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Zhuravleva Anastasia A Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, - - 2012
The allosteric mechanism of Hsp70 molecular chaperones enables ATP binding to the N-terminal nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) to alter substrate affinity to the C-terminal substrate-binding domain (SBD) and substrate binding to enhance ATP hydrolysis. Cycling between ATP-bound and ADP/substrate-bound states requires Hsp70s to visit a state with high ATPase activity and ...
Oshimori Naoki N Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Laboratory of Mammalian Cell Biology and Development, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, - - 2012
To rejuvenate tissues and/or repair wounds, stem cells must receive extrinsic signals from their surrounding environment and integrate them with their intrinsic abilities to self-renew and differentiate to make tissues. Increasing evidence suggests that the superfamily of transforming growth factor-βs (TGF-βs) constitute integral components in the intercellular crosstalk between stem ...
Fang Wenwen W Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, - - 2012
Genome duality in ciliated protozoa offers a unique system to showcase their epigenome as a model of inheritance. In Oxytricha, the somatic genome is responsible for vegetative growth, whereas the germline contributes DNA to the next sexual generation. Somatic nuclear development removes all transposons and other so-called "junk" DNA, which ...
Speed Doug D University College London Genetics Institute, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK. - - 2012
Estimation of narrow-sense heritability, h(2), from genome-wide SNPs genotyped in unrelated individuals has recently attracted interest and offers several advantages over traditional pedigree-based methods. With the use of this approach, it has been estimated that over half the heritability of human height can be attributed to the ~300,000 SNPs on ...
Li Han H Tumor Suppression Group, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre, Madrid, E28029, - - 2012
The mechanisms responsible for the transcriptional silencing of pluripotency genes in differentiated cells are poorly understood. We have observed that cells lacking the tumor suppressor p27 can be reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in the absence of ectopic Sox2. Interestingly, cells and tissues from p27 null mice, including ...
Surani M Azim MA Wellcome Trust Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QN, UK. - - 2012
The discovery that phenotypic diversity among differentiated cells results from epigenetic and not genetic differences, and can be reset to restore pluripotency, promises revolutionary advances in medicine. I discuss how this and related seminal discoveries have brought us to an exciting future.
Truman Andrew W AW Ludwig Center for Metastasis Research, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, - - 2012
In budding yeast, the essential functions of Hsp70 chaperones Ssa1-4 are regulated through expression level, isoform specificity, and cochaperone activity. Suggesting a novel regulatory paradigm, we find that phosphorylation of Ssa1 T36 within a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) consensus site conserved among Hsp70 proteins alters cochaperone and client interactions. T36 phosphorylation ...
Rinaldi Carlo C Neurogenetics Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-3705, USA. - - 2012
Cowchock syndrome (CMTX4) is a slowly progressive X-linked recessive disorder with axonal neuropathy, deafness, and cognitive impairment. The disease locus was previously mapped to an 11 cM region at chromosome X: q24-q26. Exome sequencing of an affected individual from the originally described family identified a missense change c.1478A>T (p.Glu493Val) in ...
Turer Aslan T AT Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, - - 2012
It is epidemiologically established that obesity is frequently associated with the metabolic syndrome and poses an increased risk for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. The molecular links that connect the phenomenon of obesity, per se, with insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease are still not fully ...
Jaenisch Rudolf R Whitehead Institute, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. - - 2012
The two winners of the 2012 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine share more than just this honor; they are both also fearless adventurers, in science and beyond.
Xu Yufei Y Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Hypertension, Departments of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, - - 2012
Ten-Eleven Translocation (Tet) family of dioxygenases dynamically regulates DNA methylation and has been implicated in cell lineage differentiation and oncogenesis. Yet their functions and mechanisms of action in gene regulation and embryonic development are largely unknown. Here, we report that Xenopus Tet3 plays an essential role in early eye and ...
Ruas Jorge L JL Department of Cell Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. - - 2012
PGC-1α is a transcriptional coactivator induced by exercise that gives muscle many of the best known adaptations to endurance-type exercise but has no effects on muscle strength or hypertrophy. We have identified a form of PGC-1α (PGC-1α4) that results from alternative promoter usage and splicing of the primary transcript. PGC-1α4 ...
