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Philipp Patrick - - 2012
The performance of organic optoelectronic devices depends a lot on interface structure and width. Dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) has been widely used to investigate interfaces in classical semiconductor devices and limitations are quite well understood. For low-energy dynamic SIMS on organic optoelectronic devices, sputter-induced diffusion processes and roughness ...
van Gastel W A - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Although the association between cannabis use and a wide range of psychiatric symptoms is fairly well established, it is not clear whether cannabis use is also a risk factor for general mental health problems at secondary school. Method A total of 10 324 secondary school children aged 11-16 years, ...
Kehr Nermin Seda - - 2012
Dye-loaded periodic mesoporous organosilica particles functionalized with bioactive molecules were used for the generation of a nanocomposite alginate hydrogel. The affinity of cells was up to four times higher with the embedded particles than with simple alginate hydrogel, caused by both the nanometer-scale particle itself and its bioactive functionalization.
Kim Hun Young - - 2012
The elimination pathway of stereochemically defined β-halovinyl ketones has been investigated using a mild base NEt3, leading to the formation of allenyl ketones and propargyl ketones. A preferential α-vinyl enolization of (E)-β-chlorovinyl ketones has been observed where a non-planar s-cis conformation is proposed as a dominant conformation as opposed to ...
Niu Yi - - 2012
We consider a marginal model for the regression analysis of clustered failure time data with a cure fraction. We propose to use novel generalized estimating equations in an expectation-maximization algorithm to estimate regression parameters in a semiparametric proportional hazards mixture cure model. The dependence among the cure statuses and among ...
Rawson Kenneth G - - 2012
AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of fluoride in community water at the point of source, compared to the concentration delivered to various locations within the Las Vegas Valley, to determine if the levels of fluoride change over distance. METHODS: Ten samples per week over ...
Mickes Laura - - 2012
We investigated the nature of motor symptoms in the preclinical stage of Huntington's disease. Individuals with the CAG expanded repeat of Huntington's disease (prHD) and two control groups were tested on a task requiring a releasing movement (releasing a depressed button) followed by a ballistic movement (pressing a different button). ...
Boivin Michel - - 2012
The Quebec Newborn Twin Study (QNTS) is an ongoing prospective longitudinal follow-up of a birth cohort of twins born between 1995 and 1998 in the greater Montreal area, Québec, Canada. The goal of QNTS is to document individual differences in the cognitive, behavioral, and social-emotional aspects of developmental health across ...
Chan George C - - 2012
A statistical protocol was developed and verified for automated signaling of matrix interferences in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Spatial emission profiles in ICP-AES are versatile indicators for flagging matrix interference. A family of calibration curves is first generated by measurements of standard solutions at different spatial locations in ...
Nicolaou K C - - 2012
At the core of chemistry lie the structure of the molecule, the art of its synthesis, and the design of function within it. This Essay traces the understanding of the structure of the molecule, the emergence of organic synthesis, and the art of total synthesis from the 19th century to ...
Jardim Denis Leonardo Fontes - - 2012
Objectives: Bevacizumab has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration as a first-line therapy for metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel. A single Latin American center experience was reviewed to determine the safety and efficacy of adding bevacizumab to first-line chemotherapy in a ...
Wilson Robert L - - 2012
The uneven cholesterol distribution among organelles and within the plasma membrane is postulated to be critical for proper cellular function. To study how interactions between cholesterol and specific lipid species contribute to the uneven cholesterol distribution between and within cellular membranes, model lipid membranes are frequently employed. Although the cholesterol ...
McLernon D J - - 2012
SUMMARY We estimated prevalence and incidence of liver condition outcomes, and costs to the health service of diagnosed hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Tayside, UK. HBV patients were identified from electronic virology data between 1989 and 2003. The health resource costs of HBV for surface antigen-positive (HBsAg+) patients and HBV ...
