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Jaenisch Rudolf R Whitehead Institute, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. - - 2012
The two winners of the 2012 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine share more than just this honor; they are both also fearless adventurers, in science and beyond.
Nagano Atsushi J - - 2012
Determining the drivers of gene expression patterns is more straightforward in laboratory conditions than in the complex fluctuating environments where organisms typically live. We gathered transcriptome data from the leaves of rice plants in a paddy field along with the corresponding meteorological data and used them to develop statistical models ...
Vuillaumier-Barrot Sandrine - - 2012
Cobblestone lissencephaly is a peculiar brain malformation with characteristic radiological anomalies. It is defined as cortical dysplasia that results when neuroglial overmigration into the arachnoid space forms an extracortical layer that produces agyria and/or a "cobblestone" brain surface and ventricular enlargement. Cobblestone lissencephaly is pathognomonic of a continuum of autosomal-recessive ...
Xiong Wei W The Dorris Neuroscience Center, Department of Cell Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, - - 2012
Hair cells are mechanosensors for the perception of sound, acceleration, and fluid motion. Mechanotransduction channels in hair cells are gated by tip links, which connect the stereocilia of a hair cell in the direction of their mechanical sensitivity. The molecular constituents of the mechanotransduction channels of hair cells are not ...
Talkowski Michael E - - 2012
Large intergenic noncoding (linc) RNAs represent a newly described class of ribonucleic acid whose importance in human disease remains undefined. We identified a severely developmentally delayed 16-year-old female with karyotype 46,XX,t(2;11)(p25.1;p15.1)dn in the absence of clinically significant copy number variants (CNVs). DNA capture followed by next-generation sequencing of the translocation ...
Ahmad Irfan - - 2012
Objective The aim of the current study was to investigate the psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics among patients who received anterior implant-supported prostheses.Methods The current study is a cross-sectional evaluation involving 115 individuals who had gone through treatment at the dental clinics of general hospitals. Participants completed the Chinese version ...
Itakura Eisuke - - 2012
The lysosome is a degradative organelle, and its fusion with other organelles is strictly regulated. In contrast to fusion with the late endosome, the mechanisms underlying autophagosome-lysosome fusion remain unknown. Here, we identify syntaxin 17 (Stx17) as the autophagosomal SNARE required for fusion with the endosome/lysosome. Stx17 localizes to the ...
Kato Kazuto - - 2012
Alongside the scientific barriers to the clinical translation of stem cell research are ethical and regulatory hurdles. Some of these challenges described by the Ethics and Public Policy Committee at the ISSCR Tenth Annual Meeting are presented here.
Lyssiotis Costas A - - 2012
The rewiring of metabolism in cancer is thought to result from hyperactivation of signaling pathways that instruct cells to grow. Sebastian et al. show that loss of the tumor suppressor SIRT6 transforms cells by activating tumor metabolism. This occurs independently of mutations in canonical growth signaling pathways and reveals a tumorigenic ...
Li Han H Tumor Suppression Group, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre, Madrid, E28029, - - 2012
The mechanisms responsible for the transcriptional silencing of pluripotency genes in differentiated cells are poorly understood. We have observed that cells lacking the tumor suppressor p27 can be reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in the absence of ectopic Sox2. Interestingly, cells and tissues from p27 null mice, including ...
Gao Liang L Janelia Farm Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ashburn, VA 20147, - - 2012
Optical imaging of the dynamics of living specimens involves tradeoffs between spatial resolution, temporal resolution, and phototoxicity, made more difficult in three dimensions. Here, however, we report that rapid three-dimensional (3D) dynamics can be studied beyond the diffraction limit in thick or densely fluorescent living specimens over many time points ...
Sontheimer Erik J - - 2012
In ciliates, small RNAs have been shown to target foreign sequences for silencing via elimination from the somatic genome. Fang et al. now reveal a set of Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) in Oxytricha trifallax that likewise enable genomic self versus nonself discrimination, this time by specifying self sequences for genome retention.
