Search Results
Results 1 - 50 of 2032
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Zheng Qian Q School of Biomedical Engineering, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515, - - 2013
We present a novel method for the automatic segmentation of the vertebral bodies from 2D sagittal magnetic resonance (MR) images of the spine. First, a new affinity matrix is constructed by incorporating neighboring information, which local intensity is considered to depict the image and overcome the noise effectively. Second, the ...
Filippi Melissa K MK Department of Family Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, MS 1030, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA. - - 2013
Information concerning American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) Internet use and health information needs is dearth. Our research team explored Internet use among AI/AN college students to determine Internet use in relation to health information seeking behaviors. We used a tobacco site example for participants to describe what they desired in a ...
Darlenski Razvigor - - 2013
ABSTRACT. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a noninvasive therapeutic method first introduced in the field of dermatology. It is mainly used for the treatment of precancerous and superficial malignant skin tumors. Today PDT finds new applications not only for nononcologic dermatoses but also in the field of other medical specialties such ...
Isse Kumiko K Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, - - 2013
Routine light microscopy identifies two distinct epithelial cell populations in normal human livers: hepatocytes and biliary epithelial cells (BECs). Considerable epithelial diversity, however, arises during disease states when a variety of hepatocyte-BEC hybrid cells appear. This has been attributed to activation and differentiation of putative hepatic progenitor cells (HPC) residing ...
Lee Hai-Chon - - 2013
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Here we report that infection of hepatic cells by HCV stimulates nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB)-dependent production of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP). Hepatocyte-derived TSLP in turn conditions dendritic cells (DCs) to drive T-helper (Th)17 differentiation. The ...
Kiviniemi Marc T MT School of Public Health and Health Professions, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, - - 2013
Biospecimen banking programs are critically dependent on participation of diverse population members. The purpose of this study was to test a pilot intervention to enhance recruitment to a biospecimen bank among racially diverse community members. A mixed methods, community-based participatory research (CBPR) orientation was used to develop and pilot an ...
Rouleau Mélanie M Pharmacogenomics Laboratory, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec (CHUQ) Research Center, 2705 Boul. Laurier, Québec, Canada, G1V 4G2, and Faculty of Pharmacy, Laval University, Pavillon Ferdinand-Vandry, Université Laval, Québec, Canada, G1V - - 2013
The oligomerization of UGTs [UDP (uridine diphosphate)-glucuronosyltransferases] modulates their enzyme activities. Recent findings also indicate that glucuronidation is negatively regulated by the formation of inactive oligomeric complexes between UGT1A enzymes [i1 (isoform 1)] and an enzymatically inactive alternatively spliced i2 (isoform 2). In the present paper, we assessed whether deletion ...
Sefah Kwame K Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, - - 2013
Cancer stem cells (CSC) represent a malignant subpopulation of cells in hierarchically organized tumors. They constitute a subpopulation of malignant cells within a tumor mass and possess the ability to self-renew giving rise to heterogeneous tumor cell populations with a complex set of differentiated tumor cells. CSC may be the ...
Chalif Joshua I JI Nuffield Department of Surgery, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford University Hospitals Trust, Oxford, United - - 2013
Antibiotics have revolutionized survival from central nervous system (CNS) infections. Sixty years after the death of Sir Hugh Cairns, we present archive material of historical interest from the Radcliffe Infirmary in Oxford from the time of his first trials of penicillin for CNS infection. We discuss Cairns' important wartime and ...
Jandial Rahul R Division of Neurosurgery, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California 91010, USA. - - 2013
Spinal metastases of the second cervical vertebra are a subset of tumors that are particularly difficult to address surgically. Previously described techniques require highly morbid circumferential dissection posterior to the pharynx for resection and reconstruction. To perform a biomechanical analysis of instrumented reconstruction configurations used after axial spondylectomy and to ...
Schulman Elliott - - 2013
The Refractory or Intractable Migraine (RM) patient has long been a challenge to all healthcare providers (HCP). Headache specialists have recognized this sub group of patients who remain refractory to treatment. Despite this recognition, there are no formal criteria that characterize RM. This article will attempt to provide treatment approaches, ...
