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Tessitori Matilde - - 2012
As with viruses, viroids infect their hosts as polymorphic populations of variants. Identifying possible sources of genetic variability is significant in the case of Citrus dwarfing viroid (CDVd) which has been proposed as a dwarfing agent for high-density citrus plantings. Here, a natural CDVd isolate (CMC) was used as an ...
Ashton Maxie - - 2012
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this article is to evaluate the impact of peer workers' involvement as co-leaders in smoking-cessation programmes provided within mental health services. METHOD: Group smoking-cessation programmes were provided for people living with mental illness. Peer workers were involved in the development and delivery of these programmes. Group ...
Gembus Vincent - - 2012
An efficient "one-pot" selective functionalization at C3/C6 of imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazines has been developed via a palladium-catalyzed sequential Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling/direct C-H arylation, vinylation, and benzylation. The procedure remains effective in the presence of a methyl thioether group at C8, which may in turn be successfully engaged in a cross-coupling method to afford ...
Zeng Minggang - - 2012
Using first-principles calculations combined with non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF), we investigate spin-dependent thermoelectric effects in a spin valve which consists of zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) electrodes with different magnetic configurations. We find that electron transport properties in the ZGNR-based spin valve are strongly dependent on the magnetic configurations. As a ...
Song Shanjun - - 2012
Increasing attention has been paid to Bisphenol A and bisphenol (BP) analogues due to high production volumes, wide usage and potential adverse effects. Bisphenol AF (BPAF) is considered a new bisphenol analogue which is used as raw material in plastic industry, but little is known about its occurrence in the ...
Huang Ying-Ying - - 2012
Abstract Melanoma is the most dangerous form of skin cancer, with a steeply rising incidence and a poor prognosis in its advanced stages. Melanoma is highly resistant to traditional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, although modern targeted therapies such as BRAF inhibitors are showing some promise. Photodynamic therapy (PDT, the combination of ...
Liu Jing - - 2012
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) is highly expressed in many human cancers and regulates critical steps in mitotic progression. Previously, we have reported that PLK1 was overexpressed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. By using microRNA (miR) target prediction algorithms, ...
Ramapanicker Ramesh - - 2012
The synthetic tetrapeptide GPRP based on the amino-terminal GPR sequence of the fibrin α-chain, binds the D-dimer protein with a dissociation constant KD of 25 μM. The D-dimer protein, a well-known biomarker for thrombosis, contains two cross-linked D fragments from the fibrinogen protein formed upon degradation of the fibrin gel, ...
Maggioni Daniela - - 2012
A new amphoteric copolymer, PhenISA, has been obtained by copolymerization of 4-(4'-aminobutyl)-1,10-phenanthroline (BAP) with 2-methylpiperazine and bis(acrylamido)acetic acid (BAC) (6% of phenanthroline-containing repeating units). The copolymer showed excellent solubility in water, where it self-aggregated to give clear nanoparticle suspensions (hydrodynamic diameter = 21 ± 2 nm, by dynamic light scattering ...
Maurer Gerd - - 2012
The comments deal with a correlation presented in the above mentioned manuscript. That particular correlation is revised resulting in a more reasonable set of model parameters and better predictions for the simultaneous solubility of both gases in that particular ionic liquid.
Chen Jun-Feng - - 2012
Tubulointerstitial macrophage infiltration is a hallmark of chronic kidney disease (CKD) involved in the progression of renal fibrosis. Pirfenidone is a newly identified anti-fibrotic drug, the potential mechanism of which remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pirfenidone on M1/M2 macrophage infiltration in nephrectomized ...
van Leeuwen Youri Mikal - - 2012
Repeptization (redispersion) from an aggregated state is usually only possible in charge-stabilized colloidal systems if the system is either coagulated in the secondary minimum of the interaction potential, or if the system cannot settle completely into the primary minimum. In this work we analyze the zeta potential, conductivity and long-term ...
