Search Results
Results 701 - 750 of 1756
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Lwu Shelly - - 2013
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and melanoma brain metastases have traditionally been considered radioresistant lesions when treated with conventional radiotherapeutic modalities. Radiosurgery provides high-dose radiation to a defined target volume with steep fall off in dose at lesion margins. Recent evidence suggests that stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is effective in improving local ...
Jeon Hyun Min - - 2013
Necrosis is commonly found in the core region of solid tumours due to metabolic stress such as hypoxia and glucose deprivation (GD) resulting from insufficient vascularization. Necrosis promotes tumour growth and development by releasing the tumour-promoting cytokine high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1); however, the molecular mechanism underlying necrotic cell ...
Bronkhorst Alfred W - - 2012
RNA viruses in insects are targets of an RNA interference (RNAi)-based antiviral immune response, in which viral replication intermediates or viral dsRNA genomes are processed by Dicer-2 (Dcr-2) into viral small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs). Whether dsDNA virus infections are controlled by the RNAi pathway remains to be determined. Here, we ...
Evsyukova Irina - - 2013
Interleukin 7 receptor, IL7R, is expressed exclusively on cells of the lymphoid lineage, and its expression is crucial for the development and maintenance of T cells. Alternative splicing of IL7R exon 6 results in membrane-bound (exon 6 included) and soluble (exon 6 skipped) IL7R isoforms. Interestingly, the inclusion of exon ...
Yamaguchi Shinpei - - 2012
Meiosis is a germ-cell-specific cell division process through which haploid gametes are produced for sexual reproduction. Before the initiation of meiosis, mouse primordial germ cells undergo a series of epigenetic reprogramming steps, including the global erasure of DNA methylation at the 5-position of cytosine (5mC) in CpG-rich DNA. Although several ...
Magri Marcello Mihailenko Chaves - - 2013
The profiles of 61 Candida tropicalis isolates from 43 patients (28 adults and 15 children) diagnosed with candidemia at two teaching hospitals in São Paulo, Brazil, were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). For the 14 patients who had bloodstream infections, 32 isolates were serially collected from their blood and/or ...
Craciun Smaranda - - 2012
Choline and trimethylamine (TMA) are small molecules that play central roles in biological processes throughout all kingdoms of life. These ubiquitous metabolites are linked through a single biochemical transformation, the conversion of choline to TMA by anaerobic microorganisms. This metabolic activity, which contributes to methanogenesis and human disease, has been ...
Guo Xue-kun - - 2013
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most important viral pathogens in the swine industry. Emerging evidence indicates that the host microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in host-pathogen interactions. However, whether host miRNAs can target PRRSV and be used to inhibit PRRSV infection has not been reported. ...
Matz Julie - - 2013
Few broadly neutralizing antibodies targeting determinants of the HIV-1 surface envelope glycoprotein (gp120) involved in sequential binding to host CD4 and chemokine receptors have been characterized. While these epitopes show low diversity among various isolates, HIV-1 employs many strategies to evade humoral immune response toward these sensitive sites, including a ...
Lin Zhen - - 2013
Using a simple viral genome enrichment approach, we report the de novo assembly of the Akata and Mutu Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genomes from a single lane of next-generation sequencing (NGS) reads. The Akata and Mutu viral genomes are type I EBV strains of approximately 171 kb in length. Evidence for ...
Li Zhonghua - - 2013
Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute, highly contagious, and immunosuppressive avian disease caused by IBD virus (IBDV). Although IBDV-induced immunosuppression has been well established, the underlying exact molecular mechanism for such induction is not very clear. We report here the identification of IBDV VP4 as an interferon suppressor by ...
Baños-Lara M Del Rocío Mdel - - 2013
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a respiratory paramyxovirus of global clinical relevance. Despite the substantial knowledge generated during the last 10 years about hMPV infection, information regarding the activation of the immune response against this virus remains largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that the helicase melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 ...
Budhiraja Sona - - 2013
P-TEFb, a cellular kinase composed of Cyclin T1 and CDK9, is essential for processive HIV-1 transcription. P-TEFb activity is dependent on phosphorylation of Thr186 in the CDK9 T loop. In resting CD4(+) T cells which are nonpermissive for HIV-1 replication, the levels of Cyclin T1 and T-loop-phosphorylated CDK9 are very ...
