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Jardine D L - - 2013
This review deals with recent changes in understanding of physiologic mechanisms involved in vasovagal syncope. The approach is not comprehensive but attempts to integrate new findings with older studies. The major clinical presentations of the condition and recognized triggers are discussed first, followed by a summary of how new laboratory ...
Nwazue Victor C VC Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, Autonomic Dysfunction Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, AA3228 Medical Center North, 1161 21st Avenue South, Nashville, TN 37232-2195, - - 2013
Most patients who present to a cardiologist with syncope have vasovagal (reflex) syncope. A busy syncope practice often also sees patients with postural tachycardia syndrome, often presenting with severe recurrent presyncope. Recognition of this syncope confounder might be difficult without adequate knowledge of their presentation, and this can adversely affect ...
Benditt David G - - 2013
Syncope is a frequent cause for presentation to emergency departments and urgent-care clinics. The physician should establish a confident causal diagnosis, assess prognostic implications, and provide appropriate advice to prevent recurrences. An organized approach is needed to the assessment of the patient with syncope, including a careful initial examination as ...
Guzman Juan C - - 2013
Neurally mediated reflex syncope, more commonly known as vasovagal syncope (VVS), remains the most common cause of transient loss of consciousness and syncope in all age groups. Most evidence assessing treatment of VVS derived from randomized clinical trials is limited. Multiple modalities of both nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic strategies have been ...
Costantino Giorgio - - 2013
The overall risk for a patient entering the emergency department (ED) because of syncope ranges between 5% and 15%, and the mortality at 1 week is approximately 1%. The primary goal for the ED physician is thus to discriminate individuals at low risk, who can be safely discharged, from patients ...
Moya Angel - - 2013
The current evidence for pacemaker therapy is reviewed in 2 different syncopal conditions: reflex syncope with cardioinhibitory response and syncope in patients with bundle branch block. Although recent trials support the use of pacemaker therapy in selected patients with reflex syncope in whom an asystole is documented during spontaneous syncope ...
Sheldon Robert - - 2013
This article summarizes the major contributions of tilt table tests and implantable loop recorders to the diagnosis of syncope and provides simple recommendations for these tests. Tilt table tests have provided important benefits in the field of neurally mediated syncope. However, they have significant limitations. Implantable loop recorders also are ...
Lobban Trudie C A - - 2013
The most common form of syncope is reflex syncope (also called vasovagal syncope and reflex anoxic seizures). Reflex syncope is common, relatively simple to diagnose, and, in most cases, should not become a significant burden for patients or their families. Yet, too many patients with treatable syncope suffer dismissal of ...
Viqar-Syed Maria - - 2013
Clinical decision making can be challenging regarding the emergency department (ED) management of patients with recent syncope. Several models of the syncope management unit are summarized in this article. Assessment of patients with recent syncope in a specialized evaluation unit, such as an emergency department-based syncope management unit, holds great ...
Sheldon Robert - - 2013
The articles in this issue provide a comprehensive overview of the recent advances in the management of syncope by masters in the field. There are now solid approaches to most facets of diagnosis, risk stratification, prognostication, treatment, and health services delivery. However, 5 important challenges remain, including syncope etiology, treatment, ...
Khoo Clarence - - 2013
While the overall prognosis of syncope is favorable, the identification of individuals with a potentially life-threatening cause is of paramount importance. Cardiac syncope is associated with an elevated risk of mortality, and includes both primary arrhythmic and obstructive etiologies. Identification of these individuals is contingent on careful clinical assessment and ...
Seifer Colette - - 2013
Carotid sinus hypersensitivity was first reported more than 200 years ago. Nevertheless, a complete understanding of this relatively common clinical finding in older patients has proven elusive. There is evidence to support an association between symptoms, particularly syncope, and a hypersensitive response to carotid sinus massage. However, the clinical implication ...