Van de Wiele Christophe - - 2012
Data available in patients suffering from squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, lung carcinoma, oesophageal carcinoma and gynaecological malignancies suggest that metabolic tumour volume and to a lesser extent total lesion glycolysis have the potential to become valuable in the imaging of human solid tumours as prognostic biomarkers ...
Gupta Ruchi - - 2012
Broadband absorption spectroscopy is advantageous because the full spectral profile of an analyte can permit identification of species. This work for the first time investigates the feasibility of a metal clad leaky waveguide (MCLW) device to obtain an absorption spectrum of an analyte of interest, methylene blue, using a white ...
Alecu Ionut Marius - - 2012
Multi-structural canonical variational transition state theory with small-curvature multidimensional tunneling (MS-CVT/SCT) is employed to calculate thermal rate constants for hydrogen atom abstraction from carbon-1 of n-butanol by the hydroperoxyl radical over the temperature range 250-2000 K. The M08-SO hybrid meta-GGA density functional was validated against CCSD(T)-F12a explicitly correlated wave function ...
Yoshida Suguru - - 2012
A novel nucleophilic substitution reaction at the nitrogen of arylsulfonamides by means of phosphide anions has been described. This reaction allows for the efficient transformation of arylsulfonamides into synthetically valuable phosphamides, amines, and a variety of protected amines.
Yu Danni - - 2012
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To balance the demand for uptake of essential elements with their potential toxicity living cells have complex regulatory mechanisms. Here, we describe a genome-wide screen to identify genes that impact the elemental composition ('ionome') of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using inductively coupled plasma -- mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) we quantify ...
Vogl Thomas J - - 2013
To evaluate tumor response by means of volumetric assessment, survival, and changes in patient symptoms after the treatment of unresectable and/or recurrent pleural mesothelioma by using regional nonselective transarterial chemoperfusion as a palliative treatment option. This retrospective study was approved by the hospital ethical committee, and all patients signed an ...
Raimondi Francesco - - 2012
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: At birth, lung fluid is rapidly cleared to allow gas exchange. As pulmonary sonography discriminates between liquid and air content, we have used it to monitor extrauterine fluid clearance and respiratory adaptation in term and late preterm neonates. Ultrasound data were also related to the need of respiratory ...
Furman Jennifer L - - 2012
Astrocytes are the most abundant cell type in the brain and play a critical role in maintaining healthy nervous tissue. In Alzheimer's disease (AD) and most other neurodegenerative disorders, many astrocytes convert to a chronically "activated" phenotype characterized by morphologic and biochemical changes that appear to compromise protective properties and/or ...
Peterson Suzanne E - - 2012
Neural progenitor cells, neurons, and glia of the normal vertebrate brain are diversely aneuploid, forming mosaics of intermixed aneuploid and euploid cells. The functional significance of neural mosaic aneuploidy is not known; however, the generation of aneuploidy during embryonic neurogenesis, coincident with caspase-dependent programmed cell death (PCD), suggests that a ...
Hedden Trey - - 2012
Amyloid burden and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) are two common markers of neurodegeneration present in advanced aging. Each represents a potential early indicator of an age-related neurological disorder that impacts cognition. The presence of amyloid is observed in a substantial subset of cognitively normal older adults, but the literature remains ...
Li Ya-tang - - 2012
Orientation selectivity (OS) in the visual cortex has been found to be invariant to increases in stimulus contrast, a finding that cannot be accounted for by the original, purely excitatory Hubel and Wiesel model. This property of OS may be important for preserving the quality of perceived stimulus across a ...
Ahmed Ishrat - - 2012
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease caused by the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. However, the etiology of PD remains largely unknown. Macroautophagy is known to play an essential role in the degradation of abnormal proteins and organelles. Furthermore, the loss of autophagy-related (Atg) genes results in ...
Strey Kristi A - - 2012
The neural network controlling breathing must establish rhythmic motor output at a level adequate to sustain life. Reduced respiratory neural activity elicits a novel form of plasticity in circuits driving the diaphragm known as inactivity-induced phrenic motor facilitation (iPMF), a rebound increase in phrenic inspiratory output observed once respiratory neural ...