Lin Po-Chiao - - 2012
We have developed a target-molecule-functionalized magnetic nanoparticle (MNP)-based method to facilitate the study of bio-molecular recognition and separation. The superparamagnetic property of MNPs allows the corresponding biomolecules to be rapidly separated from crude biofluids with a significant improvement in recovery yield and specificity. Various MNPs functionalized with tag molecules (chitin, ...
McKenney Peter T - - 2012
Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis involves an asymmetric cell division followed by differentiation into two cell types, the endospore and the mother cell. The endospore coat is a multilayered shell that protects the bacterial genome during stress conditions and is composed of dozens of proteins. Recently, fluorescence microscopy coupled with high-resolution ...
Kroneisen Meike - - 2012
Nairne and collaborators showed that assessing the relevance of words in the context of an imagined survival scenario boosts memory for these words. Although this survival-processing advantage has attracted a considerable amount of research, little is known about the proximate memory mechanism mediating this effect. Recently, Kroneisen and Erdfelder (2011) ...
Albrecht B - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Patients with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibit difficulties in multiple attentional functions. Although high heritability rates suggest a strong genetic impact, aetiological pathways from genes and environmental factors to the ADHD phenotype are not well understood. Tracking the time course of deviant task processing using event-related electrophysiological brain activity ...
Roche Ann M - - 2012
ISSUE: The rationale and potential impact of Australia's recent legislative changes regulating secondary supply of alcohol to minors, particularly on private premises. APPROACH: An examination of similarities and differences between state and territory liquor licensing legislation regulating secondary supply of alcohol to minors was undertaken. KEY FINDINGS: The Northern Territory, ...
Sun Jing - - 2012
Aim:To explore whether the synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 could protect oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) in stroke penumbra, thereby providing neuroprotection following permanent focal cerebral ischemia in rats.Methods:Adult male SD rats were subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (p-MCAO). The animals were administered WIN55,212-2 at 2 h, and sacrificed ...
Graf Heiko - - 2012
While antidepressants are supposed to exert similar effects on mood and drive via various mechanisms of action, diverging effects are observed regarding side-effects and accordingly on neural correlates of motivation, emotion, reward and salient stimuli processing as a function of the drugs impact on neurotransmission. In the context of erotic ...
Lin Lin - - 2012
Shell@core-nanostructured TiO(2)@ZnO n-p-n heterojunction nanorods with diameter of 30 nm were successfully fabricated via a hydrothermal method. The photodegradation rate of the TiO(2)@ZnO n-p-n nanorods evaluated by photodegrading methyl orange has been demonstrated to increase three times compared to that of wurtzite hexagonal ZnO. Anatase TiO(2) and Ti(2)O(3) grow along ...
Lampard Amy M - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To determine if the relationships between additional maintaining factors and core eating disorder maintaining mechanisms outlined in the cognitive-behavioural model of eating disorders are transdiagnostic. METHOD: Patients (n = 1451) diagnosed with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa (BN) or eating disorder not otherwise specified completed the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, Eating Disorder ...
Mabbott Samuel - - 2012
A new optimisation strategy for the SERS detection of mephedrone using a portable Raman system has been developed. A fractional factorial design was employed and the number of statistically significant experiments (288) was greatly reduced from the actual total number of experiments (1722), which minimised the workload whilst maintaining the ...
Rusten Espen - - 2012
Purpose. To study soft tissue sarcomas using dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) with the glucose analog tracer [(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ((18)FDG), to investigate correlations between derived PET image parameters and clinical characteristics, and to discuss implications of dynamic PET acquisition (D-PET). Material and methods. D-PET images of 11 patients with soft tissue ...
Mames Iwona - - 2012
A new type of hetero- and homo-polynuclear complexes of copper(ii) and nickel(ii) containing 1,2,3-triazole groups in polymethylene chains have been synthesized and characterized using NMR and electrochemical methods. The triazole link facilitates the synthesis of hetero-dinuclear macrocyclic complexes. Introducing the triazole unit into the complex structure can lead to increased ...
