Search Results
Results 1 - 50 of 2028
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Darlenski Razvigor - - 2013
ABSTRACT. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a noninvasive therapeutic method first introduced in the field of dermatology. It is mainly used for the treatment of precancerous and superficial malignant skin tumors. Today PDT finds new applications not only for nononcologic dermatoses but also in the field of other medical specialties such ...
Isse Kumiko K Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, - - 2013
Routine light microscopy identifies two distinct epithelial cell populations in normal human livers: hepatocytes and biliary epithelial cells (BECs). Considerable epithelial diversity, however, arises during disease states when a variety of hepatocyte-BEC hybrid cells appear. This has been attributed to activation and differentiation of putative hepatic progenitor cells (HPC) residing ...
Lee Hai-Chon - - 2013
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Here we report that infection of hepatic cells by HCV stimulates nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB)-dependent production of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP). Hepatocyte-derived TSLP in turn conditions dendritic cells (DCs) to drive T-helper (Th)17 differentiation. The ...
Kiviniemi Marc T MT School of Public Health and Health Professions, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, - - 2013
Biospecimen banking programs are critically dependent on participation of diverse population members. The purpose of this study was to test a pilot intervention to enhance recruitment to a biospecimen bank among racially diverse community members. A mixed methods, community-based participatory research (CBPR) orientation was used to develop and pilot an ...
Rouleau Mélanie M Pharmacogenomics Laboratory, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec (CHUQ) Research Center, 2705 Boul. Laurier, Québec, Canada, G1V 4G2, and Faculty of Pharmacy, Laval University, Pavillon Ferdinand-Vandry, Université Laval, Québec, Canada, G1V - - 2013
The oligomerization of UGTs [UDP (uridine diphosphate)-glucuronosyltransferases] modulates their enzyme activities. Recent findings also indicate that glucuronidation is negatively regulated by the formation of inactive oligomeric complexes between UGT1A enzymes [i1 (isoform 1)] and an enzymatically inactive alternatively spliced i2 (isoform 2). In the present paper, we assessed whether deletion ...
Schulman Elliott - - 2013
The Refractory or Intractable Migraine (RM) patient has long been a challenge to all healthcare providers (HCP). Headache specialists have recognized this sub group of patients who remain refractory to treatment. Despite this recognition, there are no formal criteria that characterize RM. This article will attempt to provide treatment approaches, ...
Chalif Joshua I JI Nuffield Department of Surgery, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford University Hospitals Trust, Oxford, United - - 2013
Antibiotics have revolutionized survival from central nervous system (CNS) infections. Sixty years after the death of Sir Hugh Cairns, we present archive material of historical interest from the Radcliffe Infirmary in Oxford from the time of his first trials of penicillin for CNS infection. We discuss Cairns' important wartime and ...
Jandial Rahul R Division of Neurosurgery, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California 91010, USA. - - 2013
Spinal metastases of the second cervical vertebra are a subset of tumors that are particularly difficult to address surgically. Previously described techniques require highly morbid circumferential dissection posterior to the pharynx for resection and reconstruction. To perform a biomechanical analysis of instrumented reconstruction configurations used after axial spondylectomy and to ...
Granger Jennifer H JH Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA. - - 2013
Proteomic analyses of readily obtained human fluids (e.g., serum, urine, and saliva) indicate that the diagnosis of complex diseases will be enhanced by the simultaneous measurement of multiple biomarkers from such samples. This paper describes the development of a nanoparticle-based multiplexed platform that has the potential for simultaneous read-out of ...
Martin-Murphy Brittany V BV Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, - - 2013
Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose causes severe, fulminant liver injury. The underlying mechanism of APAP-induced liver injury (AILI), studied by a murine model, displays similar characteristics of injury as those observed in patients. Previous studies suggest that aside from APAP-induced direct damage to hepatocytes, the hepatic innate immune system is activated and ...