Gao Liang L Janelia Farm Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ashburn, VA 20147, - - 2012
Optical imaging of the dynamics of living specimens involves tradeoffs between spatial resolution, temporal resolution, and phototoxicity, made more difficult in three dimensions. Here, however, we report that rapid three-dimensional (3D) dynamics can be studied beyond the diffraction limit in thick or densely fluorescent living specimens over many time points ...
Wang Yanshu Y Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, - - 2012
Norrin/Frizzled4 (Fz4) signaling activates the canonical Wnt pathway to control retinal vascular development. Using genetically engineered mice, we show that precocious Norrin production leads to premature retinal vascular invasion and delayed Norrin production leads to characteristic defects in intraretinal vascular architecture. In genetic mosaics, wild-type endothelial cells (ECs) instruct neighboring ...
Brodsky Jeffrey L JL Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA. - - 2012
All cellular proteins are subject to quality control "decisions," which help to prevent or delay a myriad of diseases. Quality control within the secretory pathway creates a special challenge, as aberrant polypeptides are recognized and returned to the cytoplasm for proteasomal degradation. This process is termed endoplasmic-reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD).
Sebastián Carlos C The Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, - - 2012
Reprogramming of cellular metabolism is a key event during tumorigenesis. Despite being known for decades (Warburg effect), the molecular mechanisms regulating this switch remained unexplored. Here, we identify SIRT6 as a tumor suppressor that regulates aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells. Importantly, loss of SIRT6 leads to tumor formation without activation of known ...
Angelin Bo - - 2012
The circulating FGFs are a new group of proteins believed to function as classic hormones. With emphasis on human metabolism, we critically review current data, and propose that-although a number of questions remain-circulating FGF23 is pivotal in the control of phosphate and vitamin D metabolism, and may have additional systemic ...
Ros Susana - - 2012
Glycogen metabolism operates as an alternative energy source, enabling cell growth under conditions of metabolic stress. Favaro et al. (2012) now demonstrate that in hypoxic cancer cells, depletion of liver glycogen phosphorylase causes glycogen accumulation, leading to oxidative stress, induction of senescence, and impaired tumor growth in vivo.
Tsukita Sohei - - 2012
Considering the explosive increase in obesity worldwide, there must be an unknown mechanism(s) promoting energy accumulation under conditions of overnutrition. We identified a feed-forward mechanism favoring energy storage, originating in hepatic glucokinase (GK) upregulation. High-fat feeding induced hepatic GK upregulation, and hepatic GK overexpression dose-dependently decreased adaptive thermogenesis by downregulating ...
Mehran Arya E - - 2012
Hyperinsulinemia is associated with obesity and pancreatic islet hyperplasia, but whether insulin causes these phenomena or is a compensatory response has remained unsettled for decades. We examined the role of insulin hypersecretion in diet-induced obesity by varying the pancreas-specific Ins1 gene dosage in mice lacking Ins2 gene expression in the ...
Snaddon Jake - - 2013
A meeting on Biodiversity Technologies was held by the Biodiversity Institute, Oxford on the 27-28 of September 2012 at the Department of Zoology, University of Oxford. The symposium brought together 36 speakers from North America, Australia and across Europe, presenting the latest research on emerging technologies in biodiversity science and ...
Buettner Christoph - - 2012
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance, and the hyperinsulinemia commonly observed in patients is thought to be a compensatory response. Yet it has been difficult to disentangle cause and effect. Mehran et al. (2012) provide genetic evidence that a reduction of insulin secretion prevents high-fat feeding-induced obesity.
Lanza Ian R IR Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, - - 2012
Caloric restriction (CR) mitigates many detrimental effects of aging and prolongs life span. CR has been suggested to increase mitochondrial biogenesis, thereby attenuating age-related declines in mitochondrial function, a concept that is challenged by recent studies. Here we show that lifelong CR in mice prevents age-related loss of mitochondrial oxidative capacity ...
Soto Iliana C IC Department of Neurology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136, - - 2012
Heme plays fundamental roles as cofactor and signaling molecule in multiple pathways devoted to oxygen sensing and utilization in aerobic organisms. For cellular respiration, heme serves as a prosthetic group in electron transfer proteins and redox enzymes. Here we report that in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a heme-sensing mechanism translationally ...