Shi Jing - - 2012
Aim:To investigate the pharmacokinetics and dopamine/acetylcholine-releasing effects of ginsenoside Re (Re) in brain regions related to learning and memory, and to clarify the neurochemical mechanisms underlying its anti-dementia activity.Methods:Microdialysis was conducted on awake, freely moving adult male SD rats with dialysis probes implanted into the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) ...
Kantarevic Jasmin - - 2012
Pay for performance (P4P) incentives for physicians are generally designed as additional payments that can be paired with any existing payment mechanism such as a salary, fee-for-services and capitation. However, the link between the physician response to performance incentives and the existing payment mechanisms is still not well understood. In ...
Hara-Kudo Y - - 2012
The National Food Surveillance System in Japan was formed in 1998 to monitor the contamination of retail foods with bacterial pathogens. Approximately 2000-3000 samples were tested annually, and the data from food categories that had more than 400 samples collected during 1998-2008 were analysed. With regard to meat, the frequency ...
Cervantes Sara - - 2012
The gastrointestinal tract carries out essential functions for the organism, including the digestion and absorption of nutrients. The cells lining the lumen of the gut tube derive from the endoderm, one of the three germ layers formed during gastrulation. The length of the intestinal tract determines its digestive and absorptive ...
Lanteri G - - 2012
Male cross-breed lamb conjoined twins were sent for examination. The twins came from a farm located in the outskirts of Palermo. The twins were spontaneously delivered and found dead by the farmer. X-ray examination and necropsy were performed. The deformity was identified as deradelphus cephalo-thoracoomphalopagus. This condition has never been ...
Li Jing - - 2012
Aim:To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the influence of DNA polymerase from different genotypes of hepatitis B virus (HBV) on the binding affinity of adefovir (ADV).Methods:Computational approaches, including homology modeling, docking, MD simulation and MM/PBSA free energy analyses were used.Results:Sequence analyses revealed that residue 238 near the binding pocket was ...
Karbalaei Narges - - 2012
Objective. Since thyroid hormones play fundamental roles in somatic growth and metabolism, disturbances of thyroid function affect many organs and systems. Both fetal hypothyroidism and aging can affect carbohydrate metabolism during adult life. This study aims to assess the glucose tolerance and insulin secretion capacity of islets in young and ...
Dang Jun - - 2012
Grade ≥ 3 radiation pneumonitis (RP) is generally severe and life-threatening. Predictors of grade ≥ 2 are usually used for grade ≥ 3 RP prediction, but it is unclear whether these predictors are appropriate. In this study, predictors of grade ≥ 2 and grade ≥ 3 RP were investigated separately. ...
Chang Yu-Ching - - 2012
A simple pretreatment procedure was developed for the analysis of dioxins in soil samples using gas chromatography/multiphoton ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The sample was subjected to a pressurized liquid extraction procedure, followed by separation using a pair of Sulfoxide and Ag-ION columns for clean-up. Due to the high selectivity of laser ...
Barr G A - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Stimulation of a variety of brain sites electrically or by opiates activates descending inhibitory pathways to attenuate noxious input to the spinal cord dorsal horn and produce analgesia. Analgesia induced by electrical stimulation of the periaqueductal grey (PAG) of the midbrain or medial rostral ventral medulla (RVM) matures late, ...
Hynds Robert E - - 2012
Epithelial organ remodeling is a major contributing factor to worldwide death and disease, costing healthcare systems billions of dollars every year. Despite this, most fundamental epithelial organ research fails to produce new therapies and mortality rates for epithelial organ diseases remain unacceptably high. In large part, this failure in translating ...
Tang Heqing - - 2012
Direct evidences were first demonstrated for the oxidative degradation of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) in aqueous TiO2 dispersions under UV irradiation (λ>340 nm). BDE209 was hardly debrominated over TiO2 in UV-irradiated acetonitrile dispersions, but the addition of water into the dispersions greatly enhanced its photocatalytic oxidative debromination. The debromination efficiency of ...
Sam Cecilia Hy - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reliability and relative validity of a semi-quantitative FFQ for assessing the habitual intake of multiple nutrients in New Zealand (NZ) adults over the past 12 months. DESIGN: A 154-item FFQ was developed. After initial pre-testing, reliability was assessed using intra-class correlations. Relative validity was assessed by ...
