polymicrobial infections, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms. A prominent pathogen in ...
Romero Philip A - - 2013
Knowing how protein sequence maps to function (the "fitness landscape") is critical for understanding protein evolution as well as for engineering proteins with new and useful properties. We demonstrate that the protein fitness landscape can be inferred from experimental data, using Gaussian processes, a Bayesian learning technique. Gaussian process landscapes ...
Zhang Zhong-wei - - 2013
Neurons in the brains of newborns are usually connected with many other neurons through weak synapses. This early pattern of connectivity is refined through pruning of many immature connections and strengthening of the remaining ones. NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are essential for the development of excitatory synapses, but their role in ...
Shi Lan-Xin - - 2013
Chloroplasts are the organelles of green plants in which light energy is transduced into chemical energy, forming ATP and reduced carbon compounds upon which all life depends. The expenditure of this energy is one of the central issues of cellular metabolism. Chloroplasts contain ~3,000 proteins, among which less than 100 ...
Kasho Kazutoshi - - 2013
The initiation of chromosomal DNA replication is rigidly regulated to ensure that it occurs in a cell cycle-coordinated manner. To ensure this in Escherichia coli, multiple systems regulate the activity of the replication initiator ATP-DnaA. The level of ATP-DnaA increases before initiation after which it drops via DnaA-ATP hydrolysis, yielding ...
Pinon Violaine - - 2013
Lateral organ distribution at the shoot apical meristem defines specific and robust phyllotaxis patterns that have intrigued biologists and mathematicians for centuries. In silico studies have revealed that this self-organizing process can be recapitulated by modeling the polar transport of the phytohormone auxin. Phyllotactic patterns change between species and developmental ...
de Carvalho Myskiw Jociane - - 2013
Extinction of contextual fear in rats is enhanced by exposure to a novel environment at 1-2 h before or 1 h after extinction training. This effect is antagonized by administration of protein synthesis inhibitors anisomycin and rapamycin into the hippocampus, but not into the amygdala, immediately after either novelty or ...
Shih Patrick M - - 2013
The cyanobacterial phylum encompasses oxygenic photosynthetic prokaryotes of a great breadth of morphologies and ecologies; they play key roles in global carbon and nitrogen cycles. The chloroplasts of all photosynthetic eukaryotes can trace their ancestry to cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria also attract considerable interest as platforms for "green" biotechnology and biofuels. To ...
Yang Chunzhang - - 2013
Gaucher disease is caused by mutations of the GBA gene that encodes the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GCase). GBA mutations often result in protein misfolding and premature degradation, but usually exert less effect on catalytic activity. In this study, we identified the molecular mechanism by which histone deacetylase inhibitors increase the ...
Phong Connie - - 2013
Circadian clocks are ubiquitous biological oscillators that coordinate an organism's behavior with the daily cycling of the external environment. To ensure synchronization with the environment, the period of the clock must be maintained near 24 h even as amplitude and phase are altered by input signaling. We show that, in ...
Petrinovic Marija M - - 2013
Neuronal signal integration as well as synaptic transmission and plasticity highly depend on the morphology of dendrites and their spines. Nogo-A is a membrane protein enriched in the adult central nervous system (CNS) myelin, where it restricts the capacity of axons to grow and regenerate after injury. Nogo-A is also ...
Roberts Tara L - - 2013
SMG1 is a member of the phosphoinositide kinase-like kinase family of proteins that includes ATM, ATR, and DNA-PK, proteins with known roles in DNA damage and cellular stress responses. SMG1 has a well-characterized role in nonsense-mediated decay as well as suggested roles in the DNA damage response, resistance to oxidative ...
Venn Alexander A - - 2013
Insight into the response of reef corals and other major marine calcifiers to ocean acidification is limited by a lack of knowledge about how seawater pH and carbonate chemistry impact the physiological processes that drive biomineralization. Ocean acidification is proposed to reduce calcification rates in corals by causing declines in ...
Meister Konrad - - 2013
Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are specific proteins that are able to lower the freezing point of aqueous solutions relative to the melting point. Hyperactive AFPs, identified in insects, have an especially high ability to depress the freezing point by far exceeding the abilities of other AFPs. In previous studies, we postulated ...
