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Bouazoune Karim - - 2012
Mutations in the CHD7 gene cause human developmental disorders including CHARGE syndrome. Genetic studies in model organisms have further established CHD7 as a central regulator of vertebrate development. Functional analysis of the CHD7 protein has been hampered by its large size. We used a dual-tag system to purify intact recombinant ...
Stewart Thomas A - - 2013
Adipose fins are enigmatic appendages found between the dorsal and caudal fins of some teleostean fishes. Long thought to be vestigial, degenerate second dorsal fins, remnants of the primitive gnathostome condition, adipose fins have since been recognized as novel morphologies. Unique among the fins of extant fishes, adipose fins have ...
Sotomayor Marcos - - 2012
Hearing and balance use hair cells in the inner ear to transform mechanical stimuli into electrical signals. Mechanical force from sound waves or head movements is conveyed to hair-cell transduction channels by tip links, fine filaments formed by two atypical cadherins known as protocadherin 15 and cadherin 23 (refs 4, ...
Li Dawei - - 2013
The mammalian Forkhead Box (Fox) transcription factor FOXM1 is implicated in tumorigenesis including mouse intestinal cancer. However, the clinical significance of FOXM1 signaling in human colorectal cancer pathogenesis remains unknown. We investigated FOXM1 expression in 203 cases of primary colon cancer and matched normal colon tissue specimens and explored the ...
Wang Sen - - 2013
Antigens encoded in the region of difference (RD) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis constitute a potential source of specific immunodiagnostic antigens for distinguishing tuberculosis (TB) infection from BCG vaccination. We evaluated the diagnostic potential of specific T-cell epitopes selected from two immunodominant antigens, Rv1985c and Rv3425, from RD2 and RD11, respectively, on ...
Ceyhan M - - 2013
Invasive meningococcal disease is a recognized public health problem worldwide, with a dynamic and changeable epidemiology. In Turkey, the second most common pathogenic meningococcal serogroup (after serogroup B) is W-135, including an epidemic in 2005, which has been strongly associated with Hajj pilgrims and their close contacts. In two studies ...
Wallecha Anu - - 2013
There is a constant need for improved adjuvants to augment the induction of immune responses against tumor-associated antigens (TAA) during immunotherapy. Previous studies have established that listeriolysin O (LLO), a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin derived from Listeria monocytogenes, exhibits multifaceted effects to boost the stimulation of immune responses to a variety of ...
Kölsch Verena - - 2013
How independent signaling pathways are integrated to holistically control a biological process is not well understood. We have identified Daydreamer (DydA), a new member of the Mig10/RIAM/lamellipodin (MRL) family of adaptor proteins that localizes to the leading edge of the cell. DydA is a putative Ras effector that is required ...
Bogoch Isaac I - - 2013
In this retrospective cohort study, we demonstrate that PCR-confirmed diagnoses of influenza were made solely by lower respiratory sampling in 6.9% of cases, as traditional upper respiratory tract tests were negative, indeterminate or not performed. Clinical features of these cases are presented. Clinicians should consider lower respiratory tract sampling in ...
Ruiz Julio C - - 2013
Maintenance of cellular iron homeostasis requires post-transcriptional regulation of iron metabolism genes by iron regulatory protein 2 (IRP2). The hemerythrin-like domain of F-box and leucine-rich repeat protein 5 (FBXL5), an E3 ubiquitin ligase subunit, senses iron and oxygen availability and facilitates IRP2 degradation in iron replete cells. Disruption of the ...
Xu Qing-Wen - - 2012
Tumor-specific antigens (TSA) are central elements in the immune control of cancers. To systematically explore the TSA genome, we developed a computational technology called heterogeneous expression profile analysis (HEPA), which can identify genes relatively uniquely expressed in cancer cells in contrast to normal somatic tissues. Rating human genes by their ...
Lipari Michael T - - 2012
Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 (PCSK9) regulates plasma LDL cholesterol levels by regulating the degradation of LDL receptors. Another proprotein convertase, furin, cleaves PCSK9 at Arg(218)-Gln(219) in the surface-exposed "218 loop." This cleaved form circulates in blood along with the intact form, albeit at lower concentrations. To gain a better understanding ...