Vollmers Christopher C Regulatory Biology Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA 92037, - - 2012
In the mouse liver, circadian transcriptional rhythms are necessary for metabolic homeostasis. Whether dynamic epigenomic modifications are associated with transcript oscillations has not been systematically investigated. We found that several antisense RNA, lincRNA, and microRNA transcripts also showed circadian oscillations in adult mouse livers. Robust transcript oscillations often correlated with ...
Derecka Marta M Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Massey Cancer Center, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, - - 2012
Mice lacking the Jak tyrosine kinase member Tyk2 become progressively obese due to aberrant development of Myf5+ brown adipose tissue (BAT). Tyk2 RNA levels in BAT and skeletal muscle, which shares a common progenitor with BAT, are dramatically decreased in mice placed on a high-fat diet and in obese humans. ...
Oruganty-Das Aparna A Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, - - 2012
Mitochondrial energy production is a tightly regulated process involving the coordinated transcription of several genes, catalysis of a plethora of posttranslational modifications, and the formation of very large molecular supercomplexes. The regulation of mitochondrial activity is particularly important for the brain, which is a high-energy-consuming organ that depends on oxidative ...
Morris Katrina K Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006, - - 2013
The Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) is at risk of extinction owing to the emergence of a contagious cancer known as devil facial tumour disease (DFTD). The emergence and spread of DFTD has been linked to low genetic diversity in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). We examined MHC diversity in historical ...
Rhodes Gillian G ARC Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders, School of Psychology, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia 6009, Australia. - - 2013
We routinely form impressions of people from their faces, and these impressions sometimes contain a kernel of truth. Impressions of trustworthiness are central to interpersonal relationships, but their accuracy remains contentious. Here, we investigated whether sexual trustworthiness (faithfulness) can be accurately judged from opposite-sex strangers' faces. Women's ratings of men's ...
Nesbitt Sterling J SJ Burke Museum and Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. - - 2013
The rise of dinosaurs was a major event in vertebrate history, but the timing of the origin and early diversification of the group remain poorly constrained. Here, we describe Nyasasaurus parringtoni gen. et sp. nov., which is identified as either the earliest known member of, or the sister-taxon to, Dinosauria. ...
Maharjan Ram P RP School of Molecular and Microbial Biosciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006, - - 2013
Bacterial populations in clinical and laboratory settings contain a significant proportion of mutants with elevated mutation rates (mutators). Mutators have a particular advantage when multiple beneficial mutations are needed for fitness, as in antibiotic resistance. Nevertheless, high mutation rates potentially lead to increasing numbers of deleterious mutations and subsequently to ...
Suárez-Rodríguez Monserrat M Departamento de Ecología Evolutiva, Instituto de Ecología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México 4510, - - 2013
Birds are known to respond to nest-dwelling parasites by altering behaviours. Some bird species, for example, bring fresh plants to the nest, which contain volatile compounds that repel parasites. There is evidence that some birds living in cities incorporate cigarette butts into their nests, but the effect (if any) of ...
Levin Barry E BE Neurology Service, Veterans Administration Medical Center, East Orange, NJ 07019, USA. - - 2012
Metabolic sensing neurons are conserved across multiple animal species and allow the organism to monitor nutrient availability to maintain energy homeostasis. Miyamoto et al. (2012) describe fly neurons that are highly tuned to fructose availability and are critical determinants of ingestive behavior on a diet of simple sugars.
Liu Baohua B Department of Biochemistry, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong. - - 2012
Abnormal splicing of LMNA gene or aberrant processing of prelamin A results in progeroid syndrome. Here we show that lamin A interacts with and activates SIRT1. SIRT1 exhibits reduced association with nuclear matrix (NM) and decreased deacetylase activity in the presence of progerin or prelamin A, leading to rapid depletion of ...
Thadani Rahul - - 2012
The processes underlying the large-scale reorganisation of chromatin in mitosis that form compact mitotic chromosomes and ensure the fidelity of chromosome segregation during cell division still remain obscure. The chromosomal condensin complex is a major molecular effector of chromosome condensation and segregation in diverse organisms ranging from bacteria to humans. ...