Lee Kyoo-young - - 2013
Temporal and spatial regulation of the replication factory is important for efficient DNA replication. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we report that ATAD5 regulates the lifespan of replication factories. Reduced expression of ATAD5 extended the lifespan of replication factories by retaining proliferating cell nuclear antigen ...
Hori Tetsuya - - 2013
CENP-A acts as an important epigenetic marker for kinetochore specification. However, the mechanisms by which CENP-A is incorporated into centromeres and the structural basis for kinetochore formation downstream of CENP-A remain unclear. Here, we used a unique chromosome-engineering system in which kinetochore proteins are targeted to a noncentromeric site after ...
Lampert Fabienne - - 2013
Kinetochores are large protein complexes that link sister chromatids to the spindle and transduce microtubule dynamics into chromosome movement. In budding yeast, the kinetochore-microtubule interface is formed by the plus end-associated Dam1 complex and the kinetochore-resident Ndc80 complex, but how they work in combination and whether a physical association between ...
Leikina Evgenia - - 2013
Myoblast fusion into multinucleated myotubes is a crucial step in skeletal muscle development and regeneration. Here, we accumulated murine myoblasts at the ready-to-fuse stage by blocking formation of early fusion intermediates with lysophosphatidylcholine. Lifting the block allowed us to explore a largely synchronized fusion. We found that initial merger of ...
Nair Ramya - - 2013
The surface density of neurotransmitter receptors at synapses is a key determinant of synaptic efficacy. Synaptic receptor accumulation is regulated by the transport, postsynaptic anchoring, and turnover of receptors, involving multiple trafficking, sorting, motor, and scaffold proteins. We found that neurons lacking the BEACH (beige-Chediak/Higashi) domain protein Neurobeachin (Nbea) had ...
Stankovic Ana - - 2013
The kinetochore forms the site of attachment for mitotic spindle microtubules driving chromosome segregation. The interdependent protein interactions in this large structure have made it difficult to dissect the function of its components. In this issue, Hori et al. (2013. J. Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201210106) present a novel and powerful methodology ...
Chiou Shih-Hwa - - 2013
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (Parp1) catalyzes poly(ADP-ribosylation) (PARylation) and induces replication networks involved in multiple nuclear events. Using mass spectrometry and Western blotting, Parp1 and PARylation activity were intensively detected in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and embryonic stem cells, but they were lower in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and differentiated ...
Subramaniam Arvind R - - 2013
The genetic code underlying protein synthesis is a canonical example of a degenerate biological system. Degeneracies in physical and biological systems can be lifted by external perturbations, thus allowing degenerate systems to exhibit a wide range of behaviors. Here we show that the degeneracy of the genetic code is lifted ...
Raffa Kenneth F - - 2013
Warming climate has increased access of native bark beetles to high-elevation pines that historically received only intermittent exposure to these tree-killing herbivores. Here we show that a dominant, relatively naïve, high-elevation species, whitebark pine, has inferior defenses against mountain pine beetle compared with its historical lower-elevation host, lodgepole pine. Lodgepole ...
de Carvalho Luís Filipe Abreu - - 2013
Several studies have reported faster recoveries, lower pain scores, and superior cosmetic results after mini-laparoscopic cholecystectomy (MLC). The purpose of this study was to perform a randomized controlled trial, comparing MLC with conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Forty-one patients with symptomatic cholecystolithiasis were randomized between the two groups: 23 having undergone ...
Freund L B - - 2013
The phenomenon of thermal fluctuation of a biomembrane within a stack of like membranes was introduced in a pioneering paper [Helfrich W (1978) Z Naturforsch A 33(3):305-315]. Internal energy arises in a representative membrane through elastic resistance to bending deformation, and membrane motion is further restrained through steric interaction with ...
Tzelepis Fanny - - 2013
CD8(+) T cells undergo rapid expansion during infection with intracellular pathogens, which is followed by swift and massive culling of primed CD8(+) T cells. The mechanisms that govern the massive contraction and maintenance of primed CD8(+) T cells are not clear. We show in this study that the transcription factor, ...
Hirsch Heather A HA Department Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, - - 2013
Metformin, the first-line drug for treating diabetes, inhibits cellular transformation and selectively kills cancer stem cells in breast cancer cell lines. In a Src-inducible model of cellular transformation, metformin inhibits the earliest known step in the process, activation of the inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB. Metformin strongly delays cellular transformation in ...
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