Capron Arnaud - - 2013
Fibre properties and the biochemical composition of cell walls are important traits in many applications. For example, the lengths of fibres define the strength and quality of paper, and lignin content is a critical parameter for the use of biomass in biofuel production. Identifying genes controlling these traits is comparatively ...
Kamar Rita - - 2013
The Bacillus cereus pathogenic spectrum ranges from strains used as probiotics to human-lethal strains. However, prediction of the pathogenic potential of a strain remains difficult. Here, we show that food poisoning and clinical strains can be differentiated from harmless strains on the basis of host colonization phenotypes.
Denys Gerald A - - 2013
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of hospital-acquired and life-threatening infections. Active surveillance programs for MRSA utilize either molecular or culture-based methods. A prospective study was performed to compare the performance of selective and differential chromogenic media, BBL CHROMagar MRSA II (CMRSA II; BD Diagnostics, Sparks, MD), MRSASelect ...
Sakano Chieko - - 2013
Whole-genome sequencing of non-H(2)S-producing Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and S. enterica serovar Infantis isolates from poultry meat revealed a nonsense mutation in the phsA thiosulfate reductase gene and carriage of a CMY-2 β-lactamase. The lack of production of H(2)S might lead to the incorrect identification of S. enterica isolates carrying ...
Menezes Rodrigo C - - 2013
An accurate diagnosis of infection by Leishmania infantum in dogs is fundamental for the control of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Histopathology (HP) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) are frequently used for the histological diagnosis of L. infantum in dogs but have shown limited accuracy. To improve the sensitivity and specificity of the ...
Campbell Angela P - - 2013
Self-collected foam nasal swabs (NS) obtained after instillation of saline spray were compared with nasal washes from immunocompetent subjects during 146 upper respiratory infections (URIs); the sensitivities for reverse transcription (RT)-PCR respiratory virus detection were 95% and 88%, respectively (P = 0.06). The sensitivities from NS collected with and without ...
Kato Cecilia Y - - 2013
Two novel real-time PCR assays were developed for the detection of Rickettsia spp. One assay detects all tested Rickettsia spp.; the other is specific for Rickettsia rickettsii. Evaluation using DNA from human blood and tissue samples showed both assays to be more sensitive than nested PCR assays currently in use ...
Schulte Berit - - 2013
Since 1995, a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clone has spread in southern Germany. The strain was assigned to the Rhine-Hesse pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) type by the staphylococcal reference center and was highly similar to epidemic clones known to belong to clonal complex 5 (CC5; USA100) based on multilocus sequence ...
LaSala P Rocco - - 2013
Quantitative fecal lactoferrin was measured in 112 patients tested for toxigenic Clostridium difficile using glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and toxin immunoassays combined with tcdB PCR. Lactoferrin levels were higher in the GDH-positive/toxin-positive group (79 μg/ml) than in the GDH-positive/toxin-negative/PCR-positive (21 μg/ml) and the GDH-negative groups (13 μg/ml). Differences in fecal lactoferrin ...
Broda Agnieszka - - 2013
The isolation of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM), particularly Mycobacterium abscessus, from individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) is associated with poor clinical outcome due to broad drug resistance and the difficulty of eradicating the organisms. Susceptibility testing is recommended to guide therapy. A disc diffusion method is used in the United ...
Steensels Deborah - - 2013
Mycobacterium bovis is responsible for a zoonosis originating in cattle. We report a case of a man with vertebral spondylodiscitis caused by Mycobacterium bovis. Diagnosis was complicated because of the lack of IS6110. These strains are rare, but microbiologists should be aware of their existence.
Kumar V Anil - - 2013
Reports of oxacillin-susceptible mecA-positive Staphylococcus aureus strains are on the rise. Because of their susceptibility to oxacillin and cefoxitin, it is very difficult to detect them by using routine phenotypic methods. We describe two such isolates that were detected by chromogenic medium and confirmed by characterization of the mecA gene ...
Clarridge Jill E JE - - 2013
The anterior nares are the site of choice for the Veterans Administration methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) surveillance program; however, a correlation between nares colonization and concomitant wound infections has not been well established. The purpose of this study was 3-fold: to determine the relatedness of MRSA isolates from 40 paired ...
