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Rogers Alan R - - 2013
Males of many species help in the care and provisioning of offspring, and these investments often correlate with genetic relatedness. For example, many human males invest in the children of sisters, and this is especially so where men are less likely to share genes with children of wives. Although this ...
Hercos A P - - 2013
Because most species in an ecological assemblage are rare, much of the species richness we value is due to taxa with few individuals or a restricted distribution. It has been apparent since the time of ecological pioneers such as Bates and Darwin that tropical systems have disproportionately large numbers of ...
Thomas Jeremy A - - 2013
An emerging problem in conservation is whether listed morpho-species with broad distributions, yet specialized lifestyles, consist of more than one cryptic species or functionally distinct forms that have different ecological requirements. We describe extreme regional divergence within an iconic endangered butterfly, whose socially parasitic young stages use non-visual, non-tactile cues ...
Weldon S R SR Department of Entomology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA. - - 2013
Terrestrial arthropods are often infected with heritable bacterial symbionts, which may themselves be infected by bacteriophages. However, what role, if any, bacteriophages play in the regulation and maintenance of insect-bacteria symbioses is largely unknown. Infection of the aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum by the bacterial symbiont Hamiltonella defensa confers protection against parasitoid ...
Gall Megan D MD Neuroscience Institute, Georgia State University, 100 Piedmont Avenue SE, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA. - - 2013
Many species of songbirds exhibit dramatic seasonal variation in song output. Recent evidence suggests that seasonal changes in auditory processing are coincident with seasonal variation in vocal output. Here, we show, for the first time, that frequency selectivity and temporal resolution of the songbird auditory periphery change seasonally and in ...
Anfodillo Tommaso T Dipartimento Territorio e Sistemi Agro-Forestali, University of Padova, 35020 Legnaro, Italy. - - 2013
Tree-size distribution is one of the most investigated subjects in plant population biology. The forestry literature reports that tree-size distribution trajectories vary across different stands and/or species, whereas the metabolic scaling theory suggests that the tree number scales universally as -2 power of diameter. Here, we propose a simple functional ...
Mazaris Antonios D AD Department of Ecology, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, UP Box 119, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece. - - 2013
Variations in environmental parameters (e.g. temperature) that form part of global climate change have been associated with shifts in the timing of seasonal events for a broad range of organisms. Most studies evaluating such phenological shifts of individual taxa have focused on a limited number of locations, making it difficult ...
Burton Tim T Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Graham Kerr Building, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK. - - 2013
We investigated whether among-sibling differences in the phenotypes of juvenile fish were systematically related to the position in the egg mass where each individual developed during oogenesis. We sampled eggs from the front, middle and rear thirds of the egg mass in female brown trout of known dominance rank. In ...
Rantala Markus J MJ Department of Biology, Section of Ecology, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, - - 2013
According to the 'good genes' hypothesis, females choose males based on traits that indicate the male's genetic quality in terms of disease resistance. The 'immunocompetence handicap hypothesis' proposed that secondary sexual traits serve as indicators of male genetic quality, because they indicate that males can contend with the immunosuppressive effects ...
Pearce Fiona F Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society of London, Regent's Park, London NW1 4RY, - - 2013
Space use is an important aspect of animal ecology, yet our understanding is limited by a lack of synthesis between interspecific and intraspecific studies. We present analyses of a dataset of 286 estimates of home range overlap from 100 primate species, with comparable samples for other space-use traits. To the ...
Lambrechts Louis L Insects and Infectious Diseases, Institut Pasteur, CNRS URA 3012, 25 rue du Docteur Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France. - - 2013
In contrast to the prevailing view that invertebrate immunity relies on broad-spectrum recognition and effector mechanisms, intrinsic genetic compatibility between invertebrate hosts and their pathogens is often highly specific in nature. Solving this puzzle requires a better understanding of the molecular basis underlying observed patterns of invertebrate host-pathogen genetic specificity, ...
Zanno Lindsay E LE Paleontology and Geology Laboratory, Nature Research Center, North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences, Raleigh, NC 27601, USA. - - 2013
The correlation between large body size and digestive efficiency has been hypothesized to have driven trends of increasing mass in herbivorous clades by means of directional selection. Yet, to date, few studies have investigated this relationship from a phylogenetic perspective, and none, to our knowledge, with regard to trophic shifts. ...