Kopp Artyom - - 2012
Host-plant specialization plays a key role in insect evolution, but little is known about its molecular basis. A new paper shows that a cactus-feeding fly became restricted to its host by changes in an enzyme that converts dietary sterols into essential hormones.
Powers Maureen A - - 2012
The massive nuclear pore complex mediates nucleocytoplasmic traffic ranging from a single histone to a viral genome. To date, dissecting mechanism has been more an exercise in prediction than biochemical certainty. A recent study combines recombinant proteins with nuclei reconstituted in vitro to test predictions in a startlingly productive manner.
Pimm Stuart L - - 2012
'How many species are there?' is a basic question about life. From Acoela worms to Zoantharia corals, oceans are taxonomically more divergent than land. Answering the question requires many experts.
Geurts René - - 2012
Mycorrhizal root endosymbiosis is an ancient property of land plants. Two parallel studies now provide novel insight into the mechanism driving this interaction and how it is used by other filamentous microbes like pathogenic oomycetes.
Xu Xing - - 2012
Scientists long thought they knew what the wings of early birds looked like. But new reconstructions of Archaeopteryx and its kin suggest quite different feather arrangements on their wings with profound implications for the evolution of flight.
Strange Kevin - - 2012
Pacemaker cells are specialized cell types that drive biological rhythms like the heartbeat and intestinal peristalsis. What determines whether a cell functions as a pacemaker? Studies in Caenorhabditis elegans suggest that pacemaking activity may be controlled in part by microRNAs.
Burrows Malcolm - - 2012
Animals that live or repeatedly alight on the surface of water often need to escape from predators or return to land. We show that flightless pygmy mole crickets use a new strategy to jump rapidly from water. Their powerful hind legs are moved so quickly that they penetrate the surface ...
Sallet J J Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3UD, UK. - - 2012
Information relevant for social interactions is thought to be processed in specific neural circuits. Recent studies shed new light on how that social information is encoded and processed by different brain areas.
Werner Michael E ME Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, - - 2012
Despite decades of research there are still basic aspects of planar cell polarity that are not well understood. Recent work in mouse tracheal epithelial cells links microtubules with both establishing asymmetry as well as responding to this asymmetry to coordinate cellular orientation.
Ramos Andrea I AI Department of Cell and Developmental Biology and Program in Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, - - 2012
How do gene regulatory networks evolve? A new study in yeasts shows that cis- and trans-regulatory changes resulted in a hybrid state of coexisting ancestral and derived regulatory circuits. This hybrid state then diversified into a variety of modern networks.
Chan Toby Y B - - 2012
To identify and examine factors that affect postoperative binocularity in children diagnosed with acquired nonaccommodative esotropia (ANAET). Retrospective chart review. Thirty-four pediatric patients who received surgery for ANAET by 1 surgeon (I.M.) at the Ivey Eye Institute, University of Western Ontario (London, Ont.). A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed ...
Wang Fei - - 2012
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive disease associated with a cellular inflammatory response mostly concerned with cigarette smoking. Chemokine receptors CCR1/5 play an important role in the inflammatory cells recruitment in the lung of COPD patients. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of cigarette ...
Jackson-Addie Kirsty - - 2012
On behalf of the Drug Metabolism Discussion Group, Regulatory Bioanalysis AstraZeneca (UK) recently organized and hosted an extremely successful Drug Metabolism Discussion Group Short Meeting on 'microsampling - the next big thing'. This attracted over 140 delegates and a strong line up of presenters of respected scientists within the field. ...
Vásquez María Alejandra - - 2012
Kingella kingae is a bacterium that colonizes the upper respiratory tract. Despite its low pathogenicity in this location, previous respiratory pathological processes may favor its systemic spread causing bone and joint infections, mainly in children under five years. It can be considered an emerging pathogen in osteoarticular infection in pediatric ...
Ji Na - - 2012
With economic growth and urbanization there have been significant changes in the life style and diet of urban residents in large cities of China, which is experiencing a rapid increase in the prevalence of diabetes. While high prevalence of diabetes has been reported, little is known of the long-term effects ...
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