Zak Daniel E - - 2012
To better understand how innate immune responses to vaccination can lead to lasting protective immunity, we used a systems approach to define immune signatures in humans over 1 wk following MRKAd5/HIV vaccination that predicted subsequent HIV-specific T-cell responses. Within 24 h, striking increases in peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene expression ...
Alby Kevin - - 2013
Using retrospective (n = 200) and prospective (n = 150) nasopharyngeal specimens, we evaluated the Nanosphere Verigene RV+ and the Focus Diagnostics Simplexa Flu A/B & RSV tests. Overall, RV+ demonstrated sensitivities and specificities of 96.6% and 100% for influenza A virus, 100% and 99.7% for influenza B virus, and ...
Brink Adrian J - - 2013
This study reports on the emergence of OXA-48-like carbapenemases among isolates of Enterobacteriaceae in South Africa. In addition, the emergence during therapy of a colistin-resistant OXA-181-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate was documented following selective digestive tract decontamination with oral colistin, which is therefore strongly discouraged.
Liss Michael A - - 2013
A transrectal prostate biopsy is the most common procedure used to establish the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Prior to biopsy, patients are commonly given ciprofloxacin for prophylaxis. However, a complication of the procedure is infection with ciprofloxacin-resistant organisms, in particular resistant Escherichia coli. In order to identify patients carrying ciprofloxacin-resistant ...
Pas S - - 2013
To evaluate the analytical performance and explore the clinical applicability of the new Roche cobas AmpliPrep/cobas TaqMan HCV test, v2.0 (CAP/CTM v2.0), a platform comparison was performed on panels and diagnostic samples with the Roche cobas AmpliPrep/cobas TaqMan HCV test (CAP/CTM v1.0), the Siemens Versant HCV RNA 3.0 branched DNA ...
Kontsevaya Irina - - 2013
The Russian Federation is a high-tuberculosis (TB)-burden country with high rates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis multidrug resistance (MDR) and extensive drug resistance (XDR), especially in HIV-coinfected patients. Rapid and reliable diagnosis for detection of resistance to second-line drugs is vital for adequate patient management. We evaluated the performance of the GenoType ...
de Boer Richard F - - 2013
The presence of Campylobacter (or Campylobacter-like) species in stools from patients suspected of infectious gastroenteritis (n = 493) was investigated using real-time PCR for detection of Arcobacter butzleri (hsp60 gene), Campylobacter coli (ceuE gene), Campylobacter jejuni (mapA), five acknowledged pathogenic Campylobacter spp. (C16S_Lund assay), and the Campylobacter genus (C16S_LvI assay). ...
Woo Patrick C Y - - 2013
We characterized 12 Exophiala strains isolated from patients over a 15-year period to the species level using phenotypic tests and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and Rpb1 sequencing and described the clinical spectrum of the 12 patients. Eight patients had nail or skin infections, two had invasive infections, and two had ...
Fan Xueli - - 2013
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is necessary but not sufficient for cervical carcinogenesis. Genomic instability caused by HPV allows cells to acquire additional mutations required for malignant transformation. Genomic instability in the form of polyploidy has been demonstrated to play an important role in cervical carcinogenesis. We have recently found that ...
Wu Nicholas C - - 2013
Compensatory mutations contribute to the appearance of the oseltamivir resistance substitution H274Y in the neuraminidase (NA) gene of H1N1 influenza viruses. Here, we describe a high-throughput screening method utilizing error-prone PCR and next-generation sequencing to comprehensively screen NA genes for H274Y compensatory mutations. We found four mutations that can either ...
Mizoi Junya - - 2013
Soybean (Glycine max) is an important crop around the world. Abiotic stress conditions, such as drought and heat, adversely affect its survival, growth, and production. The DEHYDRATION-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN2 (DREB2) group includes transcription factors that contribute to drought and heat stress tolerance by activating transcription through the cis-element dehydration-responsive element ...