Pemberton M N - - 2012
Immunological reactions to chlorhexidine, including allergy (Type I hypersensitivity) and allergic contact dermatitis/stomatitis (Type IV hypersensitivity), have been recognised for many years. This potential safety issue, however, is not well known within dentistry. The purpose of this paper is to alert dentists and dental care professionals to the potential of ...
Brodsky Jeffrey L JL Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA. - - 2012
All cellular proteins are subject to quality control "decisions," which help to prevent or delay a myriad of diseases. Quality control within the secretory pathway creates a special challenge, as aberrant polypeptides are recognized and returned to the cytoplasm for proteasomal degradation. This process is termed endoplasmic-reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD).
- - 2012
Botulinum toxin (BoNT) to facilitate 'muscle relaxation', in combination with a 'light' filler for 'dermal treatment' and a 'heavy' filler for 'lifting capacity'.
Sebastián Carlos C The Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, - - 2012
Reprogramming of cellular metabolism is a key event during tumorigenesis. Despite being known for decades (Warburg effect), the molecular mechanisms regulating this switch remained unexplored. Here, we identify SIRT6 as a tumor suppressor that regulates aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells. Importantly, loss of SIRT6 leads to tumor formation without activation of known ...
Mehran Arya E - - 2012
Hyperinsulinemia is associated with obesity and pancreatic islet hyperplasia, but whether insulin causes these phenomena or is a compensatory response has remained unsettled for decades. We examined the role of insulin hypersecretion in diet-induced obesity by varying the pancreas-specific Ins1 gene dosage in mice lacking Ins2 gene expression in the ...
Tsukita Sohei - - 2012
Considering the explosive increase in obesity worldwide, there must be an unknown mechanism(s) promoting energy accumulation under conditions of overnutrition. We identified a feed-forward mechanism favoring energy storage, originating in hepatic glucokinase (GK) upregulation. High-fat feeding induced hepatic GK upregulation, and hepatic GK overexpression dose-dependently decreased adaptive thermogenesis by downregulating ...
Oruganty-Das Aparna A Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, - - 2012
Mitochondrial energy production is a tightly regulated process involving the coordinated transcription of several genes, catalysis of a plethora of posttranslational modifications, and the formation of very large molecular supercomplexes. The regulation of mitochondrial activity is particularly important for the brain, which is a high-energy-consuming organ that depends on oxidative ...
Rhodes Gillian G ARC Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders, School of Psychology, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia 6009, Australia. - - 2013
We routinely form impressions of people from their faces, and these impressions sometimes contain a kernel of truth. Impressions of trustworthiness are central to interpersonal relationships, but their accuracy remains contentious. Here, we investigated whether sexual trustworthiness (faithfulness) can be accurately judged from opposite-sex strangers' faces. Women's ratings of men's ...
Snaddon Jake - - 2013
A meeting on Biodiversity Technologies was held by the Biodiversity Institute, Oxford on the 27-28 of September 2012 at the Department of Zoology, University of Oxford. The symposium brought together 36 speakers from North America, Australia and across Europe, presenting the latest research on emerging technologies in biodiversity science and ...
Angelin Bo - - 2012
The circulating FGFs are a new group of proteins believed to function as classic hormones. With emphasis on human metabolism, we critically review current data, and propose that-although a number of questions remain-circulating FGF23 is pivotal in the control of phosphate and vitamin D metabolism, and may have additional systemic ...
Lanza Ian R IR Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, - - 2012
Caloric restriction (CR) mitigates many detrimental effects of aging and prolongs life span. CR has been suggested to increase mitochondrial biogenesis, thereby attenuating age-related declines in mitochondrial function, a concept that is challenged by recent studies. Here we show that lifelong CR in mice prevents age-related loss of mitochondrial oxidative capacity ...
Suárez-Rodríguez Monserrat M Departamento de Ecología Evolutiva, Instituto de Ecología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México 4510, - - 2013
Birds are known to respond to nest-dwelling parasites by altering behaviours. Some bird species, for example, bring fresh plants to the nest, which contain volatile compounds that repel parasites. There is evidence that some birds living in cities incorporate cigarette butts into their nests, but the effect (if any) of ...