Purdue Mark P MP Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD, USA. - - 2013
To investigate whether renal cell carcinoma (RCC) histologic subtypes possess different etiologies, we conducted analyses of established RCC risk factors by subtype (clear cell, papillary and chromophobe) in two case-control studies conducted in the United States (1,217 cases, 1,235 controls) and Europe (1,097 cases, 1,476 controls). Histology was ascertained for ...
Hoffmann Christine - - 2013
Legionella pneumophila replicates intracellularly in environmental and immune phagocytes within a unique membrane-bound compartment, the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). Formation of LCVs is strictly dependent on the Icm/Dot type IV secretion system and the translocation of "effector" proteins into the cell. Some effector proteins decorate the LCV membrane and subvert host ...
Matharu Navneet K - - 2013
The organization of eukaryotic genome into chromatin within the nucleus eventually dictates the cell type specific expression pattern of genes. This higher order of chromatin organization is established during development and dynamically maintained throughout the life span. Developmental mechanisms are conserved in bilaterians and hence they have body plan in ...
Edelstein Paul H - - 2013
The guinea pig pneumonia model mimics Legionnaires' disease as seen in immunocompromised humans, with high untreated fatality rates and as such lends itself to studies of experimental chemotherapy. Guinea pig infection is also used to assess relative virulence of different Legionella bacterial strains, and has also been used to study ...
Moindrot Benoît - - 2013
The elementary level of chromatin fiber, namely the nucleofilament, is known to undergo a hierarchical compaction leading to local chromatin loops, then chromatin domains and ultimately chromosome territories. These successive folding levels rely on the formation of chromatin loops ranging from few kb to some Mb. In addition to a ...
Day Shandra R - - 2013
Legionella pneumophila is an intracellular pathogen of free-living protozoa that can also infect alveolar macrophages, L929 fibroblast cells, and HeLa cells. Infection of nonphagocytic cells by L. pneumophila can be used to study invasion mechanisms, compare infectivity of different strains and identify factors important for virulence. Virulent strains of L. ...
Ratcliff Rodney M - - 2013
Legionella strains are considered biologically inert with respect to traditional identification schemes. Various phenotypic alternatives have been attempted but all have lacked resolution as additional species have been added to what is proving to be a large genus. Only sequence-based schemes have the required resolution to confidently speciate or recognize ...
Dill Holger - - 2013
Disturbances in the general mRNA metabolism have been recognized as a major defect in a growing number of hereditary human diseases. One prominent example of this disease group is Retinitis pigmentosa (RP), characterized by selective loss of photoreceptor cells. RP can be caused by dominant mutations in key factors of ...
Flannery John G - - 2013
Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are in wide use for in vivo gene transfer for the treatment of inherited retinal disease. AAV vectors have been tested in many animal models and have demonstrated efficacy with low toxicity. In this chapter we describe some of the recent methods for small-scale production of ...
Lazarus Asmitha - - 2013
Aging is a complex trait and is influenced by multiple factors that are both intrinsic and extrinsic to the organism (Kirkwood et al. 2000; Knight 2000). Efforts to understanding the mechanisms that extend or shorten lifespan have been made since the early twentieth century. Aging is characteristically associated with a ...
Senturk Emir - - 2013
Flow cytometry, a valuable technique that employs the principles of light scattering, light excitation, and emission of fluorochrome molecules, can be used to assess the cell cycle position of individual cells based on DNA content. After the permeabilization of cells, the DNA can be stained with a fluorescent dye. Cells ...
Love Ian M - - 2013
p53 levels and activity are controlled in large part through regulated ubiquitination and subsequent destruction by the 26S proteasome. Monoubiquitination of p53 is mediated primarily by the RING-finger E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2 and impacts p53 activity through modulation of p53 localization and transcription activities. Recently, several E4 ubiquitin ligases (E4s) ...
Wurm Antje - - 2013
Calcium acts as a prominent second messenger in virtually every cell type and modulates a plethora of cell functions. Thus, Ca(2+) microfluorimetry became a valuable tool to assess information about mechanisms involved in the regulation of the intracellular calcium level in research on living tissues. Here we offer insight into ...