Westley Peter A H PA Ocean Sciences Centre, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John's, Newfoundland, Canada. - - 2013
Adaptive evolutionary change in only a few generations can increase the ability of non-native invasive species to spread, and yet adaptive divergence is rarely assessed in recently established populations. In this study, we experimentally test for evidence of fine-scale local adaptation in juvenile survival and growth among three populations of ...
Suda Jan J Faculty of Science, Department of Botany, Charles University in Prague, Benátská 2, 128 01 Praha 2, Czech - - 2013
Genome duplication (polyploidy) is a recurrent evolutionary process in plants, often conferring instant reproductive isolation and thus potentially leading to speciation. Outcome of the process is often seen in the field as different cytotypes co-occur in many plant populations. Failure of meiotic reduction during gametogenesis is widely acknowledged to be ...
Donnelly R R Department of Mathematics, Maxwell Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, UK. - - 2013
Host condition is often likely to influence parasite virulence. Furthermore, condition may often be correlated with host density, and therefore, it is important to understand the role of density-dependent virulence (DDV). We examine the consequences of DDV to the evolution of parasites in both seasonal and non-seasonal environments. In particular, ...
Ngounou Wetie Armand G AG Biochemistry & Proteomics Group, Department of Chemistry & Biomolecular Science, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699, - - 2013
This article presents an overview of the literature and a review of recent advances in the analysis of stable and transient protein-protein interactions (PPIs) with a focus on their function within cells, organs, and organisms. The significance of PTMs within the PPIs is also discussed. We focus on methods to ...
Arkudas Andreas A Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery, University of Erlangen Medical Center, Erlangen, Germany. - - 2013
In this study, the angiogenetic effect of sintered 45S5 Bioglass® was quantitatively assessed for the first time in the arteriovenous loop (AVL) model. An AVL was created by interposition of a venous graft from the contralateral side between the femoral artery and vein in the medial thigh of eight rats. ...
Putkhao Kittiphong K Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Atlanta, Georgia, - - 2013
A transgenic primate model for Huntington's Disease (HD) first reported by our group that (HD monkeys) carry the mutant Huntingtin (HTT) gene with expanded polyglutamine (CAG) repeats and, develop chorea, dystonia, and other involuntary motor deficiencies similar to HD [ 1 ]. More recently, we have found that longitudinal magnetic ...
Panuganti Swapna S Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, - - 2013
Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) have been cultured using a wide variety of cytokines to promote differentiation into megakaryocytic cells (Mks), the precursors to platelets. Greater Mk DNA content, or ploidy, has been correlated with increased platelet release. Gradients of pH, pO2, and signaling factors regulate megakaryopoiesis in the ...
Sacerdote Paola P Dipartimento di Scienze Farmacologiche e Biomolecolari, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano, - - 2013
Over the last decade, it has been proved that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) elicit anti-inflammatory effects. MSCs from adipose tissue (hASCs) differentiate into cells of the mesodermal lineage and transdifferentiate into ectodermal-origin cells. Although there are various etiologies to chronic pain, one common feature is that painful states are associated ...
Rihn Jeffrey A JA Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Rothman Institute, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA. - - 2013
Questions remain as to the effect that obesity has on patients managed for symptomatic lumbar disc herniation. The purpose of this study was to determine if obesity affects outcomes following the treatment of symptomatic lumbar disc herniation. An as-treated analysis was performed on patients enrolled in the Spine Patient Outcomes ...
Khalaf Majid - - 2013
The percentage of Am deposited in different parts of leg bones relative to the total leg activity was calculated from radiochemical analysis results from six whole body donors participating in the U.S. Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR). In five of these six USTUR cases, the percentage of Am deposited in ...
Luo Peng - - 2013
ABSTRACT: Time-interval (time difference between two consecutive pulses) analysis based on the principles of Bayesian inference was investigated for online radiation monitoring. Using experimental and simulated data, Bayesian analysis of time-interval data [Bayesian (ti)] was compared with Bayesian and a conventional frequentist analysis of counts in a fixed count time ...
