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Richardson Andrew D - - 2012
Nonstructural carbohydrate reserves support tree metabolism and growth when current photosynthates are insufficient, offering resilience in times of stress. We monitored stemwood nonstructural carbohydrate (starch and sugars) concentrations of the dominant tree species at three sites in the northeastern United States. We estimated the mean age of the starch and ...
van Gils S A - - 2012
Neural field models with transmission delays may be cast as abstract delay differential equations (DDE). The theory of dual semigroups (also called sun-star calculus) provides a natural framework for the analysis of a broad class of delay equations, among which DDE. In particular, it may be used advantageously for the ...
Chesnoy-Marchais Dominique - - 2012
Hypoglossal motoneurons (HMs) are known to be under 'permanent' bicuculline-sensitive inhibition and to show 'transient' synaptic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) and glycine inhibitory responses. The present paper describes a permanent bicuculline-sensitive current that should contribute to their tonic inhibition. This current was recorded in brainstem slices superfused without any exogenous agonist ...
Lai Xiaofang - - 2012
A C-type lectin-like protein was cloned and characterized from the Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis, and named as FcCTL. The results indicated that the full length cDNA of 859 bp had an open reading frame encoded a polypeptide of 220 amino acids with one carbohydrate-recognition domain, six conserved Cys and one key ...
Sym Sun Jin - - 2012
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of irinotecan (CPT-11) monotherapy and CPT-11 plus 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)/leucovorin (LV) combination (mFOLFIRI) as second-line treatment in patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC). METHODS: A total of 59 patients were randomly assigned to either CPT-11 (150 mg/m(2) iv on day 1) ...
Hong Wei - - 2012
We report two new low band-gap conjugated polymers containing dipyrrolo[2,3-b:2',3'-e]pyrazine-2,6(1H,5H)-dione (PzDP), PPzDPDP-BT and PPzDPDP-TT, both showing ambipolar transport in organic thin film transistors (OTFTs), with hole mobility up to 0.066 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), electron mobility up to 0.021 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), and high current on-to-off ratios of 10(5)-10(6).
Qu Yongquan - - 2012
There is increasing interest in developing artificial systems that can mimic natural photosynthesis to directly harvest and convert solar energy into usable or storable energy resources. Photocatalysis, in which solar photons are used to drive redox reactions to produce chemical fuel, is the central process to achieve this goal. Despite ...
Paul Elisabeth - - 2012
The international community holds high expectations for aid producing demonstrable results in the health sector, at the global and developing country levels. Yet, measuring the effectiveness of aid presents methodological challenges. Existing evaluation frameworks are not sufficiently geared toward learning whether and how practices have changed. We present a framework ...
Kreyenschulte Dirk - - 2012
Over the past decades a large amount of biopolymers originating from various types of microorganisms have been reported. With ongoing research the number of possible applications has increased rapidly, ranging from use as food additives and biomedical agents to biodegradable plastics from renewable resources. In spite of the plethora of ...
Schraermeyer Ulrich - - 2012
Objective: Due to its low price, bevacizumab, which binds vascular endothelial growth factor, is currently used off-label for the treatment of over 50 different eye diseases and has been adopted worldwide despite the absence of serious preclinical data. This study examines the effects of intravitreal bevacizumab on monkey eyes with ...
Sapsford Ruth R - - 2012
PURPOSE: Urethral pressure increases during voluntary pelvic floor (PF) muscle contractions in healthy women. As PF and abdominal muscle activity is coordinated, this study aimed to determine whether specific abdominal muscle actions also change urethral pressure. METHODS: Urethral pressures were measured in seven healthy women during lower abdominal in-drawing, abdominal ...
Ozyıldız Figen - - 2012
In recent years, functional fabrics possessing antimicrobial activity have drawn significant interest because antibiotic resistance is becoming widespread among pathogenic microorganisms. The aim of this study was to produce microcapsules incorporating ozonated red pepper seed oil with antimicrobial properties and apply them to nonwoven fabrics to prepare functional textiles. Red ...
