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Plant Ashley S - - 2013
Undifferentiated embryonal liver sarcoma (UELS) makes up 9% to 15% of all malignant liver tumors in children. UELS is characteristically diagnosed between the ages of 6 and 10 years and presents with abdominal pain, vomiting, and an abdominal mass. There is currently no standardized treatment for UELS except attempt at ...
Gao K K Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Nanfang Hospital of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, - - 2013
Pulsed-dye laser (PDL)-mediated photothermolysis is the current standard treatment for port-wine stain (PWS) birthmarks. Vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy (PDT) might be an alternative for the treatment of PWS. To compare clinical outcomes of PDT and PDL treatment of PWS. Two adjacent flat areas of PWS lesions were selected from each of ...
Marder Wendy W University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, - - 2013
Azathioprine (AZA) is recognized among immunosuppressive medications as relatively safe during pregnancy for women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) requiring aggressive treatment. This pilot study aimed to determine whether SLE therapy during pregnancy was associated with developmental delays in offspring. This cohort study included SLE patients with at least one ...
Kimura Yukiko Y Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, Joseph M. Sanzari Children’s Hospital, Hackensack University Medical Center, 30 Prospect Avenue, Hackensack, NJ 07601, USA. - - 2013
Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is characterized by fevers, rash, and arthritis, for which interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-6 inhibitors appear to be effective treatments. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), interstitial lung disease (ILD), and alveolar proteinosis (AP) have recently been reported with increased frequency in systemic JIA patients. Our aim was ...
Baxter Caroline G CG National Aspergillosis Centre, University Hospital of South Manchester, and School of Translational Medicine, University of Manchester, Manchester, England. - - 2013
The recovery of Aspergillus and Candida from the respiratory secretions of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is common. Their relationship to the development of allergic sensitization and effect on lung function has not been established. Improved techniques to detect these organisms are needed to increase knowledge of these effects. A ...
Kjeken Ingvild I National Resource Center for Rehabilitation in Rheumatology, Diakonhjemmets Hospital, Oslo, Norway. - - 2013
To evaluate the mean overall effects over a 1-year period of a multidisciplinary in-patient rehabilitation programme for patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Observer-blinded, randomized controlled trial, with assessments made after 4 and 12 months. Forty-six patients received a 3-week in-patient rehabilitation programme and 49 patients received treatment as usual. Primary outcomes ...
Oyomopito Rebecca A RA Faculty of Medicine, The Kirby Institute, UNSW, Sydney, Australia. - - 2013
HIV-1 group M viruses diverge 25%-35% in envelope, important for viral attachment during infection, and 10%-15% in the pol region, under selection pressure from common antiretrovirals. In Asia, subtypes B and CRF01_AE are common genotypes. Our objectives were to determine whether clinical, immunological, or virological treatment responses differed by genotype ...
Wolfe Russell P RP Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tulane University, 500 Lindy Boggs Center, New Orleans, LA 70118, - - 2013
Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are a potential source for cell-based tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications, but their translation into clinical use will require efficient and robust methods for promoting differentiation. Fluid shear stress, which can be readily incorporated into scalable bioreactors, may be one solution for promoting endothelial ...
Jaja Blessing N R BN St. Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, - - 2013
Clinical prediction models can enhance clinical decision-making and research. However, available prediction models in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) are rarely used. We evaluated the methodological validity of SAH prediction models and the relevance of the main predictors to identify potentially reliable models and to guide future attempts at model development. ...
Chen Yu - - 2013
Amygdalin, a naturally occurring substance, has been suggested to be efficacious as an anticancer substance. The effect of amygdalin on cervical cancer cells has never been studied. In this study, we found that the viability of human cervical cancer HeLa cell line was significantly inhibited by amygdalin. 4,6-Diamino-2-phenyl indole (DAPI) ...
Haddow James E JE Division of Medical Screening and Special Testing, Women and Infants Hospital, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02903, USA. - - 2013
Among euthyroid pregnant women in a large clinical trial, free thyroxine (FT4) measurements below the 2.5th centile were associated with a 17 lb higher weight (2.9 kg/m(2)) than in the overall study population. We explore this relationship further. Among 9351 women with second trimester thyrotropin (TSH) measurements between 1st and 98th centiles, ...
Singh Kumud K KK Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0672, USA. - - 2013
Apolipoprotein B mRNA editing catalytic polypeptide 3G (APOBEC3G) protein is incorporated into nascent virus particles and mediates cytidine deamination (C-to-U) of first-strand reverse transcripts of HIV-1 in target cells resulting in G-to-A hypermutation of the coding strand and premature degradation. We investigated the effects of APOBEC3G genetic variants on HIV-1-related ...
Gavriilidis Christos C Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, - - 2013
Superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) is down- regulated in osteoarthritis (OA). This study was undertaken to investigate the functional effects of this down-regulation in the context of oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction. Lipid peroxidation in articular cartilage from OA patients and from lesion-free control subjects with femoral neck fracture was assessed ...
Topete-Reyes Jorge F - - 2013
The angiotensin (Ang)-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism determines Ang II levels, but its relationship with lupus nephritis (LN) in different populations is controversial. To describe the allelic and genotypic distribution of the I/D polymorphism in Mexican mestizos with LN and assess an association with histological classes. We included 24 ...
Kawakami Michiyuki M Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, - - 2013
Asymmetrical skull deformity is frequently seen in children with cerebral palsy, and may contribute to postural abnormalities and deformities. The aim of this cross-sectional- survey was to determine the frequency of asymmetrical skull deformity and its correlation with clinical parameters. A 10-item checklist for asymmetrical skull deformity, postural abnormalities, and ...
Castelli Roberto - - 2013
Deficiencies in the inhibitor of the first component of human complement (C1-INH) are clinically associated with both hereditary angioedema (HAE) and acquired angioedema (AAE). The reduction in C1-INH function leads to the activation of the classical complement pathway and consequent complement consumption, as well as to the activation of the ...
Gustafsson Klas K Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Insurance Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. - - 2013
To assess the associations between psychological factors and return to work among long-term sickness absentees. Longitudinal study with a 3-year follow-up. Long-term sickness absentees (n = 905) who had undergone a multidisciplinary medical assessment. Three years after multidisciplinary medical assessment, return to work status (full, partial, or none) was determined according to ...
Nicholls Samantha B SB Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003, - - 2013
Apoptosis is critical for organismal homeostasis and a wide variety of diseases. Caspases are the ultimate executors of the apoptotic programmed cell death pathway. As caspases play such a central role in apoptosis, there is significant demand for technologies to monitor caspase function. We recently developed a caspase activatable-GFP (CA-GFP) ...
Alagaratnam Sharmini S Department of Cancer Prevention, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, - - 2013
To circumvent difficulties of isolating pure populations of cancer stem cells (CSCs) for the purpose of identifying malignancy-specific gene expression, we have compared exon-resolution transcriptomic profiles of 5 embryonal carcinoma (EC) cell lines, a histological subtype of germ cell tumor (GCT), to their nonmalignant caricature, specifically 6 human embryonic stem ...
Weinbauer Gerhard F - - 2013
The enhanced pre- and postnatal (ePPND) study design has been developed in response to new scientific knowledge and subsequent guideline changes [ICH M3(R2) and ICH S6(R1)]. The changes in study design were basically driven by the experiences obtained during preclinical development of biopharmaceuticals. The standard ePPND concept does not apply ...
Rushton Paula W PW Rehabilitation Sciences Graduate Program, University of British Columbia, T325 - 2211 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2B5, - - 2013
To evaluate the measurement properties of the Wheelchair Use Confidence Scale for manual wheelchair users version 2.1 (WheelCon-M 2.1). Cohort study. Volunteer sample of 83 community-dwelling, experienced manual wheelchair users. Participants completed the WheelCon-M 2.1 twice to assess retest reliability. Validity was assessed by evaluating hypothesized relationships between the WheelCon-M ...
Danielsson Bengt R - - 2013
Although demonstration of some degree of maternal toxicity is required in regulatory developmental toxicology studies, marked maternal toxicity may be a confounding factor in data interpretation. Reduction in maternal body weight gain is the far most frequently used endpoint of toxicity, but alternative endpoints, like organ toxicity or exaggerated pharmacological ...
Ridings James E - - 2013
It is close to 60 years since thalidomide was created by the German company, Chemie-Grünenthal, and launched as "Contergan." This was soon to be followed in England by the launch of "Distaval." Of all the drugs developed in the intervening years, thalidomide has undoubtedly had the greatest influence on shaping ...