Bapat Sharmila A - - 2013
The concept of cancer as a stem cell disease has slowly gained ground over the last decade. A 'stem-like' state essentially necessitates that some cells in the developing tumor express the properties of remaining quiescent, self-renewing and regenerating tumors through establishment of aberrant cellular hierarchies. Alternatively, such capacities may also ...
Alex Anne F - - 2013
The development of in vivo retinal fundus imaging in mice has opened a new research horizon, not only in ophthalmic research. The ability to monitor the dynamics of vascular and cellular changes in pathological conditions, such as neovascularization or degeneration, longitudinally without the need to sacrifice the mouse, permits longer ...
Miller Jaime L - - 2013
Although the field of genetics has grown by leaps and bounds within the last decade due to the completion and availability of the human genome sequence, transcriptional regulation still cannot be explained solely by an individual's DNA sequence. Complex coordination and communication between a plethora of well-conserved chromatin modifying factors ...
Vaughan Catherine - - 2013
Mutant p53 may activate target genes through the interaction of transcription factors or through histone modifications. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a method commonly used to study these types of protein interactions. In order to generate a list of target genes that may be activated through this mechanism, ChIP sequencing may ...
Faulkner Gary - - 2013
Those investigators who study the morphology of Legionella and Legionella-infected cells have greatly benefited from the superior resolution afforded by electron microscopy (EM). It can also be said with confidence that EM will continue to reveal as yet to be discovered features of this fascinating intracellular pathogen. In this chapter ...
Selvi B Ruthrotha - - 2013
The recent developments in the field of epigenetics have changed the way the covalent modifications were perceived from mere chemical tags to important biological recruiting platforms as well as decisive factors in the process of transcriptional regulation and gene expression. Over the years, the parallel investigations in the area of ...
Kumari Sujata - - 2013
Genome packaging is a universal phenomenon from prokaryotes to higher mammals. Genomic constituents and forces have however, travelled a long evolutionary route. Both DNA and protein elements constitute the genome and also aid in its dynamicity. With the evolution of organisms, these have experienced several structural and functional changes. These ...
Weber Stefan S - - 2013
Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent of the potentially fatal Legionnaires' disease in humans. Mice have proved to be valuable model organisms to study the pathogenesis of this intracellular bacterium, as well as immune responses against it. In this chapter we describe a selection of mouse infection protocols to study ...
Berk Sharon G - - 2013
Although the study of protozoology has been active for centuries, very few current academic curricula incorporate requirements or even options for coursework on the study of protists; yet, protozoa are becoming widely recognized by investigators as organisms that play a significant role in the evolution, pathogenicity, protection and amplification of ...
Heuner Klaus - - 2013
Metabolic pathways and fluxes can be analyzed under in vivo conditions by incorporation experiments using general (13)C-labeled precursors. On the basis of the isotopologue compositions in amino acids or other metabolites, the incorporation rates of the supplied precursors and the pathways of their utilization can be studied in considerable detail. ...
Frum Rebecca A - - 2013
DNA replication involves a coordinated progression through S phase, and disruption of these regulated steps may cause gene abnormalities, which may lead to cancer. Different stages of DNA replication can be detected immunofluorescently that would indicate how replication is progressing in a cell population or under specific conditions. We describe ...
Jäger Jens - - 2013
The production of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) is a widespread phenomenon employed by bacteria to secrete cell envelope components into the environment. A contribution of Legionella pneumophila OMVs to the pathogenesis of Legionnaires' disease is likely due to the high number of virulence-related proteins in the vesicles. OMVs are isolated ...
Goeman Frauke - - 2013
Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by microarray hybridization (on-chip) is a technique well suited for a comprehensive analysis of transcription factor binding sites, histone modification patterns, and nucleosome occupancy. It can be restricted to a subset of genes or regions but also expanded up to a genome-wide range yielding insight into ...
Brassinga Ann Karen C - - 2013
Caenorhabditis elegans can serve as a simple genetic host to study interactions between Legionellaceae and their hosts, and to examine the contribution of specific gene products to virulence and immunity. C. elegans nematodes have several appealing attributes as a host organism; they are inexpensive, have robust genetic analysis tools, have ...