Tao Hai-Quan - - 2012
It is well known that puerarin attenuates ischemia-reperfusion injury and promotes function recovery of ischemic region. However, due to its reverse physiochemical properties, puerarin does not easily cross the blood-brain barrier. The aim of the present study is to create puerarin nanoparticles which increase and prolong the puerarin concentration in ...
Goethals Sabine - - 2012
In their practice, nurses make daily decisions that are ethically informed. An ethical decision is the result of a complex reasoning process based on knowledge and experience and driven by ethical values. Especially in acute elderly care and more specifically decisions concerning the use of physical restraint require a thoughtful ...
Adams James B - - 2012
This study investigates both the level of toxic metals in children with autism and the possible association of those toxic metals with autism severity. This study involved 55 children with autism ages 5-16 years compared to 44 controls with similar age and gender. The study included measurements of toxic metals in ...
Simons Leslie Gordon - - 2012
Corporal punishment is a controversial practice used by the majority of American parents and is especially prevalent among African Americans. Research regarding its consequences has produced mixed results although it is clear that there is a need for considering the context within which corporal punishment is administered. To assess the ...
Monterroso Joanne - - 2012
A 63-year-old man presented with a 6-month history of fatigue, weight loss, and gingival bleeding. Physical examination suggested the presence of a massively enlarged spleen, a finding confirmed on a reconstructed coronal CT image of the abdomen.
Carlsund Asa - - 2012
AIM: In Sweden, shared physical custody following a parental separation has emerged as means for children to keep close relationships with both parents. Previous studies show that children benefit from regular contact with both parents, who share responsibility for their social, emotional, and economic welfare. In this study we investigate ...
Yoshizumi Tomoharu - - 2012
AIM: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is primarily treated with hepatic resection and/or locoregional therapy. When HCC recurs and further treatment is no longer possible owing to poor liver function, liver transplantation (LT) or living-donor LT (LDLT) is considered. The aim of this study was to clarify risk factors for tumor recurrence ...
Nogarol Larissa Rosa - - 2012
This study presents the morphological description and histochemical characterization of gill filaments of the Brazilian endemic bivalve Diplodon expansus, aiming to broaden the morphological knowledge of this species and establish the structure of the gills that will serve as control in histopathological studies applied to biomonitoring. The gill filaments are ...
Pajski Megan L - - 2012
Adenosine plays an important role in neuromodulation and neuroprotection. Recent identification of transient changes in adenosine concentration suggests adenosine may have a rapid modulatory role; however, the extent of these changes throughout the brain is not well understood. In this report, transient changes in adenosine evoked by one second, 60 Hz ...
Loscha Karin V - - 2012
Stereospecific resonance assignments of the α-protons of glycine are often difficult to obtain by measurements of scalar coupling constants or nuclear Overhauser effects. Here we show that these stereospecific resonance assignments can readily be obtained by cell-free protein synthesis in D(2)O, as the serine hydroxymethyltransferase, that is naturally present in ...
Zhao Bo - - 2012
In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of a novel iterative reconstruction (IR) method coupled with dual-dictionary learning (DDL) for image reconstruction in a dedicated breast computed tomography (CT) system based on a cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) photon-counting detector and compared it to the filtered-back-projection (FBP) method with the ultimate goal of ...
Adams I P - - 2012
The complete genome sequences of RNA1 and RNA2 of the oca strain of the potato virus arracacha virus B were determined using next-generation sequencing. The RNA1 molecule is predicted to encode a 259-kDa polyprotein with homology to proteins of the cheraviruses apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) and cherry rasp leaf ...
Stadler David - - 2012
The ability of particles to flow with very low resistance is characteristic of superfluid and superconducting states, leading to their discovery in the past century. Although measuring the particle flow in liquid helium or superconducting materials is essential to identify superfluidity or superconductivity, no analogous measurement has been performed for ...
Hermos C R - - 2012
SUMMARY Community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) accounts for a growing proportion of hospital-onset infections, and colonization is a risk factor. This study aimed to determine changes in the prevalence of CA-MRSA colonization in paediatric intensive-care units (ICUs). A total of 495 paediatric patients colonized with MRSA from neonatal, medical, surgical, ...
Kreuzer M - - 2012
It is currently unclear whether exposure of the heart and vascular system, at lifetime accumulated dose levels relevant to the general public (<500 mGy), is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, data from the German WISMUT cohort of uranium miners were investigated for evidence of a relationship between ...
Beverdam Annemiek - - 2012
Tissue renewal is an ongoing process in the epithelium of the skin. We have begun to examine the genetic mechanisms that control stem/progenitor cell activation in the postnatal epidermis. The conserved Hippo pathway regulates stem cell turnover in arthropods through to vertebrates. Here we show that its downstream effector, yes-associated ...
Saul S M - - 2012
Antihypertensive therapy is aimed at improving vascular and cardiac health, as well as lowering blood pressure (BP). The benefit of such drugs in untreated patients with borderline BP has not been demonstrated. Subjects with BPs 130 mm Hg systolic or 85 mm Hg diastolic and at least one additional risk factor were randomly assigned ...
Dewas Claire Vautravers - - 2012
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Chemoradiation is the standard treatment for anal cancer. 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) is usually split in 2 sequences with a therapeutic break (gap) in between. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) makes it possible to reduce treatment time by abandoning this gap. The purpose of this study was to compare ...
Ellis Jason A - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Altered cerebral vasomotor reactivity leading to vasospasm can be seen both in patients with primary headache disorders (PHD) and in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The pathogenesis of vasospasm in post-SAH patients and in headache disorder sufferers may be related. To address this hypothesis, we analyzed a large cohort ...
Huziwara Edson M - - 2012
In two experiments, we investigated emergent conditional relations in pigeons using a symbolic matching-to-sample task with temporal stimuli as the samples and hues as the comparisons. Both experiments comprised three phases. In Phase I, pigeons learned to choose a red keylight (R) but not a green keylight (G) after a ...
Lodewijckx Cathy - - 2012
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Optimization of the clinical care process by integration of evidence-based knowledge is one of the active components in care pathways. When studying the impact of a care pathway by using a cluster-randomized design, standardization of the care pathway intervention is crucial. This methodology paper describes the development of ...
Hubert Julien - - 2012
Abstract A schwannoma is a benign tumour of Schwann cells that presents as a palpable and painless mass on the volar aspect of the hand and wrist. A 44-year-old, right-handed woman, presented for a volar swelling of her right hand. On examination she had a non-pulsatile mass with no fluctuation ...
Cools S - - 2012
High-yielding dairy cows are struggling with a high incidence of embryonic loss, among others caused by an insufficient peripheral progesterone concentration which for its part might be associated with an impaired luteal progesterone production. This impaired capacity to produce progesterone might be reflected in the histology of the gland. The ...
Iwahashi Shuichi - - 2012
PURPOSE: Cholangiolocellular carcinoma (CLC) is an extremely rare malignant liver tumor. It is thought to originate from the ductules and/or canals of Hering, where hepatic stem cells (HpSC) are located, but there are few reports on cancer stem cell markers in CLC. Thus, we evaluated the significance of cancer stem ...
Yang Lian-He - - 2013
Axin is an important negative regulator of Wnt pathway. We have reported that reduced expression of Axin could be detected in lung cancer tissues, but the mechanism is not clear. By analyzing the genomic sequence, we note that Axin gene promoter is rich in CpGs. Little is known about the ...
Szpinda Michał - - 2012
PURPOSE: Knowledge on the normative growth of the spine is relevant in the prenatal detection of its abnormalities. This study describes the size of the ossification center of C1-S5 vertebral bodies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using CT, digital-image analysis, and statistics, the size of the ossification center of C1-S5 vertebral bodies ...
Błaszczyk Lidia - - 2012
The present study includes the molecular characteristics of Trichoderma pleurotum and Trichoderma pleuroticola isolates collected from green moulded cereal straw substrates at 47 oyster mushroom farms in Poland. The screening of the 80 Trichoderma isolates was performed by morphological observation and by using the multiplex PCR assay. This approach enabled ...
Gargani S - - 2013
In this study, we used an immunodeficient mouse model to explore, in vivo, the longitudinal adaptation of human islets to an obesogenic environment. Non-diabetic Rag2 (-/-) mice (n = 61) were transplanted with human islets (400 islet equivalents [IEQ]) from six pancreases: four non-diabetic and two with overt metabolic dysfunction (older, high ...
Velez Edwards Digna R - - 2013
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of obesity measures have identified associations with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, no large-scale evaluation of gene-environment interactions has been performed. We conducted a search of gene-environment (G × E) interactions in post-menopausal African-American and Hispanic women from the Women's Health Initiative SNP Health Association Resource ...
Yu Dandan - - 2013
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly chemoresistant cancer with no effective systemic therapy. Despite of surgical or locoregional therapies, prognosis remains poor because of high tumor recurrence or progression, and currently, there are no well-established effective adjuvant therapies. Glypican-3 (GPC-3) is specifically overexpressed in hepatoma and perhaps is a valuable ...
Achan Jane - - 2012
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitors show activity against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. We hypothesized that the incidence of malaria in HIV-infected children would be lower among children receiving lopinavir-ritonavir-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) than among those receiving nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based ART. We conducted an open-label trial in which HIV-infected ...
Brenchley Rachel - - 2012
Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is a globally important crop, accounting for 20 per cent of the calories consumed by humans. Major efforts are underway worldwide to increase wheat production by extending genetic diversity and analysing key traits, and genomic resources can accelerate progress. But so far the very large size ...
Vasko Radovan - - 2012
BACKGROUND: The assessment of hydration status remains a challenging task in hemodialysis (HD) management. There are only limited data available on the relevance of clinical decisions in the estimation of dialysis overhydration (OH). The objective of this study was to examine the significance of clinical judgment in the assessment of ...
Gordon Kristin - - 2013
EphA2 is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that triggers keratinocyte differentiation upon activation and subsequent downregulation by ephrin-A1 ligand. The objective of this study was to determine whether the EphA2/ephrin-A1 signaling axis was altered in psoriasis, an inflammatory skin condition in which keratinocyte differentiation is abnormal. Microarray analysis of skin ...
Fu Jiang - - 2013
A signal first arising in the dermis to initiate the development of hair follicles has been described for many decades. Wnt is the earliest signal known to be intimately involved in hair follicle induction. However, it is not clear whether the inductive signal of Wnt arises intradermally or intraepidermally. Whether ...
Zhou Hong - - 2013
Fibroblast growth factor-inducible protein 14 (Fn14), the cell surface receptor for tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK), is overexpressed in various human solid tumor types and can be a negative prognostic indicator. We detected Fn14 expression in ∼60% of the melanoma cell lines we tested, including both B-Raf ...
Nelson Amanda M - - 2013
Prostaglandins (PGs) are key inflammatory mediators involved in wound healing and regulating hair growth; however, their role in skin regeneration after injury is unknown. Using wound-induced hair follicle neogenesis (WIHN) as a marker of skin regeneration, we hypothesized that PGD2 decreases follicle neogenesis. PGE2 and PGD2 were elevated early and ...
Doctrow Susan R - - 2013
In the event of a radionuclear attack or nuclear accident, the skin would be the first barrier exposed to radiation, though skin injury can progress over days to years following exposure. Chronic oxidative stress has been implicated as being a potential contributor to the progression of delayed radiation-induced injury to ...
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