Berscheminski Julia - - 2013
PML nuclear bodies (PML NBs), also called ND10, are matrix-bound nuclear structures that have been implicated in a variety of functions, including DNA repair, transcriptional regulation, protein degradation, and tumor suppression. These domains are also known for their potential to mediate an intracellular defense mechanism against many virus types. This ...
Jackson Dana L - - 2013
Foamy viruses are retroviruses whose Pol protein is synthesized without Gag from a spliced mRNA. Unlike orthoretroviruses, reverse transcription occurs during viral assembly, leading to DNA-containing virions. When prototype foamy virus Pol is expressed as an orthoretroviral-like Gag-Pol fusion protein, reverse transcription also occurs late in viral replication, as measured ...
Reinson Tormi - - 2013
We have previously demonstrated that the human papillomavirus (HPV) genome replicates effectively in U2OS cells after transfection using electroporation. The transient extrachromosomal replication, stable maintenance, and late amplification of the viral genome could be studied for high- and low-risk mucosal and cutaneous papillomaviruses. Recent findings indicate that the cellular DNA ...
Wille Coral K - - 2013
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) immediate-early proteins BZLF1 and BRLF1 can both induce lytic EBV reactivation when overexpressed in latently infected cells. Although EBV genome methylation is required for BZLF1-mediated activation of lytic gene expression, the effect of viral genome methylation on BRLF1-mediated viral reactivation has not been well studied. Here, ...
Bebeacua Cecilia - - 2013
Tailed phages are genome delivery machines exhibiting unequaled efficiency acquired over more than 3 billion years of evolution. Siphophages from the P335 and 936 families infect the Gram-positive bacterium Lactococcus lactis using receptor-binding proteins anchored to the host adsorption apparatus (baseplate). Crystallographic and electron microscopy (EM) studies have shed light ...
Reese Vanessa C - - 2013
In the human hepatoma cell line HepG2, retinoic acid, clofibric acid, and bile acid treatment can only modestly increase hepatitis B virus (HBV) biosynthesis. Utilizing the human embryonic kidney cell line 293T, it was possible to demonstrate that the retinoid X receptor α (RXRα) plus its ligand can support viral ...
Gujar Shashi A - - 2013
Exposure to multiple small doses of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a frequent occurrence in high-risk groups, including close relatives of infected individuals, primary care givers, and intravenous drug users. It remains uncertain whether such repeated contact may culminate in a symptomatic infection coinciding with hepatitis in individuals not immunoprotected. ...
Unger Bethany - - 2013
Vaccinia virus membrane biogenesis requires the A14 and A17 proteins. We show here that both proteins can associate with membranes co- but not posttranslationally, and we perform a structure function analysis of A14 and A17 using inducible recombinants. In the absence of A14, electron-dense virosomes and distinct clusters of small ...
Beyer Andrea R - - 2013
The mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) Gag protein directs the assembly in the cytoplasm of immature viral capsids, which subsequently bud from the plasma membranes of infected cells. MMTV Gag localizes to discrete cytoplasmic foci in mouse mammary epithelial cells, consistent with the formation of cytosolic capsids. Unexpectedly, we also ...
Journo Chloé - - 2013
Permanent activation of the NF-κB pathway by the human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax (Tax1) viral transactivator is a key event in the process of HTLV-1-induced T lymphocyte immortalization and leukemogenesis. Although encoding a Tax transactivator (Tax2) that activates the canonical NF-κB pathway, HTLV-2 does not cause ...
Townsend M B - - 2013
Despite the eradication of smallpox, orthopoxviruses (OPV) remain public health concerns. Efforts to develop new therapeutics and vaccines for smallpox continue through their evaluation in animal models despite limited understanding of the specific correlates of protective immunity. Recent monkeypox virus challenge studies have established the black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) ...
Sakai Kouji - - 2013
Canine distemper virus (CDV) has recently expanded its host range to nonhuman primates. A large CDV outbreak occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi Province, China, in 2006, followed by another outbreak in rhesus monkeys at an animal center in Beijing in 2008. In 2008 in Japan, ...