Granger Jennifer H JH Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA. - - 2013
Proteomic analyses of readily obtained human fluids (e.g., serum, urine, and saliva) indicate that the diagnosis of complex diseases will be enhanced by the simultaneous measurement of multiple biomarkers from such samples. This paper describes the development of a nanoparticle-based multiplexed platform that has the potential for simultaneous read-out of ...
Martin-Murphy Brittany V BV Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, - - 2013
Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose causes severe, fulminant liver injury. The underlying mechanism of APAP-induced liver injury (AILI), studied by a murine model, displays similar characteristics of injury as those observed in patients. Previous studies suggest that aside from APAP-induced direct damage to hepatocytes, the hepatic innate immune system is activated and ...
Purdue Mark P MP Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD, USA. - - 2013
To investigate whether renal cell carcinoma (RCC) histologic subtypes possess different etiologies, we conducted analyses of established RCC risk factors by subtype (clear cell, papillary and chromophobe) in two case-control studies conducted in the United States (1,217 cases, 1,235 controls) and Europe (1,097 cases, 1,476 controls). Histology was ascertained for ...
Han Yi Y Institut de Biologie des Plantes, UMR CNRS 8618, Université de Paris Sud, Orsay Cedex, - - 2013
Through its interaction with H(2)O(2), glutathione is a candidate for transmission of signals in plant responses to pathogens, but identification of signaling roles is complicated by its antioxidant function. Using a genetic approach based on a conditional catalase-deficient Arabidopsis mutant, cat2, this study aimed at establishing whether GSH plays an ...
Brassinga Ann Karen C - - 2013
Caenorhabditis elegans can serve as a simple genetic host to study interactions between Legionellaceae and their hosts, and to examine the contribution of specific gene products to virulence and immunity. C. elegans nematodes have several appealing attributes as a host organism; they are inexpensive, have robust genetic analysis tools, have ...
Jarraud Sophie - - 2013
Currently, several methods are used for the detection of Legionella in clinical samples, and these methods constitute part of the criteria for defining legionellosis cases. Urinary antigen detection is the first-line diagnostic test, although this test is limited to L. pneumophila serogroup 1 (Lp1) (Helbig et al., J Clin Microbiol ...
Tam Beatrice M - - 2013
Transgenic models are invaluable tools for researching retinal degenerative disease mechanisms. However, they are time-consuming and expensive to generate and maintain. We have developed an alternative to transgenic rodent models of retinal degeneration using transgenic Xenopus laevis. We have optimized this system to allow rapid analysis of transgene effects in ...
Nielsen Helene Myrtue - - 2013
In higher eukaryotic organisms epigenetic modifications are crucial for proper chromatin folding and thereby proper regulation of gene expression. In the last years the involvement of aberrant epigenetic modifications in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases has been recognized and attracted significant interest. However, the epigenetic mechanisms underlying the different disease phenotypes ...
Grimm Christian - - 2013
The induction of retinal degeneration by light exposure is widely used to study mechanisms of cell death. The advantage of such light-induced lesions over genetically determined degenerations is that light exposures can be manipulated according to the needs of the experimenter. Bright white light exposure can induce a synchronized burst ...
Alex Anne F - - 2013
The development of in vivo retinal fundus imaging in mice has opened a new research horizon, not only in ophthalmic research. The ability to monitor the dynamics of vascular and cellular changes in pathological conditions, such as neovascularization or degeneration, longitudinally without the need to sacrifice the mouse, permits longer ...
Miller Jaime L - - 2013
Although the field of genetics has grown by leaps and bounds within the last decade due to the completion and availability of the human genome sequence, transcriptional regulation still cannot be explained solely by an individual's DNA sequence. Complex coordination and communication between a plethora of well-conserved chromatin modifying factors ...
Ramamoorthy Mahesh - - 2013
Chemoresistance and increased growth rate are two gain-of-function functions that mutant p53 is thought to possess. Here, we describe two methods for measuring the sensitiveness of cells to chemotherapeutic drugs and the rate of cell growth. Both of which can be used with a wide range of cell types. The ...
Zhu Wenhan W Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, - - 2013
Legionella pneumophila the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, actively manipulates host cell -processes to establish a membrane-bound replication vacuole permissive for its replication. Establishment of such replication niche requires the Dot/Icm type IV secretion system which translocates a plethora of effectors into host cells. Determining whether a particular protein is ...
Jarrett Stuart G - - 2013
Mitochondrial dysfunction and genomic instability are associated with a number of retinal pathologies including age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma. Consequences of mitochondrial dysfunction within cells include elevation of the rate of ROS production due to damage of electron transport chain proteins, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage, and loss of ...
Dhanasekaran Karthigeyan - - 2013
The Genome of a eukaryotic cell harbors genetic material in the form of DNA which carries the hereditary information encoded in their bases. Nucleotide bases of DNA are transcribed into complimentary RNA bases which are further translated into protein, performing defined set of functions. The central dogma of life ensures ...
Edelstein Paul H - - 2013
The guinea pig pneumonia model mimics Legionnaires' disease as seen in immunocompromised humans, with high untreated fatality rates and as such lends itself to studies of experimental chemotherapy. Guinea pig infection is also used to assess relative virulence of different Legionella bacterial strains, and has also been used to study ...
Moindrot Benoît - - 2013
The elementary level of chromatin fiber, namely the nucleofilament, is known to undergo a hierarchical compaction leading to local chromatin loops, then chromatin domains and ultimately chromosome territories. These successive folding levels rely on the formation of chromatin loops ranging from few kb to some Mb. In addition to a ...
Marcel Virginie - - 2013
The human p53 protein isoforms are expressed in several cell lines and modulate p53 tumor suppressor -activity, mainly through modulation of gene expression (1-4). Thus, identifying the pattern of p53 isoforms expression in cell lines is a key step for future studies of the p53 network (5). At the moment, ...
Hori Juliana I - - 2013
Legionella pneumophila is an intracellular bacterium that was evolutionarily selected to survive in freshwater environments by infecting free-living unicellular protozoa. Once humans inhale contaminated water droplets, the bacteria reach the pulmonary alveoli where they are phagocytized by resident alveolar macrophages. Depending on host immunity and bacterial virulence genes, the infection ...
Enoki Ryosuke - - 2013
Various types of retinal neurons, including amacrine, ganglion, and horizontal cells, expand neurites (dendrites or axons) in horizontal direction and make synaptic or electrical contacts with other cells to integrate the visual information. Many types of ion-channels and receptors are located along these neurites, and these horizontal connections critically contribute ...
Neveling Kornelia - - 2013
Inherited retinal diseases display a very high degree of clinical and genetic heterogeneity, which poses challenges in identifying the underlying defects in known genes and in identifying novel retinal disease genes. Here, we outline the state-of-the-art techniques to find the causative DNA variants, with special attention for next-generation sequencing which ...
Shanmugam Muthu K - - 2013
There is considerable evidence suggesting that epigenetic mechanisms may mediate development of chronic inflammation by modulating the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α, interleukins, tumor suppressor genes, oncogenes and autocrine and paracrine activation of the transcription factor NF-κB. These molecules are constitutively produced by a variety of cells under chronic inflammatory ...
Bharathy Narendra - - 2013
Skeletal muscle cells have served as a paradigm for understanding mechanisms leading to cellular differentiation. Formation of skeletal muscle involves a series of steps in which cells are commited towards the myogenic lineage, undergo expansion to give rise to myoblasts that differentiate into multinucleated myotubes, and mature to form adult ...
Tang Ada A Department of Physical Therapy, University of Brisith Columbia, V5Z 2G9 Vancouver, - - 2013
Community exercise programs are effective in improving aerobic capacity after stroke, but individual variability in training responses has not previously been studied. This study examined explanatory factors for post-program responses in aerobic capacity (VO2peak) with respect to training parameters and participant characteristics. Secondary analysis of data from a prospective cohort ...
Vaughan Catherine - - 2013
Mutant p53 may activate target genes through the interaction of transcription factors or through histone modifications. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a method commonly used to study these types of protein interactions. In order to generate a list of target genes that may be activated through this mechanism, ChIP sequencing may ...
Faulkner Gary - - 2013
Those investigators who study the morphology of Legionella and Legionella-infected cells have greatly benefited from the superior resolution afforded by electron microscopy (EM). It can also be said with confidence that EM will continue to reveal as yet to be discovered features of this fascinating intracellular pathogen. In this chapter ...