LeGates Tara A - - 2012
The daily solar cycle allows organisms to synchronize their circadian rhythms and sleep-wake cycles to the correct temporal niche. Changes in day-length, shift-work, and transmeridian travel lead to mood alterations and cognitive function deficits. Sleep deprivation and circadian disruption underlie mood and cognitive disorders associated with irregular light schedules. Whether ...
González-Pérez Paloma - - 2012
To identify the genetic variant that causes autosomal dominantly inherited motor neuron disease in a 4-generation Israeli-Arab family using genetic linkage and whole exome sequencing. Genetic linkage analysis was performed in this family using Illumina single nucleotide polymorphism chips. Whole exome sequencing was then undertaken on DNA samples from 2 ...
Hartwigsen Gesa - - 2012
The ability to discard a prepared action plan in favor of an alternative action is critical when facing sudden environmental changes. We tested whether the functional contribution of left supramarginal gyrus (SMG) during action reprogramming depends on the functional integrity of left dorsal premotor cortex (PMd). Adopting a dual-site repetitive ...
Sellix Michael T - - 2012
Aging produces a decline in the amplitude and precision of 24 h behavioral, endocrine, and metabolic rhythms, which are regulated in mammals by a central circadian pacemaker within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and local oscillators in peripheral tissues. Disruption of the circadian system, as experienced during transmeridian travel, can lead ...
Doi Eizaburo - - 2012
Sensory neurons have been hypothesized to efficiently encode signals from the natural environment subject to resource constraints. The predictions of this efficient coding hypothesis regarding the spatial filtering properties of the visual system have been found consistent with human perception, but they have not been compared directly with neural responses. ...
Henderson Lisa J - - 2012
Wnt/β-catenin is a neuroprotective pathway regulating cell fate commitment in the CNS and many vital functions of neurons and glia. Its dysregulation is linked to a number of neurodegenerative diseases. Wnt/β-catenin is also a repressor of HIV transcription in multiple cell types, including astrocytes, which are dysregulated in HIV-associated neurocognitive ...
Lv Ping - - 2012
Whereas prehearing spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) rely faithfully on outputs from spontaneously active developing hair cells, the electrical phenotypes of posthearing neurons are shaped by distinct rapid and graded receptor potentials from hair cells. To date, technical difficulties in isolation of fragile posthearing neurons from the rigid bony labyrinth of ...
Verghese Preeti - - 2012
In a neural population driven by a simple grating stimulus, different subpopulations are maximally informative about changes to the grating's orientation and contrast. In theory, observers should attend to the optimal subpopulation when switching between orientation and contrast discrimination tasks. Here we used source-imaged, steady-state visual evoked potentials and visual ...
Ko Suk Jin - - 2012
Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian CNS and acts on both ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). The mGluRs are widely distributed in the CNS and modulate a variety of neuronal processes, including neurotransmitter release and ion channel function. In hippocampus and cortex, mGluR5 is highly expressed ...
Riceberg Justin S - - 2012
Animals respond to changing contingencies to maximize reward. The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is important for flexible responding when established contingencies change, but the underlying cognitive mechanisms are debated. We tested rats with sham or OFC lesions in radial maze tasks that varied the frequency of contingency changes and measured both ...
Lacar Benjamin - - 2012
In the postnatal subventricular zone (SVZ), S phase entry of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) correlates with a local increase in blood flow. However, the cellular mechanism controlling this hemodynamic response remains unknown. We show that a subpopulation of SVZ cells, astrocyte-like cells or B-cells, sends projections ensheathing pericytes on SVZ ...
Mirpour Koorosh - - 2012
It has been suggested that one way we may create a stable percept of the visual world across multiple eye movements is to pass information from one set of neurons to another around the time of each eye movement. Previous studies have shown that some neurons in the lateral intraparietal ...
Kanekiyo Takahisa - - 2012
Impaired clearance of amyloid-β (Aβ) is a major pathogenic event for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ depositions in brain parenchyma as senile plaques and along cerebrovasculature as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) are hallmarks of AD. A major pathway that mediates brain Aβ clearance is the cerebrovascular system where Aβ is eliminated ...