Nwazue Victor C VC Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, Autonomic Dysfunction Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, AA3228 Medical Center North, 1161 21st Avenue South, Nashville, TN 37232-2195, - - 2013
A syncope evaluation should start by identifying potentially life-threatening causes, including valvular heart disease, cardiomyopathies, and arrhythmias. Most patients who present with syncope, however, have the more benign vasovagal (reflex) syncope. A busy syncope practice often also sees patients with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension presenting with syncope or severe recurrent presyncope. ...
Beliakova-Bethell Nadejda - - 2013
To assess the off-target effects of the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) in human primary CD4 T cells. A pharmacologically relevant concentration (340 nmol/l) of SAHA was shown to significantly increase histone hyperacetylation by 24 h and this length of treatment was selected to determine its impact ...
Winkelman Chris - - 2013
Human skeletal muscles are continually remodeled to match the function required of them. Diameter, strength, and vascular supply are altered when a muscle group experiences contraction and resistance. The purpose of this article is to describe selected muscle signaling pathways that contribute to muscle remodeling. Multiple factors affect the cellular ...
Asher Annamarie - - 2013
Mobilizing critically ill patients in the intensive care unit requires careful planning and attention to detail. The risks involved in mobilizing these patients include dislodging equipment, injury to the patient, injury to the caregivers, and physiologic decompensation of the patient. To carry out the activity safely, the therapist and the ...
Chadwell Katherine - - 2013
With the advent of the human genome project, we have never known so much about the uniqueness of individuals. Personalized medicine is poised to use this genetic and genomic information along with the impact of environment and clinical presentation to provide healthcare from an individual perspective. This offers the opportunity ...
Watanabe Junzo - - 2013
People with schizophrenia have higher rates of medical illness and mortality than the general population. Cardiovascular disease is a major contributor to premature death in patients with schizophrenia. There has been an increase literature discussing the high prevalence of dyslipidemia, which is one of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, induced ...
Dickinson Sharon S Surgical Intensive Care/Rapid Response, University of Michigan School of Nursing, Ann Arbor, USA. - - 2013
The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality has defined pressure ulcers (PUs) an important patient safety indicator (#3). Despite the existence of evidence-based guidelines for PU prevention and treatment from the United States Department of Health and Human Services, the sustained success in reducing the development of PUs is elusive ...
Hirata Akihiro A Division of Animal Experiment, Life Science Research Center, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu, 501-1194, - - 2013
There is a gradient of β-catenin expression along the colonic crypt axis with the highest levels at the crypt bottom. In addition, colorectal cancers show a heterogeneous subcellular pattern of β-catenin accumulation. However, it remains unclear whether different levels of Wnt signalling exert distinct roles in the colonic epithelium. Here, ...
Lasham Annette - - 2013
Hanahan and Weinberg have proposed the 'hallmarks of cancer' to cover the biological changes required for the development and persistence of tumours [Hanahan and Weinberg (2011) Cell 144, 646-674]. We have noted that many of these cancer hallmarks are facilitated by the multifunctional protein YB-1 (Y-box-binding protein 1). In the ...
Maggio Marcello - - 2013
Sarcopenia is a geriatric syndrome characterized by progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength with a risk of adverse outcomes such as physical disability, poor quality of life, and death. Sarcopenia is a multifactorial process involving the decline of androgens, including dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) and testosterone. The ...
Cherry-Bukowiec Jill R - - 2013
Critically ill patients are at high risk of malnutrition and lean body mass loss. Screening for malnutrition and performing detailed assessment of energy needs should be routine for patients admitted to intensive care units. Providing adequate calorie and protein provisions can attenuate muscle loss in many at-risk patients. Enteral nutrition ...
Fox Donald T DT Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, and Department of Cell Biology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, USA. - - 2013
Polyploid cells have genomes that contain multiples of the typical diploid chromosome number and are found in many different organisms. Studies in a variety of animal and plant developmental systems have revealed evolutionarily conserved mechanisms that control the generation of polyploidy and have recently begun to provide clues to its ...
Becker Dawn Marie - - 2013
Night-shift nurses receive fewer educational opportunities and less administrative support than do day-shift staff, tend to be newer, with less experience and fewer resources, and experience greater turnover rates, stress, and procedural errors. In an attempt to bridge the gap between day- and night-shift nursing, a night-shift clinical nurse specialist ...