Ros Susana - - 2012
Glycogen metabolism operates as an alternative energy source, enabling cell growth under conditions of metabolic stress. Favaro et al. (2012) now demonstrate that in hypoxic cancer cells, depletion of liver glycogen phosphorylase causes glycogen accumulation, leading to oxidative stress, induction of senescence, and impaired tumor growth in vivo.
Vollmers Christopher C Regulatory Biology Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA 92037, - - 2012
In the mouse liver, circadian transcriptional rhythms are necessary for metabolic homeostasis. Whether dynamic epigenomic modifications are associated with transcript oscillations has not been systematically investigated. We found that several antisense RNA, lincRNA, and microRNA transcripts also showed circadian oscillations in adult mouse livers. Robust transcript oscillations often correlated with ...
Maharjan Ram P RP School of Molecular and Microbial Biosciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006, - - 2013
Bacterial populations in clinical and laboratory settings contain a significant proportion of mutants with elevated mutation rates (mutators). Mutators have a particular advantage when multiple beneficial mutations are needed for fitness, as in antibiotic resistance. Nevertheless, high mutation rates potentially lead to increasing numbers of deleterious mutations and subsequently to ...
Buettner Christoph - - 2012
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance, and the hyperinsulinemia commonly observed in patients is thought to be a compensatory response. Yet it has been difficult to disentangle cause and effect. Mehran et al. (2012) provide genetic evidence that a reduction of insulin secretion prevents high-fat feeding-induced obesity.
Soto Iliana C IC Department of Neurology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136, - - 2012
Heme plays fundamental roles as cofactor and signaling molecule in multiple pathways devoted to oxygen sensing and utilization in aerobic organisms. For cellular respiration, heme serves as a prosthetic group in electron transfer proteins and redox enzymes. Here we report that in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a heme-sensing mechanism translationally ...
Nesbitt Sterling J SJ Burke Museum and Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. - - 2013
The rise of dinosaurs was a major event in vertebrate history, but the timing of the origin and early diversification of the group remain poorly constrained. Here, we describe Nyasasaurus parringtoni gen. et sp. nov., which is identified as either the earliest known member of, or the sister-taxon to, Dinosauria. ...
Levin Barry E BE Neurology Service, Veterans Administration Medical Center, East Orange, NJ 07019, USA. - - 2012
Metabolic sensing neurons are conserved across multiple animal species and allow the organism to monitor nutrient availability to maintain energy homeostasis. Miyamoto et al. (2012) describe fly neurons that are highly tuned to fructose availability and are critical determinants of ingestive behavior on a diet of simple sugars.
Morris Katrina K Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006, - - 2013
The Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) is at risk of extinction owing to the emergence of a contagious cancer known as devil facial tumour disease (DFTD). The emergence and spread of DFTD has been linked to low genetic diversity in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). We examined MHC diversity in historical ...
Liu Baohua B Department of Biochemistry, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong. - - 2012
Abnormal splicing of LMNA gene or aberrant processing of prelamin A results in progeroid syndrome. Here we show that lamin A interacts with and activates SIRT1. SIRT1 exhibits reduced association with nuclear matrix (NM) and decreased deacetylase activity in the presence of progerin or prelamin A, leading to rapid depletion of ...
Derecka Marta M Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Massey Cancer Center, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, - - 2012
Mice lacking the Jak tyrosine kinase member Tyk2 become progressively obese due to aberrant development of Myf5+ brown adipose tissue (BAT). Tyk2 RNA levels in BAT and skeletal muscle, which shares a common progenitor with BAT, are dramatically decreased in mice placed on a high-fat diet and in obese humans. ...
Ramos Andrea I AI Department of Cell and Developmental Biology and Program in Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, - - 2012
How do gene regulatory networks evolve? A new study in yeasts shows that cis- and trans-regulatory changes resulted in a hybrid state of coexisting ancestral and derived regulatory circuits. This hybrid state then diversified into a variety of modern networks.
Pimm Stuart L - - 2012
'How many species are there?' is a basic question about life. From Acoela worms to Zoantharia corals, oceans are taxonomically more divergent than land. Answering the question requires many experts.