Hugo Willy - - 2013
Many important biological processes, such as the signaling pathways, require protein-protein interactions (PPIs) that are designed for fast response to stimuli. These interactions are usually transient, easily formed, and disrupted, yet specific. Many of these transient interactions involve the binding of a protein domain to a short stretch (3-10) of ...
Potter Charles A - - 2013
ABSTRACT: An important paper by Skrable et al. included a retention function for compartment contents during a continuous intake, including the same time variable in both the numerator and denominator of the replacement function. In fact, the time in the denominator should have been represented as a constant describing the ...
Hung Jui-Hung - - 2013
Thanks for the dramatic reduction of the costs of high-throughput techniques in modern biotechnology, searching for differentially expressed genes is already a common procedure in identifying biomarkers or signatures of phenotypic states such as diseases or compound treatments. However, in most of the cases, especially in complex diseases, even given ...
Calandrino R - - 2013
ABSTRACT: The goal of establishing prompt localization of the malignant spread or recurrence of a tumor has found a powerful solution in the definition of follow-up protocols, which include the indication for CT scans on an annual or semiannual basis. In the case of long-surviving patients, however, this approach will ...
Hancock Timothy - - 2013
Methods capable of identifying genetic pathways with coordinated expression signatures are critical to advance our understanding of the functions of biological networks. Currently, the most comprehensive and validated biological networks are metabolic networks. Complete metabolic networks are easily sourced from multiple online databases. These databases reveal metabolic networks to be ...
Iwaoka Kazuki - - 2013
ABSTRACT: In Japan, many dwellings have decorative wall coverings made from granite, andesite, tuff, gabbro, and marble. However, information regarding activity concentrations and radon (Rn) and thoron (Rn) exhalation rates for such rocks is very scarce. Therefore, samples of the granite, andesite, tuff, and marble that are used as wall ...
Kakamu Takeyasu - - 2013
ABSTRACT: After the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011, the environmental radiation dose in Fukushima City increased. On 11 April, 1 mo after the earthquake, the environmental radiation dose rate at various surfaces in the same area differed greatly by surface property. Environmental radiation measurements continue in order ...
Adamovics John - - 2013
ABSTRACT: RadBall is a novel, passive, radiation detection device that provides 3D mapping of radiation from areas where measurements have not been possible previously due to lack of access or extremely high radiation doses. This kind of technology is beneficial when decommissioning and decontamination of nuclear facilities occur. The key ...
Linghu Bolan - - 2013
Networks of functional associations between genes have recently been successfully used for gene function and disease-related research. A typical approach for constructing such functional linkage gene networks (FLNs) is based on the integration of diverse high-throughput functional genomics datasets. Data integration is a nontrivial task due to the heterogeneous nature ...
Larjo Antti - - 2013
Bayesian networks are probabilistic graphical models suitable for modeling several kinds of biological systems. In many cases, the structure of a Bayesian network represents causal molecular mechanisms or statistical associations of the underlying system. Bayesian networks have been applied, for example, for inferring the structure of many biological networks from ...
Kuiken Carla - - 2013
One of the challenges of genetic data analysis is to combine information from sources that are distributed around the world and accessible through a wide array of different methods and interfaces. The HIV database and its footsteps, the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hemorrhagic fever virus (HFV) databases, have made ...
Likhtarov I - - 2013
ABSTRACT: For the purpose of improving retrospective internal thyroid dose estimations for children and adolescents following the Chernobyl accident, age- and gender-dependent thyroid masses have been estimated for the children of Kiev and Zhytomyr oblasts, which are two of the most contaminated regions of Northern Ukraine. For children ages 6-16 ...
Yamanishi Yoshihiro - - 2013
The identification of drug-target interactions from heterogeneous biological data is critical in the drug development. In this chapter, we review recently developed in silico chemogenomic approaches to infer unknown drug-target interactions from chemical information of drugs and genomic information of target proteins. We review several kernel-based statistical methods from two ...
Petrie Christian M - - 2013
ABSTRACT: ISO standard 4037 specifies limits for scattered radiation for "gamma reference radiation" for the calibration of "protection-level dosemeters and rate dosemeters." More specifically, it specifies that scattered radiation should contribute less than 5% to the total exposure rate for source-center-to-dosimeter-center distances (henceforth called downrange distances) over which dosimeters are ...