Terriente Javier - - 2012
The introduction of mechanism-based targeted therapies to treat human cancers is fruit of decades of research into the molecular basis of cancer pathogenesis. Despite the growing knowledge about the molecular mechanisms governing its causes and progression, there is a lack of effective treatments for many types of cancer. The expensive ...
Salama M - - 2012
A key feature of Parkinson's disease is the dopaminergic neuronal cell loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Besides inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis, a recent hypothesis suggested that degeneration of dopaminergic neurons occurs secondary to abnormal mitosis in these 'postmitotic neurons', ending up in apoptosis. Hence, recent therapies tried ...
Cognard Emmanuelle - - 2012
Pancreatic β-cells are highly responsive to changes in glucose but the mechanisms involved are only partially understood. There is increasing evidence that the β-catenin signalling pathway plays an important role in regulating β-cell function but the mechanisms regulating β-catenin signalling in these cells is not well understood. Here we show ...
Raveau Bernard - - 2012
Transition-metal oxides have been widely studied for understanding the physics of strongly electron-correlated systems. The crucial role of crystal chemistry for the discovery of three families: the high T(c) superconducting cuprates, the colossal magnetoresistance manganates, the thermoelectric, and multiferroic cobaltates, is explored.
Parés-Casanova P M - - 2012
The purpose of this article was to examine the level of sexual dimorphism exhibited in the foramen magnum and occipital condyles of bovine juveniles and to test the utility of three basicranial measurements for estimating sex and to evaluate breed differences. Data were taken from 68 bovines of known sex, ...
Alibek Kenneth - - 2012
ABSTRACT: Since the late 1990s, infectious agents have been thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of approximately 15% of cancers. It is now widely accepted that infection of stomach tissue with the bacteria Helicobacter pylori is an important cause of stomach adenocarcinoma. In addition, oncogenic viruses, such as ...
Ogoshi Tomoki - - 2012
We report a new route for the selective synthesis of di- and tetra-functionalized pillararenes via oxidation and reduction of the pillararene units. Hypervalent-iodine oxidation of perethylated pillar[5]arene afforded pillar[5]arene derivatives containing one benzoquinone unit and two benzoquinones at the A,B- and A,C-units. A pillar[6]arene derivative containing one benzoquinone unit was ...
Haugen Thomas A - - 2012
Abstract We examined the effect of different false start rules and starters' holding time on athletics sprinters' reaction times. Reaction times from 210 female (25.2 ± 3.8 years) and 361 male (24.8 ± 3.8 years) 100 m sprinters, participating in international championships for seniors from 1997 to 2011, were analysed. Holding time calculations were based ...
Hopper John L - - 2012
The Australian Twin Registry (ATR) is a national volunteer resource of twin pairs and higher-order multiples willing to consider participating in health, medical, and scientific research. The vision of the ATR is 'to realize the full potential of research involving twins to improve the health and well-being of all Australians'. ...
Berlim M T - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Bilateral repetitive magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a promising novel therapeutic intervention for major depression (MD). However, clinical trials to date have reported conflicting evidence concerning its overall efficacy, which might have resulted from low statistical power. Thus, meta-analytical approaches could be useful in examining this issue by allowing the ...
Zheng Mingming - - 2012
In this study, a novel mixed-mode composite material SiO2@P(MAA-co-VBC-co-DVB) was prepared via the hypercrosslinking of its precursor which was produced via suspension polymerization in the presence of SiO2 particles. Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) was immobilized on the SiO2@P(MAA-co-VBC-co-DVB) particles via hydrophobic and weak cation-exchange interaction. The resulting immobilized CRL showed ...
Barros Erica G - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to compare BMI and anthropometric indicators of abdominal obesity in Brazilian adolescents from public schools between 2003 and 2008. DESIGN: A comparison of anthropometric indicators in adolescents was done based on two cross-sectional surveys conducted in 2003 (n 530) and in 2008 ...
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