Gaddam Deepika - - 2013
Ire1 is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) transmembrane protein that senses disturbances in protein folding homeostasis and contributes to a multifaceted response to stress. The nuclease activity of Ire1, in addition to splicing the mRNA encoding the transcription factor Xbp1, mediates mRNA degradation in response to ER stress through a pathway ...
Xu Lin - - 2013
Recent evidence shows that microRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to the biological effects of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling on various cells. Our previous data showed that TLR9 signaling could enhance the growth and metastatic potential of human lung cancer cells. However, the potential role of miRNAs in the effects of TLR9 signaling ...
Fergusson Jennifer - - 2012
There is concern in many developed countries that school students are turning away from science. However, students may be choosing not to study science and dismissing the possibility of a scientific career because, in the junior secondary years, they gain a false view of science and the work of scientists. ...
Montavon Thomas - - 2012
Copy number variations are genomic structural variants that are frequently associated with human diseases. Among these copy number variations, duplications of DNA segments are often assumed to lead to dosage effects by increasing the copy number of either genes or their regulatory elements. We produced a series of large targeted ...
Blomfeldt Anita - - 2013
Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia is common in both nosocomial and community settings, and the pathogenicity of the microbe depends upon a large repertoire of virulence factors. S. aureus bacteremia isolates (n = 126) were characterized using DNA microarrays. Clonal complexes 5, 8, 15, 30, and 45 accounted for 74.6% of the ...
Blackburn Julie - - 2013
Direct plating of simulated stool specimens on MacConkey agar (MCA) with 10-μg ertapenem, meropenem, and imipenem disks allowed the establishment of optimal zone diameters for the screening of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative rods (CRGNR) of ≤ 24 mm (ertapenem), ≤ 34 mm (meropenem), and ≤ 32 mm (imipenem).
Martina Pablo - - 2013
A total of 120 Burkholderia cepacia complex isolates collected during 2004-2010 from 66 patients in two cystic fibrosis reference centers in Argentina were analyzed. Burkholderia contaminans was the species most frequently recovered (57.6%), followed by Burkholderia cenocepacia (15%), a species distribution not reported so far. The recA-PCR-based techniques applied to ...
To Kelvin K W - - 2013
We report a pseudo-outbreak of Tsukamurella due to improperly wrapped scissors used for processing of tissue specimens. A polyphasic approach, involving biochemical, genetic, and metabolomic techniques, was used in the laboratory investigation. This report highlights that early recognition of pseudo-outbreaks is important in preventing unnecessary and incorrect treatment of patients.
Underwood Anthony P - - 2013
In 2009, an outbreak of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) on an open farm infected 93 persons, and approximately 22% of these individuals developed hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). Genome sequencing was used to investigate outbreak-derived animal and human EHEC isolates. Phylogeny based on the whole-genome sequence was used to place outbreak isolates ...
Tran Anh T - - 2013
Influenza virus infection results in host cell death and major tissue damage. Specific components of the apoptotic pathway, a signaling cascade that ultimately leads to cell death, are implicated in promoting influenza virus replication. BAD is a cell death regulator that constitutes a critical control point in the intrinsic apoptosis ...
Martínez Miguel Angel - - 2013
Cell entry of rotaviruses is a complex process, which involves sequential interactions with several cell surface molecules. Among the molecules implicated are gangliosides, glycosphingolipids with one or more sialic acid (SA) residues. The role of gangliosides in rotavirus cell entry was studied by silencing the expression of two key enzymes ...
Chaudhry Faisal - - 2013
Actin filament severing is critical for the dynamic turnover of cellular actin networks. Cofilin severs filaments, but additional factors may be required to increase severing efficiency in vivo. Srv2/cyclase-associated protein (CAP) is a widely expressed protein with a role in binding and recycling actin monomers ascribed to domains in its ...
Boscari Alexandre - - 2013
Medicago truncatula is one of the most studied model plants. Nevertheless, the genome of this legume remains incompletely determined. We used RNA-Seq to characterize the transcriptome during the early organogenesis of the nodule and during its functioning. We detected 37,333 expressed transcription units; to our knowledge, 1,670 had never been ...
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