Weed Douglas L - - 2013
The methodological quality of published reviews of nutrition and cancer (2008-2009) and of the carcinogenicity of acrylamide (1999-2009) was systematically assessed. Each review was examined with respect to four characteristics: whether the purpose of the review was explicitly stated, whether a methods section (detailing the methods used to "weigh" the ...
Jain Deepali - - 2013
Medulloblastoma accounts for only 1% of all adult CNS tumors. Recently, we have encountered a case of medulloblastoma in a 26 year old man with divergent differentiation including myoblastic, glial, osteoblastic and chondroblastic differentiation. Here we present the results of immunohistochemical staining using several specific antibodies with a discussion and ...
Finkelman Anita - - 2013
Healthcare delivery is in a crisis, requiring improvement. How to improve and who should assume more leadership are not clear. At the same time, the nursing profession struggles with a weak education system, graduating students who require major support for an extended time. There is also confusion related to nursing ...
Maningat Patricia P The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA. - - 2013
Statins are highly effective drugs prescribed to millions of people to lower LDL-cholesterol and decrease cardiovascular risk. The benefits of statin therapy seen in randomized clinical trials will only be replicated in real-life if patients adhere to the prescribed treatment regimen. But, about half of patients discontinue statin therapy within ...
Norton Tomás - - 2013
The design of thermal processes in the food industry has undergone great developments in the last two decades due to the availability of cheap computer power alongside advanced modelling techniques such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD). CFD uses numerical algorithms to solve the non-linear partial differential equations of fluid mechanics ...
Radtke Kimberly - - 2013
: The objective of this study was to determine if standardizing shift report improves patient satisfaction with nursing communication. : Patient surveys taken after discharge from the hospital show that patients perceive nursing communication during their stay could be improved. Standardizing bedside reporting is one step toward improving communication between ...
Kocan Mary Jo - - 2013
Patients with neurologic illness or injury benefit from early interventions to increase physical activity and mobility, but they also have special needs related to hemodynamic stability and intracranial pressure dynamics. After brain injury, moving paralyzed limbs-even passively-helps promote neural plasticity, "rerouting" signals around the injured area and forming new connections, ...
Pasha Imran - - 2013
In the era of nutrition, much focus has been remunerated to functional and nutraceutical foodstuffs. The health endorsing potential of such provisions is attributed to affluent phytochemistry. These dynamic constituents have functional possessions that are imperative for cereal industry. The functional and nutraceutical significance of variety of foods is often ...
Ridker Paul M PM Center for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and the Cardiovascular Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA. - - 2013
The recent JUPITER trial demonstrated that potent statin therapy reduces by 50 % the risk of heart attack and stroke among men and women with low levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol who are at increased vascular risk due to elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a biomarker of low-grade systemic ...
Talley Cheryl L - - 2013
Evidence to support improved outcomes with early ambulation is strong in medical literature. Yet, critically ill continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) patients remain tethered to their beds by devices delivering supportive therapy. The University of Michigan Adult CRRT Committee identified this deficiency and sought to change it. There was no ...
Fishkind William J - - 2013
The phaco machine is frequently overlooked as the crucial surgical instrument it is. Understanding how to set parameters is initiated by understanding fundamental concepts of machine function. This study analyses the critical concepts of partial occlusion phaco, occlusion phaco and pump technology. In addition, phaco energy categories as well as ...
Torretta Sara - - 2013
The management of unilateral nasal lesions can sometimes be a challenge and an ordinary bioptic assessment should be avoided in order to prevent complications due to their possible vascular or meningoencephalic origin. Narrow-band imaging (NBI) endoscopy could improve the diagnosis of vascular nasal formations by enhancing the visualisation of the ...