Jarraud Sophie - - 2013
Currently, several methods are used for the detection of Legionella in clinical samples, and these methods constitute part of the criteria for defining legionellosis cases. Urinary antigen detection is the first-line diagnostic test, although this test is limited to L. pneumophila serogroup 1 (Lp1) (Helbig et al., J Clin Microbiol ...
Tam Beatrice M - - 2013
Transgenic models are invaluable tools for researching retinal degenerative disease mechanisms. However, they are time-consuming and expensive to generate and maintain. We have developed an alternative to transgenic rodent models of retinal degeneration using transgenic Xenopus laevis. We have optimized this system to allow rapid analysis of transgene effects in ...
Nielsen Helene Myrtue - - 2013
In higher eukaryotic organisms epigenetic modifications are crucial for proper chromatin folding and thereby proper regulation of gene expression. In the last years the involvement of aberrant epigenetic modifications in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases has been recognized and attracted significant interest. However, the epigenetic mechanisms underlying the different disease phenotypes ...
Sahr Tobias - - 2013
The adaptation of Legionella pneumophila to the different conditions it encounters in the environment and in the host is governed by a complex regulatory system. Current knowledge of these regulatory networks and the transcriptome responses of L. pneumophila is mainly based on microarray analysis and limited to transcriptional products of ...
Joseph Carol - - 2013
Outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease create high levels of public anxiety and media interest and inevitably consume a great deal of public health resources. Investigations should begin as early as possible in order to rapidly identify suspected sources of infection, control the outbreak and prevent further cases occurring. The investigations should ...
Grimm Christian - - 2013
The induction of retinal degeneration by light exposure is widely used to study mechanisms of cell death. The advantage of such light-induced lesions over genetically determined degenerations is that light exposures can be manipulated according to the needs of the experimenter. Bright white light exposure can induce a synchronized burst ...
Bozzaro Salvatore - - 2013
The professional phagocyte Dictyostelium discoideum is a simple eukaryotic microorganism, whose natural habitat is deciduous forest soil and decaying leaves, where the amoebae feed on bacteria and grow as separate, independent, single cells. In the last decade, the organism has been successfully used as a host for several human pathogens, ...
Segal Gil - - 2013
Legionella pneumophila the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, actively manipulates host cell processes to establish a replication niche inside host cells. The establishment of its replication niche requires a functional Icm/Dot type IV secretion system which translocates about 300 effector proteins into host cells during infection. Many of these effectors ...
Law Cindy - - 2013
Histones are the protein components of chromatin and are important for its organization and compaction. Although core histones are exclusively expressed during S phase of the cell cycle, there exist variants of canonical histones that are expressed throughout the cell cycle. These histone variants are often deposited at defined regions ...
Faucher Sebastien P - - 2013
The study of transcriptome responses can provide insight into the regulatory pathways and genetic factors that contribute to a specific phenotype. For bacterial pathogens, it can identify putative new virulence systems and shed light on the mechanisms underlying the regulation of virulence factors. Microarrays have been previously used to study ...
du Preez Louis L - - 2013
The core histone N-terminal tails dissociate from their binding positions in nucleosomes at moderate salt concentrations, and appear unstructured in the crystal. This suggested that the tails contributed minimally to chromatin structure. However, in vitro studies have shown that the tails were involved in a range of intra- and inter-nucleosomal ...
Senturk Emir - - 2013
The p53 tumor suppressor protein plays a central role in mediating the cellular response to a variety of stresses. Activation of p53 signaling will trigger cell cycle arrest or apoptosis in normal cells, depending on such factors as cell type and genetic context. The ability of a cell to circumvent ...
Goehe Rachel W - - 2013
This chapter presents methods for interrogating the involvement of p53 in signaling to apoptosis, autophagy, and senescence. The well-known association of p53 with the stress response to chemotherapy and radiation is the basis for presenting these approaches. The development of quantitative and efficient in vitro assays has enabled researchers to ...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >