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Oyamada Juzo - - 2012
A half sandwich helping: Cationic rare-earth alkyl species generated from half-sandwich rare-earth dialkyl complexes and [Ph(3) C][B(C(6) F(5) )(4) ] can serve as unique catalysts for the CH regioselective alkylation of anisoles with alkenes. The reaction affords either ortho-monoalkylated derivatives or products substituted at the benzylic position, depending on the ...
Savchenko Tatyana - - 2012
Insect herbivores have developed a myriad of strategies to manipulate the defense responses of their host plants. Here we provide evidence that chewing insects differentially alter the oxylipin profiles produced by the two main and competing branches of the plant defensive response pathway, the allene oxide synthase (AOS) and hydroperoxide ...
Humpston Clara S - - 2012
Previous studies have shown that drugs which block the reuptake of catecholamine neurotransmitters improve impulse control in diseases such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) lack efficacy in ADHD and have been linked to increased suicide risk. The present study investigated drugs with affinity for one ...
Yoshida Masahiro - - 2012
This'll fix it: Efficient fixation of atmospheric CO(2) has been achieved by the reaction of propargylic amines with a silver/DBU dual-catalyst system. Various oxazolidinones were synthesized in moderate to good yields by using substituted propargylic amines.
Berois Nora - - 2012
BACKGROUND:The enzymes encoded by the GALNT [UDP-N-acetyl-α-d-galactosamine:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (GalNAc-T)] gene family catalyze the first step of O-glycosylation. Little is known about the link between expression of the genes encoding GALNT enzymes and tumor progression in neuroblastoma, a pediatric cancer that can be classified as either low or high risk. We ...
Ng Tze-Pin - - 2012
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of studies, as well as inconsistent findings, on the associations of homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B-12 with physical function and decline in older persons. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the independent associations of homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B-12 with gait and balance performance and Instrumental Activities of ...
Diederichs Gerd - - 2012
BACKGROUND:The role of anatomic risk factors in patellofemoral instability is not yet fully understood, as they have been observed in patients either alone or in combination and in different degrees of severity. PURPOSE:To prospectively analyze rotational limb alignment in patients with patellofemoral instability and in controls using magnetic resonance imaging ...
Adler Elaine S - - 2012
Retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (rWAT) and subcutaneous (inguinal) white adipose tissue (iWAT) are both innervated and regulated by sympathetic efferents, but the distribution and identity of the cells in the brain that regulate sympathetic outflow are poorly characterized. Our aim was to use two isogenic strains of a neurotropic virus ...
Wackernagel Werner - - 2012
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To report on conservation of visual acuity after Gamma Knife radiosurgery of choroidal melanoma. METHODS: A total of 189 patients with choroidal melanoma were treated with Gamma Knife stereotactic single-fraction radiosurgery at a single institution between June 1992 and May 2010. The main outcome measure of our retrospective analysis ...
Xie Junjie - - 2012
Two-dimensional (2D) anisotropic silver nanowire (AgNW) arrays, fabricated inside chiral mesoporous silica (CMS), exhibited strong and tunable plasmon circular dichroism (CD) signals in the visible and near-IR regions due to collective dipole coupling between the anisotropic AgNWs. The multihelix with a helical channel orientation and helical arrays of opposite handedness ...
Rewers Monika - - 2012
Flow cytometry (FCM) can be used to study cell cycle activity in developing, mature and germinating seeds. It provides information about a seed's physiological state and therefore can be used by seed growers for assessing optimal harvest times and presowing treatments. Because an augmented proportion of 4C nuclei usually is ...
Zhang Hong-Yu - - 2012
A novel protocol for the preparation of various diarylphosphine oxide compounds via a Ni-catalyzed cross-coupling of aryl chlorides with R(2)P(O)H has been developed. Notably, this process exhibits the following very attractive features: (i) the process is simpler and operates under mild reaction conditions; (ii) the process is generally cheaper in ...
Denzin N - - 2012
Echinococcus multilocularis is a cestode parasites that frequently occurs in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), which is the main definitive host in Central Europe. The parasite may infect humans as accidental intermediate hosts and cause alveolar echinococcosis. In the German federal state of Saxony-Anhalt, the occurrence of E. multilocularis in red ...
Zhang Li-Yuan - - 2012
Cranial radiation therapy can induce cognitive decline. Impairments of hippocampal neurogenesis are thought to be a paramountly important mechanism underlying radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction. In the mature nervous system, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are mainly repaired by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathways. It has been demonstrated that NHEJ deficiencies are associated with ...
Zhou Fenglei - - 2012
The study of brain structure and connectivity using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) has recently gained substantial interest. However, the use of dMRI still faces major challenges due to the lack of standard materials for validation. The present work reports on brain tissue-mimetic materials composed of hollow microfibers for application ...
Gasch Christin - - 2012
BACKGROUND:Molecular characterization of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is pivotal to increasing the diagnostic specificity of CTC assays and investigating therapeutic targets and their downstream pathways on CTCs. We focused on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and genes relevant for its inhibition in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC).METHODS:We used the CellSearch® ...
Davidson Bronwyn - - 2012
The timely release of the World Report on Disability serves as a challenge to members of the health professions to review and renew their response to inequity of access and provision of services to children and adults with a disability. This paper responds to the lead article by Wylie, McAllister, ...
Li Yue - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: Older persons with coronary heart disease have reduced access to appropriate medical and surgical services if they are also mentally ill. This study determined whether difference exists in access to hospitals that provide on-site invasive cardiac procedures among a national cohort of Medicare acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients with ...
Milucka Jana - - 2012
Emissions of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, from marine sediments are controlled by anaerobic oxidation of methane coupled primarily to sulphate reduction (AOM). Sulphate-coupled AOM is believed to be mediated by a consortium of methanotrophic archaea (ANME) and sulphate-reducing Deltaproteobacteria but the underlying mechanism has not yet been resolved. Here ...
Heuclin Hadrien - - 2012
A new unsymmetrical geminal dianion that contained both a phosphine oxide moiety and a phosphine sulfide moiety has been synthesized. Its reactivity towards Ru(II) was explored, which led to the formation of a highly reactive carbene complex that evolved at room temperature to yield a kinetic orthometalated Ru(II) complex through ...
Brown Kyle S - - 2012
There is consensus that the modern human lineage appeared in Africa before 100,000 years ago. But there is debate as to when cultural and cognitive characteristics typical of modern humans first appeared, and the role that these had in the expansion of modern humans out of Africa. Scientists rely on ...
Akar Serpil - - 2012
AIMS: To evaluate the results of Faden operations on the medial rectus (MR) muscles with or without recession for the treatment of partially accommodative esotropia associated with a high accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC : A) ratio and to determine whether there was a decrease in the effects of posterior ...
Hooper Michael J - - 2012
Incorporation of global climate change (GCC) effects into assessments of chemical risk and injury requires integrated examinations of chemical and nonchemical stressors. Environmental variables altered by GCC (temperature, precipitation, salinity, pH) can influence the toxicokinetics of chemical absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion as well as toxicodynamic interactions between chemicals and ...
Nan Y - - 2012
Icariin (ICA), a major constituent of flavonoids from the Chinese medical herb Epimedium brevicornum Maxim, is found to be protective for male reproductive ability, with the underlying mechanism largely unknown. Our study here investigated the effects of ICA on Sertoli cells, which act as nurse cells for the germ cells ...
Sun Wenjuan - - 2012
With the rapid development of China's space industry, the importance of radiation protection is increasingly prominent. To provide relevant dose data, we first developed the Visible Chinese Human adult Female (VCH-F) phantom, and performed further modifications to generate the VCH-F Astronaut (VCH-FA) phantom, incorporating statistical body characteristics data from the ...
Walker Jacqueline L - - 2012
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of data concerning the energy requirements (ERs) of preschool-age children with cerebral palsy (CP), the knowledge of which is essential for early nutritional management. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the ERs for preschool-age children with CP in relation to functional ability, motor type, and distribution ...
Kelly Simon - - 2012
Rhizobial surface polysaccharides are required for nodule formation on the roots of at least some legumes but the mechanism(s) by which they act are yet to be determined. As a first step to investigate the function of exopolysaccharide (EPS) in the formation of determinate nodules, we isolated Mesorhizobium loti mutants ...
Olver Mark E - - 2012
The present study is an examination of sex offender treatment outcome in a large national cohort of Canadian Federally incarcerated sex offenders followed up an average of 11.7 years postrelease. A brief actuarial risk scale (BARS), which predicted sexual and violent recidivism, was created for the purposes of the present ...
Cavallo Carola - - 2012
Bone marrow is one of the best characterized stem cell microenvironment that contains Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs). MSCs have been indicated as a new option for regenerative medicine because of their ability to differentiate into bone, cartilage and adipose tissues. However, in vitro-cultivation of MSCs could be associated with some ...
Bellenchi Gian Carlo - - 2012
Research on stem cells has developed as one of the most promising areas of neurobiology. In the beginning of the 1990s, neurogenesis in the adult brain was indisputably accepted, eliciting great research efforts. Neural stem cells in the adult mammalian brain are located in the "neurogenic" areas of the subventricular ...
Li Fei - - 2012
The present study characterized the receptor-dependent regulation of dendrite formation of noradrenaline (NA) and dopamine (DA) in cultured neurons obtained from embryonic day 16 rat cerebral cortex. Morphological diversity of cortical dendrites was analyzed on various features: dendrite initiation, dendrite outgrowth and dendrite branching. Using a combination of immunocytochemical markers ...
Lundin Fredrik - - 2012
BACKGROUND: In a previous study we found significantly decreased N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) and total N-acetyl (tNA) groups in the thalamus of patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) compared with healthy individuals (HI). No significant difference between the groups could be found in the frontal deep white matter (FDWM). OBJECTIVE: ...
Tan Bin - - 2012
Formation on demand: An organocatalytic cross-coupling reaction of aldehydes with N-hydroxyimides, hexafluoroisopropyl alcohol, and sulfonimides has been developed. The resulting active intermediates can be directly converted into amides or esters in one pot. This simple method makes use of readily available starting materials, and the newly discovered activating reagents should ...
Paragliola Rosa Maria - - 2012
Background: Post-partum thyroiditis (PPT) is characterized by the development of post-partum thyroid dysfunction which may occur up to 12 months after delivery. The syndrome usually presents with transient thyrotoxicosis, followed by transient hypothyroidism. The association of this condition with resistance to thyroid hormones (RTH) has never been described. Patient findings: ...
Ortogero Nicole - - 2012
Mammalian genomes encode a large number of small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) that play regulatory roles during development and adulthood by means of affecting gene expression. Several sncRNA species, including microRNAs (miRNAs), piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs) and small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) have been identified to be abundantly ...
Yin Yan - - 2012
Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are valuable reagents for efficient gene silencing in a sequence‑specific manner via the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. The current synthetic siRNA structure consists of symmetrical duplexes of 19‑21 base pairs (bp) with 2 nucleotide (nt) 3' overhangs. In this study, we report that an asymmetric siRNA (asiRNA) consisting of ...
Yoshizawa Yuta - - 2012
The recently emerged concept of "vessel normalization" implies that judicious blockade of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling may transiently "normalize" the tumor vasculature, making it more suitable for tumor disposition of subsequently administered drugs. In this study, therefore, the effect of pre-treatment with SU5416, a selective VEGF receptor-2 inhibitor, ...
Horsburgh Avril - - 2012
Background:Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a condition of raised cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure with normal ventricular size. Although the pathogenesis of IIH remains controversial, increased CSF formation may be important. We hypothesised that if increased CSF formation was an aetiologic factor, it might result in a macroscopic increase in size ...
Bahce Idris - - 2012
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether, in patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC),  tumor uptake of [(11)C]erlotinib can be quantified and imaged using positron emission tomography, and to assess whether the level of tracer uptake corresponds with the presence of activating tumor epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Ten ...
Cheng Liang - - 2012
Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), particularly lanthanide-doped nanocrystals, which emit high energy photons under excitation by the near-infrared (NIR) light, have found potential applications in many different fields, including biomedicine. Compared with traditional down-conversion fluorescence imaging, the NIR light excited upconversion luminescence (UCL) imaging relying on UCNPs exhibits improved tissue penetration depth, ...
Dighe Shashi Uttam - - 2012
A copper-catalyzed efficient one step three component strategy for preparing a library of aminoindolizino[8,7-b]indoles from N-substituted 1-formyl-9H-β-carbolines, secondary amines and substituted alkynes with high atom economy has been developed.
Yu Dezhi - - 2012
Using a suite of biophysical tools, we assess the mechanical, structural, and functional properties of microtubules stabilized by the chemotherapeutic compounds epothilone-A, epothilone-B, and taxolin vitro. We demonstrate that microtubules stabilized by epothilone-A or epothilone-B are competent to bind tau proteins, and support kinesin translocation. Kinesin speed is sensitive not ...
Cheng Fansheng - - 2012
A novel gene fragment containing a xylanase was identified from a Holstein cattle rumen metagenomic library. The novel xylanase (Xyln-SH1) belonged to the glycoside hydrolase family 10 (GH10) and exhibited a maximum of 44% identity to the glycoside hydrolase from Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405. Xyln-SH1 was heterologously expressed, purified and ...
Xiong Xue - - 2012
Microtubules are highly dynamic cytoskeletal polymers of α/β-tubulin heterodimers that undergo multiple posttranslational modifications essential for various cellular functions in eukaryotes. The lysine 40 (K40) is largely conserved in α-tubulins in many eukaryote species, and the post-translational modification by acetylation at K40 is critical for neuronal development in vertebrates. However, ...
Farre Maria Jose - - 2012
UV-C radiation is the US EPA recommended technology to remove N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) during drinking and recycled water production. Frequently, H2O2 is added to the treatment to remove other recalcitrant compounds and to prevent NDMA reformation. However, the transformation of NDMA precursors during the UV and UV/H2O2 process and the consequences ...
Bhartiya Deepa - - 2012
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) exerts action on both germline and somatic compartment in both ovary and testis although FSH receptors (FSHR) are localized only on the somatic cells namely granulosa cells of growing follicles and Sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubules. High levels of FSH in females are ...
Koike Mitsuru - - 2012
Doing fine with Ni-Fe: The calcination and reduction of a hydrotalcite precursor containing Ni and Fe ions gives uniform Ni-Fe alloy nanoparticles mixed with Mg(Ni, Fe, Al)O particles. The uniformity of the Ni-Fe alloy nanoparticles is connected to the catalyst's high activity and resistance to coke formation in toluene and phenol steam ...
Mehmood Syed Imran - - 2012
Background: Research on the correlation between personality and students' specialty choice is helpful in their career counselling process and in predicting the future distribution of the specialties in a country. Aims: This study is the first of its kind in the Arab world. The research questions were: (1) What is ...
Simons-Morton Bruce - - 2012
Health is best understood within an ecological context. Accordingly, health promotion involves processes that foster supportive environments and healthful behavior. Thus, effective health promotion programs are typically multilevel, focusing not only on the population at risk but also on the environmental conditions that contribute so importantly to health and health ...
Abdel Mohsen Iman - - 2012
Background: To compare the IVF outcomes of letrozole/antagonist and microdose GnRH agonist flare up protocols in poor ovarian responders undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Materials and methods: A randomized controlled trial was performed in patients with one or more previous failed IVF cycles in which four or less oocytes were retrieved ...
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