Li Yi-Ping - - 2012
Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important cause of end stage liver disease worldwide. In the United States, most HCV-related disease is associated with genotype 1 infection, which remains difficult to treat. Drug and vaccine development was hampered by inability to culture patient isolates representing HCV genotypes ...
Rubin Carl-Johan - - 2012
Domestication of wild boar (Sus scrofa) and subsequent selection have resulted in dramatic phenotypic changes in domestic pigs for a number of traits, including behavior, body composition, reproduction, and coat color. Here we have used whole-genome resequencing to reveal some of the loci that underlie phenotypic evolution in European domestic ...
Henry Molly J - - 2012
The human ability to continuously track dynamic environmental stimuli, in particular speech, is proposed to profit from "entrainment" of endogenous neural oscillations, which involves phase reorganization such that "optimal" phase comes into line with temporally expected critical events, resulting in improved processing. The current experiment goes beyond previous work in ...
Hewitt Victoria L - - 2012
The controlled biogenesis of mitochondria is a key cellular system coordinated with the cell division cycle, and major efforts in systems biology currently are directed toward understanding of the control points at which this coordination is achieved. Here we present insights into the function, evolution, and regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis ...
Pham Chuong D - - 2012
Cross-presentation is important for initiating CTL responses against tumors. Delivery of exogenous Ags to the cross-presentation pathway in dendritic cells (DCs), using a number of different carriers, has been attempted to further understand the mechanisms underlying cross-presentation and to develop therapeutic tumor vaccines. The present study reports a new antigenic ...
Raheem Olayinka - - 2012
The objective of this study was to validate the immunohistochemical assay for the diagnosis of nondystrophic myotonia and to provide full clarification of clinical disease to patients in whom basic genetic testing has failed to do so. An immunohistochemical assay of sarcolemmal chloride channel abundance using 2 different ClC1-specific antibodies. ...
Zhang Lingyan - - 2012
Cyclin-dependent kinase 5(CDK5) in complex with its activator, p35 (protein of 35 kDa), is essential for early neurodevelopment in mammals. However, endogenous cleavage of p35 to p25 is associated with neuron death and neurodegenerative disease. Here we show that a peptide (p10') encoding the N-terminal domain of p35 protects against ...
Penaloza-MacMaster Pablo - - 2013
The failure of the adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vector-based human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine in the STEP study has led to the development of adenovirus vectors derived from alternative serotypes, such as Ad26, Ad35, and Ad48. We have recently demonstrated that vaccines using alternative-serotype Ad vectors confer partial ...
Hagebeuk Eveline E O - - 2013
In female children with drug-resistant seizures and developmental delay from birth, atypical Rett syndrome caused by mutations in the CDKL5 gene should be considered. Several clinical features resemble classic Rett syndrome. Respiratory and sleep abnormalities are frequently present in Rett syndrome, whereas little is known in patients with CDKL5 mutations. ...
Yamanaka Soichiro - - 2013
RNA interference (RNAi) is a conserved mechanism in which small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) guide the degradation of cognate RNAs, but also promote heterochromatin assembly at repetitive DNA elements such as centromeric repeats. However, the full extent of RNAi functions and its endogenous targets have not been explored. Here we show ...
Carlsen Thomas H R - - 2013
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope proteins E1 and E2 play a key role in host cell entry and represent important targets for vaccine and drug development. Here, we characterized HCV recombinants with chimeric E1/E2 complexes in vitro. Using genotype 1a/2a JFH1-based recombinants expressing 1a core-NS2, we exchanged E2 with ...
He Jialing - - 2013
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the primary causative agent of porcine circovirus-associated diseases in pigs. To date, viral proteins Cap, Rep, Rep', and ORF3, encoded by the PCV2 genome, have been described. Here, transcription and translation of a novel viral gene within the PCV2 genome (designated ORF4) was determined ...
Cline Troy D - - 2013
Macrophages are known to be one of the first lines of defense against influenza virus infection. However, they may also contribute to severe disease caused by the highly pathogenic avian (HPAI) H5N1 influenza viruses. One reason for this may be the ability of certain influenza virus strains to productively replicate ...
Siegler Vera D - - 2013
The hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface proteins not only are incorporated into the virion envelope but in addition form subviral particles (SVP) consisting solely of surface proteins and lipids. Heterologous expression of the small HBV envelope protein S produces secreted spherical SVP 20 nm in diameter, with approximately 100 S ...
Liu Lihong - - 2013
PG9 and PG16 are two quaternary-structure-specific broadly neutralizing antibodies with unique HCDR3 subdomains. Previously, we showed that glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored HCDR3 subdomains (GPI-HCDR3) can be targeted to lipid rafts of the plasma membrane, bind to the epitope recognized by HCDR3 of PG16, and neutralize diverse HIV-1 isolates. In this study, we ...
Benhnia Mohammed Rafii-El-Idrissi - - 2013
The extracellular virion form (EV) of vaccinia virus (VACV) is essential for viral pathogenesis and is difficult to neutralize with antibodies. Why this is the case and how the smallpox vaccine overcomes this challenge remain incompletely understood. We previously showed that high concentrations of anti-B5 antibodies are insufficient to directly ...
de Wilde Adriaan H - - 2013
Virus replication strongly depends on cellular factors, in particular, on host proteins. Here we report that the replication of the arteriviruses equine arteritis virus (EAV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is strongly affected by low-micromolar concentrations of cyclosporine A (CsA), an inhibitor of members of the cyclophilin ...
Nomura Shigeru - - 2013
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) evolves rapidly in response to host immune selection pressures. As a result, the functional properties of HIV-1 isolates from earlier in the epidemic may differ from those of isolates from later stages. However, few studies have investigated alterations in viral replication capacity (RC) over ...
Horne David J - - 2013
In an effort to update and clarify policies on tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing (DST), the World Health Organization (WHO) commissioned a systematic review evaluating WHO-endorsed diagnostic tests. We report the results of this systematic review and meta-analysis of the diagnostic accuracy and reproducibility of phenotypic DST for first-line and second-line ...
Uchida Hiroaki - - 2013
Both entry and cell-to-cell spread of herpes simplex virus (HSV) involve a cascade of cooperative interactions among the essential glycoproteins D, B, and H/L (gD, gB, and gH/gL, respectively) initiated by the binding of gD to a cognate HSV entry receptor. We previously reported that a variant (D285N/A549T) of glycoprotein ...
Bartels Doug J - - 2013
The prevalence of naturally occurring hepatitis C virus (HCV) variants that are less sensitive to direct-acting antiviral (DAA) inhibitors has not been fully characterized. We used population sequence analysis to assess the frequency of such variants in plasma samples from 3,447 DAA-naive patients with genotype 1 HCV. In general, HCV ...
Gregory Devon A - - 2013
Retroviruses, like all enveloped viruses, must incorporate viral glycoproteins to form infectious particles. Interactions between the glycoprotein cytoplasmic tail and the matrix domain of Gag are thought to direct recruitment of glycoproteins to native virions for many retroviruses. However, retroviruses can also incorporate glycoproteins from other viruses to form infectious ...
Qin Aiping - - 2013
T lymphocyte dysfunction contributes to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease progression by impairing antivirus cellular immunity. However, the mechanisms of HIV-1 infection-mediated T cell dysfunction are not completely understood. Here, we provide evidence that expansion of monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (M-MDSCs) suppressed T cell function in HIV-1-infected individuals. ...
Hora Aline S - - 2013
Felid herpesvirus 1 is an important respiratory pathogen of domestic cats. This report presents the first case of severe nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis caused by this virus in a cat.
Peng Junping - - 2013
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the principal cause of invasive cervical cancer and benign genital lesions. There are currently 30 HPV types linked to cervical cancer. HPV infection also leads to other types of cancer. We developed a 61-plex analysis of these 30 HPV types by examining two genes, E6 and ...
Breed Matthew W - - 2013
A hallmark of pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections is the rapid and near-complete depletion of mucosal CD4(+) T lymphocytes from the gastrointestinal tract. Loss of these cells and disruption of epithelial barrier function are associated with microbial translocation, which has been proposed to drive ...
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