Callahan Damien M - - 2013
This review considers evidence that the clinical condition of heart failure alters skeletal muscle protein synthesis and/or breakdown to promote skeletal muscle wasting and functional decrements that ultimately contribute to the symptomology of the disease. Advanced HF is frequently accompanied by muscle atrophy and a cachectic phenotype. Protein metabolic derangements ...
Patel Hussain Y - - 2013
This review summarizes the recent literature regarding the incidence and management of cataract following glaucoma surgery. Half of the total number of phakic patients that have either trabeculectomy or tube shunt surgery will go on to develop visually significant cataract within 5 years. Phacoemulsification following trabeculectomy is significantly associated with ...
Knoblauch Diane J - - 2013
A review of the literature revealed that there was a dearth of information regarding the financial impact of implementing a mobility program in an intensive care unit. The purpose of this article was to identify and quantify costs and cost-benefit from implementing a mobility protocol. Factors to be considered when ...
Taylor Sarah - - 2013
Mobilizing patients with burns can be challenging due to their unique characteristics. Many times, common practice is to elevate and immobilize the burned extremity after debridement and grafting. On the contrary, mobility is imperative for patients with burns, as patients can lose function and flexibility quickly. The objective of this ...
Bretherton Inge - - 2013
Three related hypotheses derived from attachment theory were examined in this multi-informant and multi-method study of 71 postdivorce mothers and their preschool children (40 boys, 31 girls): (1) mother-child interactions observed at home will be related to attachment-related representations by children (Attachment Story Completion Task or ASCT) and mothers (Parent ...
Riaz Qurat Ul Ain - - 2013
The importance of probiotics and their live delivery in the gastrointestinal tract has gained much importance in the recent past. Many reports have indicated that there is poor viability of probiotic bacteria in dairy based products, both fermented and non-fermented, and also in the human gastro-intestinal system is questionable. In ...
Kelly Stephen L - - 2013
Multidisciplinary team (MDT) care is widely accepted as best practice for patients with head and neck cancer, although there is little evidence that MDT care improves head and neck cancer related outcomes. This study aims to determine the impact of MDT care on measurable clinical quality indicators (CQIs) associated with ...
Deng Gui-Fang - - 2013
The pigmented rice has been consumed in China, Japan, and Korea for a long time. It has been used for strengthening kidney function, treating anemia, promoting blood circulation, removing blood stasis, treating diabetes, and ameliorating sight in traditional Chinese medicine. The extracts from pigmented rice are used as natural food ...
Manini Todd M TM Institute of Aging and the Department of Aging and Geriatric Research, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA. - - 2013
Age-related muscle weakness causes a staggering economic, public, and personal burden. Most research has focused on internal muscular mechanisms as the root cause to strength loss. Here, we briefly discuss age-related impairments in the brain and peripheral nerve structures that may theoretically lead to muscle weakness in old age. Neuronal ...
Gallinetti Jordan - - 2013
DR (dietary restriction), or reduced food intake without malnutrition, is associated with extended longevity, improved metabolic fitness and increased stress resistance in a wide range of organisms. DR is often referred to as calorie restriction, implying that reduced energy intake is responsible for its widespread and evolutionarily conserved benefits. However, ...
Weasner Bonnie M BM Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, - - 2013
The eye-antennal disc of Drosophila gives rise to numerous adult tissues, including the compound eyes, ocelli, antennae, maxillary palps and surrounding head capsule. The fate of each tissue is governed by the activity of unique gene regulatory networks (GRNs). The fate of the eye, for example, is controlled by a ...
Sigurdsson M I - - 2013
The aim of this study was to assess population-based changes in incidence, treatment, and in short- and long-term survival of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) over 23 years. Analysis of all patients in Iceland who fulfilled the consensus criteria for ARDS in 1988-2010. Demographic variables, Acute Physiology and ...
Anthony Tracy G - - 2013
To understand the principles of amino acid deprivation sensing in the brain and its behavioral and metabolic outcomes with an emphasis on the current literature. Sensing essential amino acid (EAA) depletion occurs in the anterior piriform cortex (APC) via general control nonderepressible 2 (GCN2) binding to deacylated tRNA and subsequent ...
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