Werner Michael E ME Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, - - 2012
Despite decades of research there are still basic aspects of planar cell polarity that are not well understood. Recent work in mouse tracheal epithelial cells links microtubules with both establishing asymmetry as well as responding to this asymmetry to coordinate cellular orientation.
Kopp Artyom - - 2012
Host-plant specialization plays a key role in insect evolution, but little is known about its molecular basis. A new paper shows that a cactus-feeding fly became restricted to its host by changes in an enzyme that converts dietary sterols into essential hormones.
Sallet J J Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3UD, UK. - - 2012
Information relevant for social interactions is thought to be processed in specific neural circuits. Recent studies shed new light on how that social information is encoded and processed by different brain areas.
Strange Kevin - - 2012
Pacemaker cells are specialized cell types that drive biological rhythms like the heartbeat and intestinal peristalsis. What determines whether a cell functions as a pacemaker? Studies in Caenorhabditis elegans suggest that pacemaking activity may be controlled in part by microRNAs.
Powers Maureen A - - 2012
The massive nuclear pore complex mediates nucleocytoplasmic traffic ranging from a single histone to a viral genome. To date, dissecting mechanism has been more an exercise in prediction than biochemical certainty. A recent study combines recombinant proteins with nuclei reconstituted in vitro to test predictions in a startlingly productive manner.
Burrows Malcolm - - 2012
Animals that live or repeatedly alight on the surface of water often need to escape from predators or return to land. We show that flightless pygmy mole crickets use a new strategy to jump rapidly from water. Their powerful hind legs are moved so quickly that they penetrate the surface ...
Thadani Rahul - - 2012
The processes underlying the large-scale reorganisation of chromatin in mitosis that form compact mitotic chromosomes and ensure the fidelity of chromosome segregation during cell division still remain obscure. The chromosomal condensin complex is a major molecular effector of chromosome condensation and segregation in diverse organisms ranging from bacteria to humans. ...
Xu Xing - - 2012
Scientists long thought they knew what the wings of early birds looked like. But new reconstructions of Archaeopteryx and its kin suggest quite different feather arrangements on their wings with profound implications for the evolution of flight.
Geurts René - - 2012
Mycorrhizal root endosymbiosis is an ancient property of land plants. Two parallel studies now provide novel insight into the mechanism driving this interaction and how it is used by other filamentous microbes like pathogenic oomycetes.
Boudoulas Konstantinos Dean - - 2012
Objective: Compare vascular complications and incidence of bleeding of Impella 2.5 and intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) in high-risk percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). Background: Large arterial sheath size for device insertion is associated with vascular and/or bleeding complications; gastrointestinal bleeding may also occur with anti-coagulation use. Methods: Patients with an acute ...
Subramanyam Padma - - 2012
Lymphedema is the edema that results from chronic lymphatic insufficiency. Lymphatic filariasis is caused by the filarial nematodes Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori. Lymphatic filariasis is common in tropical and subtropical regions. Early diagnosis and prompt therapy can be implemented using lymphoscintigraphy. Our patient is a 15-year-old boy ...
Krockenberger Mathias - - 2012
Ovarian cancer is generally thought of as a cancer with poor prognosis. However, prognostic appraisal of the disease is based on tumor stages, surgical features or sensibility towards platinum-based chemotherapy. There are data that also grant immunological parameters such as CD8(+) T-lymphocyte-(CD8 T-cell) infiltration in tumor tissue, a prognostic role. ...
Rey-Ares Lucila - - 2012
Introduction. Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide. The human papilloma virus (HPV) has been identifed as the etiologic agent of cervical and other anogenital cancers. The aim was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of HPV vaccines in preventing cervical ...
Ganslmayer Marion - - 2012
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are promising antitumoral drugs. Currently there are no data regarding the comparison of different HDAC inhibitors on hepatoma cells. Hepatoma cells were incubated with the HDAC inhibitors MS-275, SAHA, FK901228 and trichostatin. Proliferation was assessed via BrdU incorporation and apoptosis rate via flow cytometry. Trichostatin, SAHA ...
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