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Results 501 - 550 of 4616
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Wang Ke - - 2013
Currently the treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) infection is largely limited due to the prevalence of multidrug resistance strains. Over-expressing the efflux pumps such as the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter has been reported to significantly contribute to its resistance to several antibiotics. This study investigated the expression profile of one ...
Huang Jian - - 2012
Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self renewal and lineage commitment depend on complex interactions with the microenvironment. The ability to maintain or expand HSCs for clinical applications or basic research has been substantially limited because these interactions are not well defined. Recent evidence suggests that HSCs reside in a low-perfusion, reduced-nutrient ...
Wollman R - - 2012
The actin cortex both facilitates and hinders the exocytosis of secretory granules. How cells consolidate these two opposing roles was not well understood. Here we show that antigen activation of mast cells induces oscillations in Ca(2+) and PtdIns(4,5)P(2) lipid levels that in turn drive cyclic recruitment of N-WASP and cortical ...
Burghy Cory A - - 2012
Early life stress (ELS) and function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis predict later psychopathology. Animal studies and cross-sectional human studies suggest that this process might operate through amygdala-ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) circuitry implicated in the regulation of emotion. Here we prospectively investigated the roles of ELS and childhood basal cortisol amounts ...
Shin Seung Min - - 2012
How does chronic activity modulation lead to global remodeling of proteins at synapses and synaptic scaling? Here we report that guanylate kinase-associated protein (GKAP; also known as SAPAP), a scaffolding molecule linking NMDA receptor-PSD-95 to Shank-Homer complexes, acts in these processes. Overexcitation removes GKAP from synapses via the ubiquitin-proteasome system, ...
Paschos Georgios K GK Perelman School of Medicine, Institute for Translational Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, - - 2012
Adipocytes store excess energy in the form of triglycerides and signal the levels of stored energy to the brain. Here we show that adipocyte-specific deletion of Arntl (also known as Bmal1), a gene encoding a core molecular clock component, results in obesity in mice with a shift in the diurnal ...
Finan Brian B Institute for Diabetes and Obesity, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH), Neuherberg, - - 2012
We report the development of a new combinatorial approach that allows for peptide-mediated selective tissue targeting of nuclear hormone pharmacology while eliminating adverse effects in other tissues. Specifically, we report the development of a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-estrogen conjugate that has superior sex-independent efficacy over either of the individual hormones alone ...
Kaylor Joanna J JJ Jules Stein Eye Institute, University of California, Los Angeles School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California, - - 2013
Absorption of a light particle by an opsin-pigment causes photoisomerization of its retinaldehyde chromophore. Restoration of light sensitivity to the resulting apo-opsin requires chemical re-isomerization of the photobleached chromophore. This is carried out by a multistep enzyme pathway called the visual cycle. Accumulating evidence suggests the existence of an alternative ...
Dong Renbin R Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, - - 2013
To evaluate the clinical efficacy, especially the pain reduction, of vertebroplasty and balloon kyphoplasty in the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs). Eighty-six patients with OVCFs were treated with vertebroplasty or balloon kyphoplasty. All patients were followed up for seven-36 months. Visual analog scale (VAS), vertebral height, and local ...
Gille Justus J Department of Orthopaedics and Trauma Surgery, University of Schleswig-Holstein, Luebeck, Germany. - - 2013
We present a new technique of arthroscopic-assisted AC-hook plate fixation for acromioclavicular joint dislocation with all the advantages of minimally invasive surgery and the possibility to treat concomitant pathologies. Initially a glenohumeral arthroscopy is performed to address concomitant intra-articular injuries. Under subacromial visualisation the drill hole for the hook of ...
Nauhaus Ian I Systems Neurobiology Laboratories, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California, - - 2012
Orientation and spatial frequency tuning are highly salient properties of neurons in primary visual cortex (V1). The combined organization of these particular tuning properties in the cortical space will strongly shape the V1 population response to different visual inputs, yet it is poorly understood. In this study, we used two-photon ...
Hirschmann Michael T MT Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, Kantonsspital Bruderholz, 4101, Bruderholz, Switzerland. - - 2013
SPECT/CT is a hybrid imaging modality, which combines a 3D scintigraphy (SPECT) and a conventional computerised tomography (CT). SPECT/CT allows accurate anatomical localisation of metabolic tracer activity. It allows the correlation of surgical factors such as tunnel position and orientation with mechanical alignment, clinical outcome and biological factors. The purpose ...
Andrews Daniel M DM Cancer Immunology Program, Trescowthick Laboratories, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, St. Andrews Place, East Melbourne, Australia. - - 2012
The development and function of natural killer (NK) cells is regulated by the interaction of inhibitory receptors of the Ly49 family with distinct peptide-laden major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules, although whether the Ly49 family is able bind to other MHC class I-like molecules is unclear. Here we found ...
Sun Yu Y Center for Human and Clinical Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The - - 2012
Congenital central hypothyroidism occurs either in isolation or in conjunction with other pituitary hormone deficits. Using exome and candidate gene sequencing, we identified 8 distinct mutations and 2 deletions in IGSF1 in males from 11 unrelated families with central hypothyroidism, testicular enlargement and variably low prolactin concentrations. IGSF1 is a ...
Bradatsch Bettina B Biochemistry Center, Universität Heidelberg, Heidelberg, - - 2012
Preribosomal particles evolve in the nucleus through transient interaction with biogenesis factors before export to the cytoplasm. Here, we report the architecture of the late pre-60S particle, purified from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, through Arx1, a nuclear export factor with structural homology to methionine aminopeptidases, or its binding partner Alb1. Cryo-EM reconstruction ...
Lv Zhengjian Z Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 986025 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, - - 2013
Misfolding and aggregation of the amyloid β-protein (Aβ) are hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. Both processes are dependent on the environmental conditions, including the presence of divalent cations, such as Cu(2+). Cu(2+) cations regulate early stages of Aβ aggregation, but the molecular mechanism of Cu(2+) regulation is unknown. In this study ...
Barrios Arantza A Department of Genetics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey, USA. - - 2012
Appetitive behaviors require complex decision making that involves the integration of environmental stimuli and physiological needs. C. elegans mate searching is a male-specific exploratory behavior regulated by two competing needs: food and reproductive appetite. We found that the pigment dispersing factor receptor (PDFR-1) modulates the circuit that encodes the male ...
Parvatiyar Kislay K Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, - - 2012
The induction of type I interferons by the bacterial secondary messengers cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) or cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) is dependent on a signaling axis that involves the adaptor STING, the kinase TBK1 and the transcription factor IRF3. Here we identified the heliase DDX41 as a pattern-recognition receptor (PRR) that sensed ...
Liu Chao-Pei CP National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, - - 2012
Mammalian histone H3.3 is a variant of the canonical H3.1 essential for genome reprogramming in fertilized eggs and maintenance of chromatin structure in neuronal cells. An H3.3-specific histone chaperone, DAXX, directs the deposition of H3.3 onto pericentric and telomeric heterochromatin. H3.3 differs from H3.1 by only five amino acids, yet ...
Kaiser Stephen E SE Department of Structural Biology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, - - 2012
Core functions of autophagy are mediated by ubiquitin-like protein (UBL) cascades, in which a homodimeric E1 enzyme, Atg7, directs the UBLs Atg8 and Atg12 to their respective E2 enzymes, Atg3 and Atg10. Crystallographic and mutational analyses of yeast (Atg7-Atg3)(2) and (Atg7-Atg10)(2) complexes reveal noncanonical, multisite E1-E2 recognition in autophagy. Atg7's ...
Musselman Catherine A CA Department of Pharmacology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, - - 2012
The PHD finger protein 1 (PHF1) is essential in epigenetic regulation and genome maintenance. Here we show that the Tudor domain of human PHF1 binds to histone H3 trimethylated at Lys36 (H3K36me3). We report a 1.9-Å resolution crystal structure of the Tudor domain in complex with H3K36me3 and describe the ...
Zhu Weiquan W Department of Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, - - 2012
The innate immune response is essential for combating infectious disease. Macrophages and other cells respond to infection by releasing cytokines, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), which in turn activate a well-described, myeloid-differentiation factor 88 (MYD88)-mediated, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-dependent transcriptional pathway that results in inflammatory-cell activation and recruitment. Endothelial cells, which usually ...
Roberts Jane E JE Department of Psychology, The University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA. - - 2013
The aim of this study was to determine whether young boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS) exhibit abnormal physiological or behavioral responses to a moderately intense auditory stimulus, as heightened sensory reactivity is believed to contribute to problem behaviors in this population. We examined the physiological basis, via heart activity, ...
Damashek Amy A Department of Psychology, Western Michigan University, MI 49008, USA. - - 2013
Research indicates that mothers' supervision protects children from injuries. However, little research has examined the role of fathers' supervision in children's injuries. This study compared the role of maternal and paternal supervision in children's injury risk and severity using maternal reports. Mothers (n = 170) of toddlers were interviewed for ...
Persell Stephen D SD Division of General Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA. - - 2013
Many individuals at higher risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) do not receive recommended treatments. Prior interventions using personalized risk information to promote prevention did not test clinic-wide effectiveness. To perform a 9-month cluster-randomized trial, comparing a strategy of electronic health record-based identification of patients with increased CVD risk and individualized ...
MacAskill Andrew F AF Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York, - - 2012
We found that medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in both the direct and indirect pathways of the mouse nucleus accumbens (NAc) receive inputs from the cortex, thalamus and hippocampus. However, hippocampal inputs were much weaker onto indirect MSNs, where they contacted small spines located in the distal dendrites. This selective targeting ...
Shiffman Saul S Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, 130 N. Bellefield Avenue, Suite 510, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA. - - 2013
Non-daily, or intermittent smokers (ITS), are increasingly prevalent. Their smoking may be more situational than that of daily smokers (DS), and thus is hypothesized to be more influenced by cues. To assess ITS' response to cues, and compare it to that of DS. Samples of 239 ITS and 207 DS ...
Love Cassandra C Duke Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC, - - 2012
Burkitt lymphoma is characterized by deregulation of MYC, but the contribution of other genetic mutations to the disease is largely unknown. Here, we describe the first completely sequenced genome from a Burkitt lymphoma tumor and germline DNA from the same affected individual. We further sequenced the exomes of 59 Burkitt ...
Brinkman Tara M TM Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA. - - 2013
Survivors of pediatric brain tumors (BTs) are at-risk for late effects which may affect mobility within and access to the physical environment. This study examined the prevalence of and risk factors for restricted environmental access in survivors of childhood BTs and investigated the associations between reduced environmental access, health-related quality ...
Fu Jack J Department of Palliative Care and Rehabilitation Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, TX 77030, Houston, USA. - - 2013
This study aims to analyze the utilization and effectiveness of injectable spasticity medications by the physiatry team at a referral-based tertiary cancer center. A retrospective review and analysis of patient and injection characteristics were obtained from patients who had received onabotulinum toxin or phenol nerve block injections from December 1, ...
Graham Rachel L RL Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, - - 2012
Live, attenuated RNA virus vaccines are efficacious but subject to reversion to virulence. Among RNA viruses, replication fidelity is recognized as a key determinant of virulence and escape from antiviral therapy; increased fidelity is attenuating for some viruses. Coronavirus (CoV) replication fidelity is approximately 20-fold greater than that of other ...
Soskis Michael J MJ Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, - - 2012
EphB receptor tyrosine kinases control multiple steps in nervous system development. However, it remains unclear whether EphBs regulate these different developmental processes directly or indirectly. In addition, given that EphBs signal through multiple mechanisms, it has been challenging to define which signaling functions of EphBs regulate particular developmental events. To ...
Martin Lance L Program in Epithelial Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, - - 2012
We present RNA-mechanically induced trapping of molecular interactions (RNA-MITOMI), a microfluidic platform that allows integrated synthesis and functional assays for programmable RNA libraries. The interaction of a comprehensive library of RNA mutants with stem-loop-binding protein precisely defined the RNA structural and sequence features that govern affinity. The functional motif reconstructed ...
Northam Gemma B GB Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience Unit, UCL Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London, WC1N 1EH, - - 2012
Although language difficulties are common in children born prematurely, robust neuroanatomical correlates of these impairments remain to be established. This study investigated whether the greater prevalence of language problems in preterm (versus term-born) children might reflect injury to major intra- or interhemispheric white matter pathways connecting frontal and temporal language ...
Tsoi Lam C LC Department of Biostatistics, Center for Statistical Genetics, University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI, - - 2012
To gain further insight into the genetic architecture of psoriasis, we conducted a meta-analysis of 3 genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and 2 independent data sets genotyped on the Immunochip, including 10,588 cases and 22,806 controls. We identified 15 new susceptibility loci, increasing to 36 the number associated with psoriasis in ...
Eyre Steve S Arthritis Research UK Epidemiology Unit, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester, - - 2012
Using the Immunochip custom SNP array, which was designed for dense genotyping of 186 loci identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS), we analyzed 11,475 individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (cases) of European ancestry and 15,870 controls for 129,464 markers. We combined these data in a meta-analysis with GWAS data from additional ...
Nicastro Giuseppe G Molecular Structure Division, Medical Research Council National Institute for Medical Research, London, - - 2012
Let-7 is an important tumor-suppressive microRNA (miRNA) that acts as an on-off switch for cellular differentiation and regulates the expression of a set of human oncogenes. Binding of the human KSRP protein to let-7 miRNA precursors positively regulates their processing to mature let-7, thereby contributing to control of cell proliferation, ...
Whitcomb David C DC Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. - - 2012
Pancreatitis is a complex, progressively destructive inflammatory disorder. Alcohol was long thought to be the primary causative agent, but genetic contributions have been of interest since the discovery that rare PRSS1, CFTR and SPINK1 variants were associated with pancreatitis risk. We now report two associations at genome-wide significance identified and ...
Liu Jia J Department of Neuroscience and Friedman Brain Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, - - 2012
Protracted social isolation of adult mice induced behavioral, transcriptional and ultrastructural changes in oligodendrocytes of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and impaired adult myelination. Social re-integration was sufficient to normalize behavioral and transcriptional changes. Short periods of isolation affected chromatin and myelin, but did not induce behavioral changes. Thus, myelinating oligodendrocytes ...
Arbab Mandana M Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, MA 02115, - - 2013
Interactions between DNA and transcription factors (TFs) guide cellular function and development, yet the complexities of gene regulation are still far from being understood. Such understanding is limited by a paucity of techniques with which to probe DNA-protein interactions. We have devised magnetic protein immobilization on enhancer DNA (MagPIE), a ...
Chen Shengli - - 2012
This paper describes the complete genome sequence of HX01, an isolate of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) collected from a swine disease outbreak. The genome is 15,186 nt long and consists of six genes in the order of 3'-NP-P-M-F-HN-L-5'. This genome has the same length as the old NDV genotypes (I-IV), ...
Fargen Kyle M - - 2012
INTRODUCTION: Outcome after stroke intervention remains disappointing, with only 30-50% of patients having a good outcome at 90 days. We sought to identify important outcome prognosticators. METHODS: All consecutive patients that presented with an acute anterior circulation ischemic stroke, with adequate CT perfusion imaging, and that underwent emergency endovascular treatment ...
Haghighat Gholamhossein - - 2012
We investigate theoretically the effect of two-dimensional photonic crystal (PC) defect waveguide parameters embedded into vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) on static operation of PC-VCSEL, including spatial hole burning (SHB) and temperature in the active regions. In structures with larger pitch of PC holes, SHB occurs dramatically and temperature increases in ...
Calvo F A - - 2012
INTRODUCTION: To report feasibility, tolerance, anatomical sites of upper abdominal locoregional recurrence and long-term outcome of gastric cancer patients treated with surgery and a component of intraoperative electron beam radiotherapy (IORT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 1995 to December 2010, 32 patients with primary gastric adenocarcinoma treated with curative resection ...
Han Juan - - 2012
Ionic liquid-salt aqueous two-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection was developed for the determination of sulfonamides in water and food samples. In the procedure, the analytes were extracted from the aqueous samples into the ionic liquid top phase in one step. Three sulfonamides, sulfamerazine, sulfamethoxazole, and ...
Shah Neel A - - 2012
PURPOSE: Elective surgical resection is the curative treatment for colorectal cancer (CRC). Up to 30 % of patients present as surgical emergencies. The objective was to determine the association between presenting with an emergency condition and consequent outcomes of CRC surgery in the Appalachian state of West Virginia (WV) in comparison ...
Kong Byung Ho - - 2012
PURPOSE: The existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in glioblastoma has been proposed. However, the unknown knowledge that is yet to be revealed is the presence of glioma CSCs (gCSCs) in correlation to each WHO grades of glioma. We approached this study with a hypothesis that specimens from high-grade gliomas ...
Vallejo Narváez Wilmer Esteban - - 2012
The energy-dependent branching ratios of the complementary fragment ions [C5H5O]+ and [HC6H4NH]+ ([M - C5H5O]+) originated from the N-(2-furylmethyl)aniline molecular ion, [HC6H4NH-C5H5O]+•, were obtained from Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) rate calculations based on DFT energy profiles. The UB3LYP/6-311G+(3df,2p)//UB3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory was used to model the competitive reaction mechanisms by which the ...
McIntyre Peter B - - 2012
Three bacteria-Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis-account for most acute bacterial meningitis. Measurement of the effect of protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines is most reliable for H influenzae meningitis because one serotype and one age group account for more than 90% of cases and the incidence has been best measured in ...
Dzintars Eric - - 2012
Currently, a software-based second check dose calculation for helical tomotherapy (HT) is not available. The goal of this study is to evaluate the dose calculation accuracy of the in-house software using EGS4/MCSIM Monte Carlo environment against the treatment planning system calculations. In-house software was used to convert HT treatment plan ...
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