Selvi B Ruthrotha - - 2013
The recent developments in the field of epigenetics have changed the way the covalent modifications were perceived from mere chemical tags to important biological recruiting platforms as well as decisive factors in the process of transcriptional regulation and gene expression. Over the years, the parallel investigations in the area of ...
Kumari Sujata - - 2013
Genome packaging is a universal phenomenon from prokaryotes to higher mammals. Genomic constituents and forces have however, travelled a long evolutionary route. Both DNA and protein elements constitute the genome and also aid in its dynamicity. With the evolution of organisms, these have experienced several structural and functional changes. These ...
Carter Debra A - - 2013
The identification of stem/progenitor cells within the retinal neural environment has opened up the possibility of therapy via cellular replacement and/or reprogramming of resident cell populations (1-4). Within the neuro-retinal niche, following injury or in disease states (including inflammation and degeneration), cellular responses affect tissue homeostasis, reduce cell density, disrupt ...
Hoffmann Christine - - 2013
Legionella pneumophila replicates intracellularly in environmental and immune phagocytes within a unique membrane-bound compartment, the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). Formation of LCVs is strictly dependent on the Icm/Dot type IV secretion system and the translocation of "effector" proteins into the cell. Some effector proteins decorate the LCV membrane and subvert host ...
Matharu Navneet K - - 2013
The organization of eukaryotic genome into chromatin within the nucleus eventually dictates the cell type specific expression pattern of genes. This higher order of chromatin organization is established during development and dynamically maintained throughout the life span. Developmental mechanisms are conserved in bilaterians and hence they have body plan in ...
Weber Stefan S - - 2013
Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent of the potentially fatal Legionnaires' disease in humans. Mice have proved to be valuable model organisms to study the pathogenesis of this intracellular bacterium, as well as immune responses against it. In this chapter we describe a selection of mouse infection protocols to study ...
Berk Sharon G - - 2013
Although the study of protozoology has been active for centuries, very few current academic curricula incorporate requirements or even options for coursework on the study of protists; yet, protozoa are becoming widely recognized by investigators as organisms that play a significant role in the evolution, pathogenicity, protection and amplification of ...
Heuner Klaus - - 2013
Metabolic pathways and fluxes can be analyzed under in vivo conditions by incorporation experiments using general (13)C-labeled precursors. On the basis of the isotopologue compositions in amino acids or other metabolites, the incorporation rates of the supplied precursors and the pathways of their utilization can be studied in considerable detail. ...
Blackshaw Seth S The Salomon H. Snyder Department of Neuroscience, John Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. - - 2013
The introduction of large-scale gene expression profiling studies has greatly increased the need to rapidly obtain high-quality cellular expression patterns of genes found to exhibit differential expression. The use of large-scale nonradioactive RNA in situ hybridization makes this possible, and greatly increases the general usefulness of this data. Here, we ...
Segal Gil - - 2013
Legionella pneumophila the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, actively manipulates host cell processes to establish a replication niche inside host cells. The establishment of its replication niche requires a functional Icm/Dot type IV secretion system which translocates about 300 effector proteins into host cells during infection. Many of these effectors ...
Law Cindy - - 2013
Histones are the protein components of chromatin and are important for its organization and compaction. Although core histones are exclusively expressed during S phase of the cell cycle, there exist variants of canonical histones that are expressed throughout the cell cycle. These histone variants are often deposited at defined regions ...
Suzuki Hiroshi I - - 2013
The tumor suppressor p53 orchestrates multiple cellular pathways as a central node of anti-oncogenic programs in response to DNA damage, oncogene activation, and several stresses. In addition to the principal role as a transcription factor that transactivates many target genes involved in apoptosis and cell cycle control, p53 has been ...
Cheng Christiana L CL Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, - - 2013
Identification and visualization of specific cells and cellular structures in the retina are fundamental for understanding the visual process, retinal development, disease progression, and therapeutic intervention. The increased usage of transgenic and naturally occurring mutant mice has further emphasized the need for retinal cell-specific imaging. Immunofluorescence microscopy of retinal cryosections ...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >