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Fuchs Antje - - 2013
Embryo fetal development (EFD) studies in nonhuman primates are frequently conducted in macaques with Macaca fascicularis (cynomolgus monkey, long-tailed macaque, crab-eating macaque) being the most accepted model. EFD studies are also feasible in the marmoset. Due to recent guideline changes (ICH M3(R2) and S6(R1)), EFD studies are largely confined to ...
Robinson Joshua F - - 2013
The emergence of toxicogenomic applications provides new tools to characterize, classify, and potentially predict teratogens. However, due to the vast number of experimental and statistical procedural steps, toxicogenomic studies are challenging. Here, we guide researchers through the basic framework of conducting toxicogenomic investigations in the field of developmental toxicology, providing ...
Leroy Mariline - - 2013
The rat is the rodent species of choice for the regulatory safety testing of xenobiotics, such as medicinal products, food additives, and other chemicals. Many decades of experience and extensive data have accumulated for both general and developmental toxicology investigations in this species. The high fertility and large litter size ...
Kim Ji-hye JH Laboratory of Chromosome Dynamics, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, - - 2013
Distinct meiotic cohesin complexes play fundamental roles in various meiosis-specific chromosomal events in spatiotemporally different manners during mammalian meiotic prophase. Immunostaining is one of the essential methods to study meiotic cohesin dynamics. For the study of cohesins in the meiotic prophase of oocytes, ovaries should be taken from the embryos ...
He Jing - - 2013
The development of primordial germ cells into oocytes within primordial follicles involves a complex sequence of proliferation, developmental commitment, entry and arrest in meiosis, and association with surrounding somatic cells. These processes occur over the first few months of development in the human, with multiple stages of development present at ...
Wise L David - - 2013
Relying on previous regulatory guidelines from multiple countries, the ICH S5(R2) guideline outlines the preclinical safety studies needed for registration of new medicinal products in the member countries (European Union, Japan, and the United States). The primary purpose of the guideline is to provide a testing strategy to detect and ...
Anguish Lynne - - 2013
The visualization of subcellular organelles and structures is a valuable tool for understanding cellular changes that occur in oocytes and early embryos as a result of genetic alterations, incubation conditions, drug treatments, and many other manipulations. Preparing oocytes for transmission electron microscopic analysis can be challenging as these cells cannot ...
Baltz Jay M - - 2013
Radiolabeled compounds that are substrates for transmembrane transporters can be used to study transport and metabolism in mammalian oocytes and preimplantation embryos. Because even very small amounts of radioisotopes can be detected, these techniques are feasible to use with only a few oocytes or embryos, even down to the level ...
Buschmann Jochen - - 2013
In many countries the process of toxicity testing of environmental chemicals is ruled by a framework of OECD guidelines. The present paper will give an overview over the relevant OECD guidelines and guidance documents and mainly focus on methodological issues related to the prenatal toxicity testing guideline. Relevant guideline text ...
Polanski Zbigniew - - 2013
Mouse oocytes and zygotes are semitransparent and large cells approximately 80 μm in diameter. Bisection is one of the easiest ways for performing micromanipulations on such cells. It allows living sister halves or smaller fragments to be obtained, which can be cultured and observed for long periods of time. Bisection ...
de Boer Esther - - 2013
During meiosis, homologous chromosomes (homologs) undergo recombinational interactions, resulting in the formation of crossovers (COs) or noncrossovers (NCOs). Both COs and NCOs are initiated by the same event: programmed double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs), which occur preferentially at hotspots throughout the genome. COs contribute to the genetic diversity of gametes and ...
Allais Linda - - 2013
The rabbit is generally the non-rodent species or second species after the rat recommended by the regulatory authorities and is part of the package of regulatory reproductive studies for the detection of potential embryotoxic and/or teratogenic effects of pharmaceuticals, chemicals, food additives, and other compounds, including vaccines (see Chapters 1-7).Its ...
Mylchreest Eve - - 2013
Reproductive and developmental toxicity studies in laboratory animals are conducted as part of the process of evaluating the risk of pharmaceuticals and chemicals to human reproduction and development. In these studies, comparison of data from groups dosed with the test article to a concurrent control group is considered the most ...
Barrow Paul C - - 2013
The developmental and reproductive toxicity testing (including teratogenicity) of new foods and food additives is performed worldwide according to the guidelines given in the FDA Redbook. These studies are not required for substances that are generally recognized as safe, according to the FDA inventory. The anticipated cumulated human exposure level ...
Mizutani Eiji - - 2013
The nuclear transfer (NT) technique in the mouse has enabled us to generate cloned mice and to establish NT embryonic stem (ntES) cells. Direct nuclear injection into mouse oocytes with a piezo impact drive unit can aid in the bypass of several steps of the original cell fusion procedure. It ...
Marks Leonard - - 2013
Prostate cancer (CaP) may be detected on MRI. Fusion of MRI with ultrasound allows urologists to progress from blind, systematic biopsies to biopsies, which are mapped, targeted and tracked. We herein review the current status of prostate biopsy via MRI/ultrasound fusion. Three methods of fusing MRI for targeted biopsy have ...
McDonell Michael G MG Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, USA. - - 2013
The primary objective of this study was to determine whether contingency management was associated with increased abstinence from stimulant drug use in stimulant-dependent patients with serious mental illness treated in a community mental health center. Secondary objectives were to determine whether contingency management was associated with reductions in use of ...
Brannen Kimberly C - - 2013
As a model for teratogenicity research, zebrafish are gaining popularity and creditability. Zebrafish embryos have been proven to be a highly valuable tool in genetics and developmental biology research and have advanced our understanding of a number of known developmental toxicants. It has yet to be determined conclusively how reliably ...
French Julian M - - 2013
The use of magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal rat and rabbit head, as an alternative to the traditional methods of fixation and preparation of serial sections, is described. Labeled magnetic resonance images of normal head anatomy have been provided as a reference for use when evaluating the internal structures ...
Barton Steve - - 2013
REACH guidelines may require teratology testing for new and existing chemicals. This chapter discusses procedures to assess the need for teratology testing and the conduct and interpretation of teratology tests where required.
Jaroudi Souraya - - 2013
The cytogenetic analysis of single cells, such as oocytes and polar bodies, is extremely challenging. The main problem is low probability of obtaining a metaphase preparation in which all of the chromosomes are sufficiently well spread to permit accurate analysis (no overlapping chromosomes, no chromosomes lost). As a result, a ...
Kubiak Jacek Z - - 2013
Protein phosphorylation plays a pivotal role in cell cycle regulation. MPF (M-phase Promoting Factor) and MAPK (Mitogen-activated protein kinase) are two major kinases driving oocyte maturation and early embryonic divisions. Their activities can be measured experimentally with kinase assays that use specific exogenous substrates. The activities of MPF and MAPK ...
Stein Paula - - 2013
RNA interference (RNAi) is an evolutionary conserved gene-silencing pathway that can be efficiently utilized as a tool to study gene function. RNAi is initiated by long double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs), which are processed into small duplexes called small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs). In turn, these duplexes target mRNAs for degradation in a sequence-specific ...
Dumont Julien - - 2013
Oocytes are extremely large cells that have to coordinate accurate chromosome segregation, asymmetric cytoplasm partitioning together with their own development as fertilizable gametes. For this, they undergo both global (cell cycle progression related) and local changes. It is therefore essential to be able to monitor local changes as they take ...
Gucer Patricia W - - 2013
To determine associations between long-term care powered mechanical lift (PML) availability and mobility-related resident outcomes. Long-term care directors of nursing (N = 271) nationwide gave facility information on the PML availability and the lifting policy to which we linked data on mobility-related resident outcomes from the Centers for Medicare & ...
McAnulty Peter A - - 2013
The minipig is a suitable species for regulatory teratology testing and may be regarded as an alternative to the rabbit, dog, and primate. The first successful regulatory teratology studies in the minipig were performed in the 1990s. It became clear that minipigs have several benefits over the other non-rodents, as ...
Marangos Petros - - 2013
Gene silencing techniques have brought new insights into mammalian oocyte and embryo development. More specifically, the use of Morpholino oligonucleotides which sterically inhibit translation from target mRNAs thereby compromising gene function, allowed the identification of important oocyte regulators and especially factors involved in meiotic cell cycle control. Here we describe ...
Yang Kuo-Tai - - 2013
We previously isolated Aurora-C (Aurkc/Aie1) in a screen for kinases expressed in mouse sperm and eggs. Aurora-C kinase was reported to be a chromosomal passenger protein that plays critical roles in chromosome alignment, segregation, kinetochore-microtubule attachment, and cytokinesis in female mouse meiosis. This chapter describes experimental approaches for examining the ...
Vasquez Sergio X - - 2013
Micro-computed tomography imaging technology allows for the whole-mount investigation of skeletal structures in preclinical specimens at both fetal and postnatal time points. The imaging process is nondestructive to the specimen and can be performed at various resolutions to derive the region of interest information most relevant to individual researchers. In ...
Piersma Aldert H - - 2013
Toxicological hazard assessment currently finds itself at a crossroads where the existing classical test paradigm is challenged by a host of innovative approaches. Animal study protocols are being enhanced for additional parameters and improved for more efficient effect assessment with reduced animal numbers. Whilst existing testing paradigms have generally proven ...
Leconte Isabelle - - 2013
Frog embryo teratogenesis assay on Xenopus (FETAX) has been routinely used in our laboratory for the last 12 years as a routine developmental toxicity screening test for pharmaceutical candidate compounds. To date, out of more than 400 candidates tested in FETAX, around 60 have also been evaluated in mammalian embryotoxicity ...
Rao K S - - 2013
India and China have booming chemical, agrochemical, and pharmaceutical industries. Both countries also represent expanding markets for foreign chemical and healthcare companies. All such products require reproductive toxicity testing before marketing. The ICH testing guidelines for medicinal products are not applicable in China and India. Nonetheless, reproductive toxicity studies designed ...
Swann Karl - - 2013
At fertilization mammalian eggs are activated by a prolonged series of oscillations in the intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration. These oscillations can be monitored with any number of Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent dyes. The oscillations last for several hours at fertilization and so there are some considerations with mammalian eggs that make them ...
Reynaud Lucie - - 2013
A skeletal examination of fetuses is required in regulatory embryo-fetal development studies. This chapter describes a method of skeletal examination using alizarin staining. All fetuses are removed from the mother by caesarean section before birth. The fetuses are first examined externally. For larger species (rabbit and minipig), an internal examination ...
Eto Hitomi H Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Tokyo School of Medicine, Tokyo, - - 2013
Adipose tissue (AT) is composed of mature adipocytes and stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells, including adipose stem/stromal cells (ASCs). We characterized hematopoietic cells residing in human nonobese AT by analyzing the SVF isolated from human lipoaspirates and peripheral blood (PB). Flow cytometry revealed that AT-resident hematopoietic cells consisted of AT-resident ...
Rosengart Todd K TK Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, NY 11794, - - 2013
On the basis of studies in experimental animals demonstrating that AdVEGF121, an E1(-)E3(-) serotype 5 adenovirus coding the 121 isoform of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), could mediate the generation of new blood vessels and reverse coronary ischemia, a clinical study of direct myocardial administration of AdVEGF121 was initiated in ...
Zidane Nora N Institut Pasteur, Unit of Molecular Prevention and Therapy of Human Diseases, Department of Infection and Epidemiology, rue du Dr. Roux, F-75015 Paris, - - 2013
The human RPSA [ribosomal protein SA; also known as LamR1(laminin receptor 1)] belongs to the ribosome but is also a membrane receptor for laminin, growth factors, prion, pathogens and the anticarcinogen EGCG (epigallocatechin-gallate). It contributes to the crossing of the blood-brain barrier by neurotropic viruses and bacteria, and is a ...
Ingole Nayana N Department of Microbiology, Seth G. S. Medical College & KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India. - - 2013
In HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART), the decision on when to switch from first-line to second-line therapy is dictated by treatment failure, and this can be measured in three ways: clinically, immunologically, and virologically. While viral load (VL) decreases and CD4 cell increases typically occur together after starting ART, ...