Zhang Cindy - - 2013
The rat whole embryo culture (WEC) system has been used extensively for characterizing teratogenic properties of test chemicals. In this chapter, we describe the methodology for culturing rat embryos as well as a new morphological score system, the Dysmorphology Score (DMS) system for assessing morphology of mid gestation (gestational day ...
Schulpen Sjors H W - - 2013
The embryonic stem cell test is an animal-free alternative test method for developmental toxicity. Mouse embryonic stem cells are cultured in a hanging drop method to form embryoid bodies. These embryoid bodies, when plated on tissue culture dishes, differentiate to form contracting myocardial cell foci within 10 days. Inhibition of ...
Levasseur Mark - - 2013
Fluorescently tagged proteins have become a crucial weapon in the armory of a successful cell biology laboratory. This chapter describes how to produce cRNA coding for a fluorescently tagged protein of choice, such that it is suitable for microinjection and subsequent expression studies in live oocytes.
Chambon Jean-Philippe - - 2013
This chapter describes a technique for performing chromosome spreads from mouse oocytes. It is based on a previously described protocol (Hodges and Hunt, Chromosoma 111: 165-169, 2002), which we have modified. Chromosomes are stained with either Propidium Iodide or Hoechst. This spreading technique allows for simultaneous immunostaining of proteins associated ...
Ge Lili - - 2013
Our purpose was to investigate the role of the axial resolution of optical coherence tomography (OCT) on the measurement of corneal and epithelial thickness by evaluating the repeatability and agreement among different OCT devices with different axial resolutions. twenty right eyes of 20 healthy subjects (AGE: 22.3 ± 1.3 years) ...
Schneider Steffen - - 2013
The assessment of developmental toxicology data is a critical aspect of hazard evaluation for pharmaceuticals and environmental chemicals. Skeletal examination is an essential part of prenatal developmental toxicity studies of chemicals as well as pesticides and comprises evaluation of both cartilaginous and ossified skeletal components. Various techniques are published in ...
Marsden Edward - - 2013
The rat is the routine species of choice as the rodent model for regulatory safety testing of xenobiotics such as medicinal products, food additives, and other chemicals. However, the rat is not always suitable for pharmacological, toxicological, immunogenic, pharmacokinetic, or even practical reasons. Under such circumstances, the mouse offers an ...
Holt Janet E - - 2013
The first meiotic division of mammalian oocytes physiologically occurs in the ovary in the hours preceding ovulation. Fortunately, oocytes removed from their follicular environment will readily undergo this process in culture. Their large size, optical transparency, and efficiency in translating exogenous cRNA make mouse oocytes very amenable to study this ...
Prutner Wiebke - - 2013
In 2007, a new European chemicals legislation was implemented: Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006, also known as "REACH." It obliges companies to take the main responsibility for the valid information on the safe use of the chemicals they manufacture and/or place on the European market. So they must, for example, register ...
Ulbrich Beate - - 2013
Human health risk assessment for pesticides is based mainly on animal studies submitted by the applicant and aims to determine safe exposure levels for operators (farmers and agricultural workers) and consumers of all age groups. Critical effects, including those resulting from reproductive toxicity, are identified during hazard assessment from an ...
Davidson Elizabeth - - 2013
This chapter outlines a regulator's personal approach to the assessment of reproductive toxicology data in the context of the assessment of the overall nonclinical data package for pharmaceutical agents. Using as a framework the International Conference on Harmonisation Common Technical Document headings, guidance is provided on the expectations of regulators ...
Riris Solon - - 2013
Understanding how human oocytes execute chromosome segregation is of paramount importance as errors in this process account for the overwhelming majority of human aneuploidies and increase exponentially with advancing female age. The spindle is the cellular apparatus responsible for separating chromosomes at anaphase. For accurate chromosome segregation, spindle microtubules must ...
Adeyemo Adebowale A Center for Research on Genomics and Global Health, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, - - 2013
Research in industrialized countries has demonstrated that a key factor limiting the control of hypertension is poor patient adherence and that the most successful interventions for long-term adherence employ multiple strategies. Very little data exist on this question in low-income countries, wherein medication-taking behavior may be less well developed. We ...
Critchell Karon - - 2013
This chapter describes the method used for serial sectioning and soft tissue examination of the Bouin's fixed fetus (mainly whole rat and or mouse fetuses or rabbit fetal heads) for the assessment of developmental and structural abnormalities. Fetuses are examined externally, together with the internal structures of the head as ...
Sun Xianfei X Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, - - 2013
Meiosis is the specialized cell division in sexually reproducing organisms in which haploid gametes are produced. Meiotic prophase I is the defining stage of meiosis, when pairing and synapsis occur between homologous chromosomes, concurrent with reciprocal recombination (or crossing over) events that arise between them. Any disruption of these events ...
Hill Patrick L - - 2013
The current study examined whether dispositional gratitude predicts physical health among adults, and if so, whether this relationship occurs because grateful individuals lead healthier lives, either psychologically or physically. Specifically, we examined whether psychological health, healthy activities, and willingness to seek help for health concerns mediated the link between gratitude ...
Barrow Paul C - - 2013
The regulatory toxicology report is an unusual document that requires a particular skill to write. The report must be clear, accurate, concise, and focused. A clear and direct writing style is required. The end-users of the report will hope to find the information they seek with as little effort as ...
Gauthier Cindy C Pathokinesiology Laboratory, Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Rehabilitation of Greater Montreal, Institut de réadaptation Gingras-Lindsay-de-Montréal, Montreal, - - 2013
To compare multidirectional seated postural stability between individuals with spinal cord injury and able-bodied- individuals and to evaluate the impact of abdominal and low back muscle paralysis on multidirectional seated stability. Case-control study. Fifteen individuals with complete or incomplete spinal cord injury affecting various vertebral levels participated in this study ...
Spézia François - - 2013
In Europe, the developmental toxicity testing (including teratogenicity) of new cosmetic ingredients is performed according to the Cosmetics Directive 76/768/EEC: only alternatives leading to full replacement of animal experiments should be used. This chapter presents the three scientifically validated animal alternative methods for the assessment of embryotoxicity: the embryonic stem ...
Kim James H - - 2013
The current political and societal climate is driving the science of toxicology towards developing non-animal testing methodologies. Though alternative and in vitro tests have always been a mainstay for toxicological testing, technological advances in the last decade have allowed toxicologists to move rapidly towards a better understanding of the relevance ...
Lala A A Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, - - 2013
The CYP2C19 genotype is a predictor of adverse cardiovascular events in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) treated with clopidogrel. We aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a CYP2C19*2 genotype-guided strategy of antiplatelet therapy in ACS patients undergoing PCI, compared with two 'no testing' strategies (empiric ...
Reynaud Lucie - - 2013
Under normal circumstances, fertility and embryotoxicity studies are run separately according to the ICH S5(R2) guideline for the detection of toxicity to reproduction of medicinal products (1). However, the flexible approach of the S5(R2) guideline also allows the reproduction stages covered in the fertility and embryo-fetal development studies (stages A ...
Hazelden Keith P - - 2013
The characteristics of biologic drugs, as compared with small molecules, confer significant advantages for both the drug developer and the prospective patients. The necessity for, and the timing of, developmental toxicity testing in the preclinical program must be considered. Choice of an appropriate test system is of particular importance, one ...
Chiang Teresa - - 2013
Chromosomal spreads are an established method to assess ploidy in different cell types. However, many traditional chromosome-spreading techniques require dissolution of the cell and can only be used to assess hyperploidy because of potential chromosome loss inherent in the procedure. Here we describe a method to evaluate chromosome numbers in ...
Barrow Paul C - - 2013
Preventative and therapeutic vaccines are increasingly used during pregnancy and present special considerations for developmental toxicity testing. The various components of the vaccine formulation (i.e., protein or polysaccharide antigen, adjuvants, and excipients) need to be assessed for direct effects on the developing conceptus. In addition, possible adverse influences of the ...
Knudsen Thomas - - 2013
Understanding the potential health risks posed by environmental chemicals is a significant challenge elevated by the large number of diverse chemicals with generally uncharacterized exposures, mechanisms, and toxicities. The ToxCast computational toxicology research program was launched by EPA in 2007 and is part of the federal Tox21 consortium to develop ...
Leroy Mariline - - 2013
This chapter describes methods for the examination of fetal abdominal and thoracic soft tissues by microdissection on either fresh (non-rodent) or fixed (rodent) specimens in order to detect structural abnormalities. With hundreds of fetuses examined for each species (rodent and non-rodent) in regulatory reproductive toxicity assessments (ICH, http://www.ich.org/fileadmin/Public_Web_Site/ICH_Products/Guidelines/Multidisciplinary/M3_R2/Step4/M3_R2__Guideline.pdf, 2009; ICH, ...
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