Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 5693
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Nathues H - - 2012
The aim of the present study was to identify potential risk factors for the occurrence of enzootic pneumonia (EP) in herds situated in a region of high pig density, where a majority of herds is endemically infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Between 2006 and 2010, overall 100 herds were enrolled in ...
He Yuhui - - 2012
Manipulating DNA translocation through nanopore is one crucial requirement for new ultra-fast sequencing methods in the sense that the polymers have to be denatured, unraveled and then propelled through the pore with very low speed. Here we propose and theoretically explore a novel design to fulfill the demands by utilizing ...
Knoll Florian - - 2012
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Complement activation products are present in atherosclerotic plaques. Recently, binding of complement to elastin and collagen in the aortic wall has been demonstrated, suggesting a role of complement in the development aortic stiffness and atherosclerosis. The definitive role of complement in atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis, however, remains unclear. CASE ...
Nakanishi Yuki - - 2012
There is great interest in tumor stem cells (TSCs) as potential therapeutic targets; however, cancer therapies targeting TSCs are limited. A drawback is that TSC markers are often shared by normal stem cells (NSCs); thus, therapies that target these markers may cause severe injury to normal tissues. To identify a ...
Shi Xiaoshan - - 2012
Ionic protein-lipid interactions are critical for the structure and function of membrane receptors, ion channels, integrins and many other proteins. However, the regulatory mechanism of these interactions is largely unknown. Here we show that Ca(2+) can bind directly to anionic phospholipids and thus modulate membrane protein function. The activation of ...
Castanon I - - 2012
Oriented mitosis is essential during tissue morphogenesis. The Wnt/planar cell polarity (Wnt/PCP) pathway orients mitosis in a number of developmental systems, including dorsal epiblast cell divisions along the animal-vegetal (A-V) axis during zebrafish gastrulation. How Wnt signalling orients the mitotic plane is, however, unknown. Here we show that, in dorsal ...
Maestro Laura Martínez - - 2012
Aims: This article demonstrates how controlled hyperthermia at the cellular level can be achieved. Methods: The method is based on the simultaneous intracellular incorporation of fluorescence nanothermometers (CdSe quantum dots) and metallic nanoheaters (gold nanorods). Results: Real-time spectral analysis of the quantum dot emission provides a detailed feedback about the ...
Sugihara Toru - - 2012
OBJECTIVES: To reveal individual, institutional and regional factors affecting selection of minimally invasive nephroureterectomy in Japan. METHODS: The Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination database was queried to retrieve cases of nephroureterectomy for pelvic or ureter malignancies carried out between 2007 and 2010. A multivariate logistic regression analysis with variables including age, ...
Pandey A - - 2012
Nanoscale materials have been investigated extensively for applications in memory and data storage. Recent advances include memories based on metal nanoparticles, nanoscale phase-change materials and molecular switches. Traditionally, magnetic storage materials make use of magnetic fields to address individual storage elements. However, new materials with magnetic properties addressable via alternative ...
Bruchard Mélanie - - 2013
Chemotherapeutic agents are widely used for cancer treatment. In addition to their direct cytotoxic effects, these agents harness the host's immune system, which contributes to their antitumor activity. Here we show that two clinically used chemotherapeutic agents, gemcitabine (Gem) and 5-fluorouracil (5FU), activate the NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing-3 ...
Wojtkowska MaƂgorzata - - 2013
The goal of the research was to determine the concentration of Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd forms in the bottom sediments of Czerniakowskie Lake situated within the boundaries of Warsaw. Sediment cores collected for examination purposes were divided into sections, which were approximately 5 cm thick and were analysed to ...
Rollauer Sarah E - - 2012
The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway is one of two general protein transport systems found in the prokaryotic cytoplasmic membrane and is conserved in the thylakoid membrane of plant chloroplasts. The defining, and highly unusual, property of the Tat pathway is that it transports folded proteins, a task that must be ...
Birsoy Kivanç - - 2013
There is increasing evidence that oncogenic transformation modifies the metabolic program of cells. A common alteration is the upregulation of glycolysis, and efforts to target glycolytic enzymes for anticancer therapy are under way. Here, we performed a genome-wide haploid genetic screen to identify resistance mechanisms to 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA), a drug ...
Chou Fang-Chieh - - 2013
Three-dimensional RNA models fitted into crystallographic density maps exhibit pervasive conformational ambiguities, geometric errors and steric clashes. To address these problems, we present enumerative real-space refinement assisted by electron density under Rosetta (ERRASER), coupled to Python-based hierarchical environment for integrated 'xtallography' (PHENIX) diffraction-based refinement. On 24 data sets, ERRASER automatically ...
Kurian Leo - - 2013
Lineage conversion of one somatic cell type to another is an attractive approach for generating specific human cell types. Lineage conversion can be direct, in the absence of proliferation and multipotent progenitor generation, or indirect, by the generation of expandable multipotent progenitor states. We report the development of a reprogramming ...
Otomo Chinatsu - - 2013
The autophagy factor ATG12~ATG5 conjugate exhibits E3 ligase-like activity which facilitates the lipidation of members of the LC3 family. The crystal structure of the human ATG12~ATG5 conjugate bound to the N-terminal region of ATG16L1, the factor that recruits the conjugate to autophagosomal membranes, reveals an integrated architecture in which ATG12 ...
Ito Naoki - - 2013
Skeletal muscle atrophy occurs in aging and pathological conditions, including cancer, diabetes and AIDS. Treatment of atrophy is based on either preventing protein-degradation pathways, which are activated during atrophy, or activating protein-synthesis pathways, which induce muscle hypertrophy. Here we show that neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) regulates load-induced hypertrophy by ...
Mauldin Randall V - - 2013
The PDZ domains of the trimeric DegS protease bind unassembled outer-membrane proteins (OMPs) that accumulate in the Escherichia coli periplasm. This cooperative binding reaction triggers a proteolytic cascade that activates a transcriptional stress response. To dissect the mechanism of allosteric activation, we generated hybrid DegS trimers with different numbers of ...
Gut Philipp - - 2013
Improving the control of energy homeostasis can lower cardiovascular risk in metabolically compromised individuals. To identify new regulators of whole-body energy control, we conducted a high-throughput screen in transgenic reporter zebrafish for small molecules that modulate the expression of the fasting-inducible gluconeogenic gene pck1. We show that this in vivo ...
Sausen Mark - - 2013
Neuroblastomas are tumors of peripheral sympathetic neurons and are the most common solid tumor in children. To determine the genetic basis for neuroblastoma, we performed whole-genome sequencing (6 cases), exome sequencing (16 cases), genome-wide rearrangement analyses (32 cases) and targeted analyses of specific genomic loci (40 cases) using massively parallel ...
Kidoh Masafumi - - 2013
We hypothesized that 3D time-of-flight (TOF) and true fast imaging with steady-state precession (true-FISP) fusion imaging could provide more information regarding the arterial vessel wall. The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of lesion detection and the diagnostic confidence of VAD between TOF images alone and fused ...
Hossain Shaolie S SS Department of Translational Imaging, The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, 6670 Bertner Avenue, Room R8-218, Houston, TX 77030, USA. - - 2013
To predict the deposition of nanoparticles in a patient-specific arterial tree as a function of the vascular architecture, flow conditions, receptor surface density and nanoparticle properties. The patient-specific vascular geometry is reconstructed from computed tomography angiography images. The isogeometric analysis framework integrated with a special boundary condition for the firm ...
Wu Xinle X Amgen Inc., 1120 Veterans Boulevard, South San Francisco, CA 94080, - - 2013
Elevated triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol levels are risk factors for cardiovascular disease and are often associated with diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Recent reports suggest that fibroblast growth factor (FGF)19 and FGF21 can dramatically improve metabolic dysfunction, including hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypercholesterolemia. Due to their similar receptor specificities and co-receptor requirements, ...
Xiao Xunjun X Department of Pediatrics, Childrenrsquos Hospital of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, - - 2013
Colipase is essential for efficient fat digestion. An arginine-to-cysteine polymorphism at position 92 of colipase (Arg92Cys) associates with an increased risk for developing type-2 diabetes through an undefined mechanism. To test our hypothesis that the extra cysteine increases colipase misfolding, thereby altering its intracellular trafficking and function, we expressed Cys92 ...
Stathopoulou Maria G MG Université de Lorraine, Génétique Cardio-vasculaire, EA-4373, Nancy, F-54000, - - 2013
Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) is among the most-significant stimulators of angiogenesis. Its effect on cardiovascular diseases and on the variation of related risk factors such as lipid parameters is considered important, although as yet unclear. Recently, we identified four common variants (rs6921438, rs4416670, rs6993770, and rs10738760) that explain ...
Potjans Tobias C - - 2012
In the past decade, the cell-type specific connectivity and activity of local cortical networks have been characterized experimentally to some detail. In parallel, modeling has been established as a tool to relate network structure to activity dynamics. While available comprehensive connectivity maps ( Thomson, West, et al. 2002; Binzegger et ...
O'Connell Motherway Mary M Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, National University of Ireland, Western Road, Cork, Ireland; Departments of Microbiology, National University of Ireland, Western Road, Cork, - - 2013
Several prebiotics, such as inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides and galacto-oligosaccharides, are widely used commercially in foods and there is convincing evidence, in particular for galacto-oligosaccharides, that prebiotics can modulate the microbiota and promote bifidobacterial growth in the intestinal tract of infants and adults. In this study we describe the identification and functional ...
Wieschalka Stefan S Institute of Microbiology and Biotechnology, University of Ulm, Ulm, - - 2013
The shortage of oil resources, the steadily rising oil prices and the impact of its use on the environment evokes an increasing political, industrial and technical interest for development of safe and efficient processes for the production of chemicals from renewable biomass. Thus, microbial fermentation of renewable feedstocks found its ...
Ramos Rommel Thiago Jucá RT Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University Pará, Belém, Pará, - - 2013
New sequencing platforms have enabled rapid decoding of complete prokaryotic genomes at relatively low cost. The Ion Torrent platform is an example of these technologies, characterized by lower coverage, generating challenges for the genome assembly. One particular problem is the lack of genomes that enable reference-based assembly, such as the ...
Hoefig Kai P KP Institute of Molecular Immunology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, München, - - 2013
The exoRNase Eri1 inhibits RNA interference and trims the 5.8S rRNA 3' end. It also binds to the stem-loop of histone mRNAs, but the functional importance of this interaction remains elusive. Histone mRNAs are normally degraded at the end of S phase or after pharmacological inhibition of replication. Both processes ...
Ye Yu Y Division of Protein and Nucleic Acids Chemistry, MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge CB2 0QH, - - 2012
Mechanisms of protein recognition have been extensively studied for single-domain proteins, but are less well characterized for dynamic multidomain systems. Ubiquitin chains represent a biologically important multidomain system that requires recognition by structurally diverse ubiquitin-interacting proteins. Ubiquitin chain conformations in isolation are often different from conformations observed in ubiquitin-interacting protein ...
Nithianantharajah Jess J Genes to Cognition Programme, Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences and Centre for Neuroregeneration, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, - - 2013
The origins and evolution of higher cognitive functions, including complex forms of learning, attention and executive functions, are unknown. A potential mechanism driving the evolution of vertebrate cognition early in the vertebrate lineage (550 million years ago) was genome duplication and subsequent diversification of postsynaptic genes. Here we report, to ...
Cohen Nadia R NR Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, - - 2013
Invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells) are innate-like T lymphocytes that act as critical regulators of the immune response. To better characterize this population, we profiled gene expression in iNKT cells during ontogeny and in peripheral subsets as part of the Immunological Genome Project. High-resolution comparative transcriptional analyses defined ...
Knobloch Marlen M Brain Research Institute, Faculty of Medicine, University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich, - - 2013
Mechanisms controlling the proliferative activity of neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPCs) have a pivotal role to ensure life-long neurogenesis in the mammalian brain. How metabolic programs are coupled with NSPC activity remains unknown. Here we show that fatty acid synthase (Fasn), the key enzyme of de novo lipogenesis, is ...
Wang Chenhui C Department of Immunology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, - - 2013
Act1 is an essential adaptor in interleukin 17 (IL-17)-mediated signaling and is recruited to the receptor for IL-17 after stimulation with IL-17. Here we found that Act1 was a 'client' protein of the molecular chaperone hsp90. The D10N variant of Act1 (Act1(D10N)) that is linked to susceptibility to psoriasis was ...
Kretz Markus M The Program in Epithelial Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, - - 2013
Several of the thousands of human long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been functionally characterized; however, potential roles for lncRNAs in somatic tissue differentiation remain poorly understood. Here we show that a 3.7-kilobase lncRNA, terminal differentiation-induced ncRNA (TINCR), controls human epidermal differentiation by a post-transcriptional mechanism. TINCR is required for high ...
- - 2013
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the commonest cause of death. Here, we report an association analysis in 63,746 CAD cases and 130,681 controls identifying 15 loci reaching genome-wide significance, taking the number of susceptibility loci for CAD to 46, and a further 104 independent variants (r(2) < 0.2) strongly associated ...
Bokulich Nicholas A NA Department of Viticulture and Enology, University of California, Davis, Davis, California, - - 2013
High-throughput sequencing has revolutionized microbial ecology, but read quality remains a considerable barrier to accurate taxonomy assignment and α-diversity assessment for microbial communities. We demonstrate that high-quality read length and abundance are the primary factors differentiating correct from erroneous reads produced by Illumina GAIIx, HiSeq and MiSeq instruments. We present ...
Ryan Tomás J TJ Genes to Cognition Programme, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Cambridge, - - 2013
Two genome duplications early in the vertebrate lineage expanded gene families, including GluN2 subunits of the NMDA receptor. Diversification between the four mammalian GluN2 proteins occurred primarily at their intracellular C-terminal domains (CTDs). To identify shared ancestral functions and diversified subunit-specific functions, we exchanged the exons encoding the GluN2A (also ...
Horikoshi Momoko M Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford, - - 2013
Birth weight within the normal range is associated with a variety of adult-onset diseases, but the mechanisms behind these associations are poorly understood. Previous genome-wide association studies of birth weight identified a variant in the ADCY5 gene associated both with birth weight and type 2 diabetes and a second variant, ...
Micó Vicente - - 2012
Common-path phase-shifting lensless holographic microscopy has been recently proposed as a novel approach capable of high numerical aperture imaging in a lensless digital inline holographic microscopy layout [Opt. Lett.35, 3919 (2010)]. Here we present proof-of-concept validation for improving the resolution limit imposed by diffraction in such a setup. This is ...
de la Osa R Alcaraz - - 2012
The optical properties of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) can be described with analytical models based on fundamental quantum mechanical principles, of which the Drude model constitutes the classical limit. Here, we examine the plasmonic properties of silver and gold nanospheres and dimers, with radii ranging from 10 to 1 nm, extending from ...
Dashnaw Matthew L - - 2012
There has been a growing interest in the diagnosis and management of mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), or concussion. Repetitive concussion and subconcussion have been linked to a spectrum of neurological sequelae, including postconcussion syndrome, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia pugilistica. A more common risk than chronic ...
Ethan Danna - - 2012
With the rising rates of diabetes and obesity in New York City's poorest communities, efforts to assist low-income residents in spending money to promote nutritious food consumption have increased. The objective of this study was to assess the extent to which Bronx-based grocery stores offered nutritious foods on sale through ...
Suzuki Hiromichi - - 2012
Panipenem/betamipron (PAPM/BP) may be highly effective for life-threatening Streptococcus pneumoniae infection. However, the efficacy of PAPM/BP for S. pneumoniae infections has not been compared with that of other antimicrobial agents. We retrospectively compared PAPM/BP with other carbapenems for treatment of life-threatening infections in newly hospitalized adults with pneumococcal bacteremia. Clinical ...
Gaudin Amélie C M - - 2012
Numerous transgenes have been reported to increase rice drought resistance, mostly in small-scale experiments under vegetative-stage drought stress, but few studies have included grain yield or field evaluations. Different definitions of drought resistance are currently in use for field-based and laboratory evaluations of transgenics, the former emphasizing plant responses that ...
Yoshimachi Fuminobu - - 2012
A 72-year-old male with effort angina pectoris and old myocardial infarction underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A 4 Fr sheath was inserted in the radial artery. After diagnostic angiography, a guidewire was inserted from the diagnostic catheter. The diagnostic catheter is removed, and the distal tip of the guidewire remains in ...
Wood Stephen P - - 2012
Contrast-induced nephropathy is an iatrogenic disease caused by the administration of iodinated contrast material to certain at-risk patients. The clinical features include renal failure, with oliguria, anuria, and electrolyte derangements. Contrast-induced nephropathy can prolong hospitalization, result in greater morbidity and mortality, and increase patients' costs. A variety of preventive and ...
Xu Wei - - 2012
Excited by a 980 nm laser, upconversion emissions centered at 384 (Er<sup>3+</sup>:G4<sub>11/2</sub>→I4<sub>15/2</sub>) and 408 nm (Er<sup>3+</sup>:H2<sub>9/2</sub>→I4<sub>15/2</sub>) in Er<sup>3+</sup>/Yb<sup>3+</sup> codoped polycrystalline CaWO<sub>4</sub> were successfully obtained. The G<sub>11/2</sub>4 and H<sub>9/2</sub>2 states of Er<sup>3+</sup> were verified to be thermally coupled levels, which can emit the shortest wavelength emissions for optical thermometry known so far. Based ...
Eyo J E - - 2012
Urinary schistosomiasis is caused by the deposition of eggs by adult flukes in the blood vessels surrounding the bladder of the infected host. Schistosomiasis is ranked the second most important parasitic disease of man and undoubtedly the most important of helminth origin. This paper reports the prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium ...
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