McDonough C C Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, - - 2013
The association between obesity and a poorer health-related quality of life (HRQL) has previously been explored. The influence of ethnicity on this relationship has less frequently been considered. We aimed to explore the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and HRQL in a mixed population of White European (WE) and ...
Walsh Brennan Ann Marie - - 2012
This article examines current trends in nursing education and proposes undergraduate curriculum changes that are needed to meet the needs and goals of the Institute of Medicine Report: The Future of Nursing, Leading Change, Advancing Health, and The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Curricular changes were developed and implemented ...
Kirchberg Brady C BC Litwin-Zucker Center for Research in Alzheimer’s Disease and Memory Disorders, Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, NY, - - 2012
The authors sought to directly examine compromises in the semantic system in mild cognitive impairment and their possible relationship to everyday functional competencies. Study participants were 25 patients who met criteria for amnestic mild cognitive impairment, 27 patients with mild or moderate Alzheimer's disease, and 70 healthy comparison subjects. The ...
Kloxin April M AM Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, - - 2012
We describe the development of a well-based cell culture platform that enables experimenters to control the geometry and connectivity of cellular microenvironments spatiotemporally. The base material is a hydrogel comprised of photolabile and enzyme-labile crosslinks and pendant cell adhesion sequences, enabling spatially-specific, in situ patterning with light and cell-dictated microenvironment ...
Mainous Rosalie O - - 2012
With the graying of the professoriate, many deans in nursing are moving toward retirement, which provides an opportunity for emerging leaders to move into deanships. New deans move through predictable stages and enjoy a honeymoon, allowing for some mistakes that might not be tolerated later. Early wins are essential in ...
Bhattacharya Sujoy S Department of Physiology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee 38163, USA. - - 2012
Relatively little is known about the contribution of p53/Mdm2 pathway in apoptosis of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells or its possible link to dysfunction of aging RPE or to related blinding disorders such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Age-associated changes in p53 activation were evaluated in primary RPE cultures from ...
Qi Lu - - 2012
Rates of obesity and related complex diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease have climbed sharply over the past decades, in parallel with shift from principally more active lifestyle and nutritionally dense tradition diet to sedentary lifestyle and more energy-dense, Western-pattern diet. In the past few years, advances ...
Spigel David R - - 2012
Small-cell lung cancers are aggressive tumors, often discovered with widespread metastases that include brain involvement. For patients with limited-stage disease, the standard of care is platinum-doublet chemotherapy (often etoposide) with concurrent radiation. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy can be difficult when given upfront, sometimes preventing on-time completion of later chemotherapy cycles. Recent data ...
Carroll Joseph J Department of Ophthalmology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226, USA. - - 2012
To evaluate retinal structure and photoreceptor mosaic integrity in subjects with OPN1LW and OPN1MW mutations. Eleven subjects were recruited, eight of whom have been previously described. Cone and rod density was measured using images of the photoreceptor mosaic obtained from an adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO). Total retinal thickness, ...
Castellsague Jordi J RTI Health Solutions, Barcelona, Spain. - - 2012
The risk of upper gastrointestinal (GI) complications associated with the use of NSAIDs is a serious public health concern. The risk varies between individual NSAIDs; however, there is little information on the risk associated with some NSAIDs and on the impact of risk factors. These data are necessary to evaluate ...
Zhang G-Q - - 2012
Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis, Mafa) have emerged as an important animal model for infectious disease and transplantation research. Extensive characterization of their major histocompatibility complex (MHC) polymorphism regions therefore becomes urgently required. In this study, we identified 41 MHC class I A nucleotide sequences in 34 unrelated cynomolgus macaques of ...
Weatherspoon Deborah L - - 2012
Expert clinical judgment is the culmination of knowledge and experiential learning that includes reflections on immediate problems and past experience. In nursing education, experiential learning is augmented through the use of simulated clinical experiences provided in simulation laboratories. Various simulations have been reported; however, few studies target the effectiveness of ...
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