Bae Hojae - - 2012
Only a few engineered tissues-skin, cartilage, bladder-have achieved clinical success, and biomaterials designed to replace more complex organs are still far from commercial availability. This gap exists in part because biomaterials lack a vascular network to transfer the oxygen and nutrients necessary for survival and integration after transplantation. Thus, generation ...
Zocher Michael - - 2012
The steroid cholesterol is an essential component of eukaryotic membranes, and it functionally modulates membrane proteins, including G protein-coupled receptors. To reveal insight into how cholesterol modulates G protein-coupled receptors, we have used dynamic single-molecule force spectroscopy to quantify the mechanical strength and flexibility, conformational variability, and kinetic and energetic ...
Maisonobe Jacques-Antoine - - 2013
To compare the performance of eight metabolic indices for the early assessment of tumour response in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) treated with chemotherapy. Forty patients with advanced mCRC underwent two FDG PET/CT scans, at baseline and on day 14 after chemotherapy initiation. For each lesion, eight metabolic indices ...
Jacoby Monique - - 2012
DNA methylation regulates gene expression in a cell-type specific way. Although peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) comprise a heterogeneous cell population, most studies of DNA methylation in blood are performed on total mononuclear cells. In this study, we investigated high resolution methylation profiles of 58 CpG sites dispersed over eight ...
Ortega Fernando - - 2013
Amyloid-β (Aβ) is produced by the consecutive cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) first by β-secretase, generating C99, and then by γ-secretase. APP is also cleaved by α-secretase. It is hypothesized that reducing the production of Aβ in the brain may slow the progression of Alzheimer disease. Therefore, different γ-secretase ...
Fricke Jens - - 2013
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) forms cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (IBs) that are thought to be sites of nucleocapsid accumulation and viral RNA synthesis. The present study found that IBs also were the sites of major sequestration of two proteins involved in cellular signaling pathways. These are phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase ...
Wehbe Katia - - 2013
The study of individual cells with infrared (IR) microspectroscopy often requires living cells to be cultured directly onto a suitable substrate. The surface effect of the specific substrates on the cell growth-viability and associated biochemistry-as well as on the IR analysis-spectral interference and optical artifacts-is all too often ignored. Using ...
Lwu Shelly - - 2013
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and melanoma brain metastases have traditionally been considered radioresistant lesions when treated with conventional radiotherapeutic modalities. Radiosurgery provides high-dose radiation to a defined target volume with steep fall off in dose at lesion margins. Recent evidence suggests that stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is effective in improving local ...
Jeon Hyun Min - - 2013
Necrosis is commonly found in the core region of solid tumours due to metabolic stress such as hypoxia and glucose deprivation (GD) resulting from insufficient vascularization. Necrosis promotes tumour growth and development by releasing the tumour-promoting cytokine high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1); however, the molecular mechanism underlying necrotic cell ...
Bronkhorst Alfred W - - 2012
RNA viruses in insects are targets of an RNA interference (RNAi)-based antiviral immune response, in which viral replication intermediates or viral dsRNA genomes are processed by Dicer-2 (Dcr-2) into viral small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs). Whether dsDNA virus infections are controlled by the RNAi pathway remains to be determined. Here, we ...
Evsyukova Irina - - 2013
Interleukin 7 receptor, IL7R, is expressed exclusively on cells of the lymphoid lineage, and its expression is crucial for the development and maintenance of T cells. Alternative splicing of IL7R exon 6 results in membrane-bound (exon 6 included) and soluble (exon 6 skipped) IL7R isoforms. Interestingly, the inclusion of exon ...
Yamaguchi Shinpei - - 2012
Meiosis is a germ-cell-specific cell division process through which haploid gametes are produced for sexual reproduction. Before the initiation of meiosis, mouse primordial germ cells undergo a series of epigenetic reprogramming steps, including the global erasure of DNA methylation at the 5-position of cytosine (5mC) in CpG-rich DNA. Although several ...
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