Yang Tun-Hsiang - - 2013
A host of data on genetic variation from the Human Genome and International HapMap projects, and advances in high-throughput genotyping technologies, have made genome-wide association (GWA) studies technically feasible. GWA studies help in the discovery and quantification of the genetic components of disease risks, many of which have not been ...
Chida Koichi - - 2013
ABSTRACT: X-ray equipment should be routinely checked for optimal imaging performance and appropriate radiation dose. Recently, the use of diagnostic x-ray equipment with flat panel detectors (FPDs) has increased instead of image intensifier (II) and/or screen film systems. In addition, it is necessary to maintain the performance of FPD systems. ...
Mordelet Fantine - - 2013
Elucidating the structure of gene regulatory networks (GRN), i.e., identifying which genes are under control of which transcription factors, is an important challenge to gain insight on a cell's working mechanisms. We present SIRENE, a method to estimate a GRN from a collection of expression data. Contrary to most existing ...
Kanehisa Minoru - - 2013
KEGG ( http://www.genome.jp/kegg/ ) is an integrated database resource for linking genomes or molecular datasets to molecular networks (pathways, etc.) representing higher-level systemic functions of the cell, the organism, and the ecosystem. Major efforts have been undertaken for capturing and representing experimental knowledge as manually drawn KEGG pathway maps and ...
Mongiovì Misael - - 2013
Sequence-based comparisons have been the workhorse of bioinformatics for the past four decades, furthering our understanding of gene function and evolution. Over the last decade, a plethora of technologies have matured for measuring Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) at large scale, yielding comprehensive PPI networks for over ten species. In this chapter, ...
Imai Kenichiro - - 2013
In this chapter, we first discuss protein localization in bacteria and evaluate some localization prediction tools on an independent dataset. Next, we focus on β-barrel outer membrane proteins (BOMPs), describing and evaluating new tools for BOMP detection and topology prediction. Finally, we apply general protein structure prediction methods on these ...
Pawel David J - - 2013
ABSTRACT: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has updated its estimates of cancer risks due to low doses of ionizing radiation for the U.S. population, as well as their scientific basis. For the most part, these estimates were calculated using models recommended in the recent National Academy of Sciences' (BEIR ...
Lin Cheng-Li - - 2013
Equinus of the ankle is a common deformity in spastic cerebral palsy. Many methods have been developed to lengthen the Achilles tendon to correct the deformity. A new mesh Achilles tendon lengthening (ATL) procedure that might decrease immobilization and promote recovery was performed in 36 tendons with equinus deformity (22 ...
Khalaf Majid - - 2013
ABSTRACT: A new leg voxel model in two different positions (straight and bent) has been developed for in vivo measurement calibration purposes. This voxel phantom is a representation of a human leg that may provide a substantial enhancement to Monte Carlo modeling because it more accurately models different geometric leg ...
Honkela Antti - - 2013
Reverse engineering the gene regulatory network is challenging because the amount of available data is very limited compared to the complexity of the underlying network. We present a technique addressing this problem through focussing on a more limited problem: inferring direct targets of a transcription factor from short expression time ...
Hu Zhenjun - - 2013
Protein interactions, as well as the networks they formed, play a key role in many cellular processes and the distortion of the protein interacting interfaces may lead to the development of many diseases. In this chapter, we will briefly introduce the background knowledge of the protein-protein interaction, followed by the ...
Aoki-Kinoshita Kiyoko Flora - - 2013
This chapter describes the Glycan Miner Tool, which is available as a part of the Resource for INformatics of Glycomes at Soka Web site. It implements the α-closed frequent subtree algorithm to find significant subtrees from within a data set of glycan structures, or carbohydrate sugar chains. The results are ...
Tsuda Koji - - 2013
Automatic discovery of functional complexes from protein interaction data is a rewarding but challenging problem. While previous approaches use approximations to extract dense modules, our approach exactly solves the problem of dense module enumeration. Furthermore, constraints from additional information sources such as gene expression and phenotype data can be integrated, ...
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