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Yin Lei L Integrated Department of Immunology, HHMI, National Jewish Health, Denver, CO, - - 2012
T cells bearing receptors made up of α and β chains (TCRs) usually react with peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex proteins (MHC). This bias could be imposed by positive selection, the phenomenon that selects thymocytes to mature into T cells only if the TCRs they bear react with low ...
Gras Stephanie S Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Biomedical Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, - - 2012
T cells that express clonally distributed αβ T-cell receptors (TCRs) corecognize antigenic peptides (p) bound to major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) and class II molecules (MHC-II). Extensive human leukocyte antigen (HLA) polymorphism enables HLA molecules from different haplotypes to capture an array of self- and microbe-derived peptide antigens that ...
Luo W - - 2012
The incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer (CRC) were quantified in persons with and without diabetes mellitus (DM). Medline and Embase were searched for articles published before July 2010. Cohort studies that evaluated incidence and mortality of DM and CRC were included. The initial search identified 1887 titles, of which ...
Reynolds A M AM Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire, AL5 2JQ, UK. - - 2012
ABSTRACT The turbulent dispersal of fungal spores within plant canopies is very different from that within atmospheric boundary-layers and closely analogous to dispersal within turbulent mixing-layers. The process is dominated by the presence of large coherent flow structures, high-velocity downdrafts (sweeps) and updrafts (ejections), that punctuate otherwise quiescent flow. Turbulent ...
Movahedan Asadolah - - 2012
To determine the role of Notch signaling in corneal epithelial migration and wound healing. Immunolocalization of Notch1 was performed during epithelial wound healing in vivo in mouse corneal epithelial debridement wounds and in vitro in primary human corneal epithelial cells following a linear scratch wound. The effects of Notch inhibition, ...
Fisher Amanda G AG Lymphocyte Development Group, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College London, Du Cane Road, London W12 ONN, UK. - - 2012
Understanding the basis of epigenetic memory is a fast-moving challenge in modern biology. At a recent Company of Biologists Workshop held at Steyning's historic Wiston House, thirty researchers led by John Gurdon interrogated three central questions: how are cell type-specific programs generated, what mechanisms duplicate this programmatic information as cells ...
Birnbaum Michael E - - 2012
Molecular diversity lies at the heart of adaptive immunity. T-cell receptors and peptide-major histocompatibility complex molecules utilize and rely upon an enormous degree of diversity at the levels of genetics, chemistry, and structure to engage one another and carry out their functions. This high level of diversity complicates the systematic ...
Pula John - - 2012
Functional disorders are a major category of vision loss not uncommonly presenting to an ophthalmologist or neuro-ophthalmologist. There are constant advances in the discrimination of causes for functional vision loss, as well as testing and treatment of these patients. New tests for diagnosing functional vision loss have been reported. These ...
Chlon Timothy M - - 2012
The development of complex organisms requires the formation of diverse cell types from common stem and progenitor cells. GATA family transcriptional regulators and their dedicated co-factors, termed Friend of GATA (FOG) proteins, control cell fate and differentiation in multiple tissue types from Drosophila to man. FOGs can both facilitate and ...
Kuhns Michael S - - 2012
The pre-T-cell receptor (TCR)-, αβTCR-, and γδTCR-CD3 complexes are members of a family of modular biosensors that are responsible for driving T-cell development, activation, and effector functions. They inform essential checkpoint decisions by relaying key information from their ligand-binding modules (TCRs) to their signaling modules (CD3γε + CD3δε and CD3ζζ) ...
Gellad Walid F - - 2012
Antipsychotic medications are commonly prescribed to nursing home residents despite their well-established adverse event profiles. Because little is known about their use in Veterans Affairs (VA) nursing homes [ie, Community Living Centers (CLCs)], we assessed the prevalence and risk factors for antipsychotic use in older residents of VA CLCs. This ...
Lim Jennifer I - - 2012
Recent developments in the diagnosis and management of sickle cell ocular manifestations are reviewed to enable the clinician to better manage the ophthalmic care of these patients. Research over the past year has focused upon systemic and ocular clues to the presence of sickle cell retinopathy. In addition, newer imaging ...
Song Dong Hyun - - 2012
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) sense structural patterns in microbial molecules and initiate immune defense mechanisms. The structures of many extracellular and intracellular domains of TLRs have been studied in the last 10 years. These structures reveal the extraordinary diversity of TLR-ligand interactions. Some TLRs use internal hydrophobic pockets to bind bacterial ligands ...
Frank Matthew B MB Interfaculty Initiative in Health Policy, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Harvard University, 14 Story St, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. - - 2012
Cost-sharing requirements employed by health insurers to discourage the unnecessary use of medications may lead to underutilization of recommended treatment regimens and suboptimal quality of care. Value-based insurance design (VBID) programs seek to address these problems by lowering copayments to promote adherence to "high-value" medications that have been proven to ...
Veturi Yogasudha - - 2012
ABSTRACT The mixed linear model (MLM) is an advanced statistical technique applicable to many fields of science. The multivariate MLM can be used to model longitudinal data, such as repeated ratings of disease resistance taken across time. In this study, using an example data set from a multi-environment trial of ...
Fan Chuanmao - - 2012
ABSTRACT. An algorithm was developed to obtain depth-resolved local optical axis in birefringent samples by using conventional polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PSOCT) that uses a single circularly polarized incident light. The round-trip sample Jones matrices were first constructed from the cumulative PSOCT results. An iterative method was then applied to ...
Fairley Jacqueline A - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Examination of spontaneously occurring phasic muscle activity from the human polysomnogram may have considerable clinical importance for patient care, yet most attempts to quantify the detection of such activity have relied upon laborious and intensive visual analyses. We describe in this study innovative signal processing approaches to this issue. ...
Stock Eveline Oestreicher - - 2012
Gender-specific data focused on cardiovascular disease (CVD) are becoming increasingly available. This is of great importance, given that CVD has become the number 1 killer of women, and unlike for men, mortality rates do not seem to be declining. Many factors are cited as the causes of sex-based differences, including ...
Chu Hsuan-Yin - - 2012
: Better continuity of care (COC) is associated with improved health care outcomes, such as decreased hospitalization and emergency department visit. However, little is known about the effect of COC on potentially inappropriate medication. : This study aimed to investigate the association between COC and the likelihood of receiving inappropriate ...
Stathaki Maria - - 2012
ABSTRACT: A 70-year-old man with a history of weight loss, changes in bowel habits, and hematochezia had rectal adenocarcinoma. He was palliated with diverting colostomy, followed by radiochemotherapy. Bilateral hydronephrosis was found incidentally on lower abdominal CT scan. He underwent Tc dimercaptosuccinic acid scan prior to percutaneous nephrostomy tube placement. ...
Teo Celine - - 2012
The treatment of patients with schizophrenia who fail to respond to antipsychotics is a major challenge and the proportion of treatment-resistant patients is estimated to be 20 to 40%. There are few genetic association studies that have compared resistant versus non-resistant schizophrenic patients; however, many genetic association studies focusing on ...
Young Blair - - 2012
To summarize current technique, indications, and pitfalls of electrophysiologic testing used in ophthalmology. Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) may be useful as an objective measurement of refractive error in complicated patients. VEP P100 latency was found superior to color vision and visual field in early stages of hydroxychloroquine maculopathy. VEP results ...
Suzaki Takuya - - 2012
Nodulation is a form of de novo organogenesis that occurs mainly in legumes. During early nodule development, the host plant root is infected by rhizobia that induce dedifferentiation of some cortical cells, which then proliferate to form the symbiotic root nodule primordium. Two classic phytohormones, cytokinin and auxin, play essential ...
Girardi Enrico - - 2012
Together with peptides, T lymphocytes respond to hydrophobic molecules, mostly lipids, presented by the non-classical CD1 family (CD1a-e). These molecules have evolved complex and diverse binding grooves in order to survey different cellular compartments for self and exogenous antigens, which are then presented for recognition to T-cell receptors (TCRs) on ...
Stuart Bruce - - 2012
: It is not known whether low-income subsidies (LIS) under Medicare Part D help beneficiaries overcome impediments to medication use associated with poor socioeconomic status and high disease burden. : To compare Medicare beneficiaries with LIS and Medicaid (duals), LIS without dual eligibility, and non-LIS recipients on use of medications ...
Srikumaran Divya - - 2012
This review article summarizes the recent literature in regards to advancements in the diagnosis and management of mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) published in the English literature since May 2011. MMP is an uncommon, subepithelial blistering conjunctivitis that is commonly associated with vision loss. Distinct subgroups of MMP have recently been ...
Epperson Megan L ML Department of Pathology & Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, - - 2012
During the course of evolution, viruses have captured or created a diverse array of open reading frames, which encode for proteins that serve to evade and sabotage the host innate and adaptive immune responses that would otherwise lead to their elimination. These viral genomes are some of the best textbooks ...
Libby Anne M - - 2012
: To provide generalizable estimates of economic burden in epilepsy and nonepilepsy populations and a comprehensive accounting for employment-based lost productivity associated with epilepsy in current US health care systems as compared with other chronic diseases. : We use the nationally representative data source (Medical Expenditure Panel Survey) from 1998 ...
Piehler Jacob J Department of Biology, University of Osnabrück, - - 2012
Type I interferons (IFNs) form a network of homologous cytokines that bind to a shared, heterodimeric cell surface receptor and engage signaling pathways that activate innate and adaptive immune responses. The ability of IFNs to mediate differential responses through the same cell surface receptor has been subject of a controversial ...
Bachyrycz Amy - - 2012
: Drug safety and adverse drug reactions in the community are of concern in the geriatric population. To help decrease the number of adverse drug reactions, the New Mexico Prescription Improvement Coalition created a consensus panel, the Potentially Inappropriate Medications (PIMs) Advisory Board. : To develop consensus guidelines that would ...
Tada Masazumi - - 2012
Body axis elongation represents a common and fundamental morphogenetic process in development. A key mechanism triggering body axis elongation without additional growth is convergent extension (CE), whereby a tissue undergoes simultaneous narrowing and extension. Both collective cell migration and cell intercalation are thought to drive CE and are used to ...
Wang Jia-huai - - 2012
Self versus non-self discrimination is at the core of T-lymphocyte recognition. To this end, αβ T-cell receptors (TCRs) ligate 'foreign' peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I or class II molecules (pMHC) arrayed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Since the discovery of TCRs approximately 30 years ...
Baker Brian M BM Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, IN, USA. - - 2012
Over the past two decades, structural biology has shown how T-cell receptors engage peptide/major histocompatibility complex (MHC) complexes and provided insight into the mechanisms underlying antigen specificity and cross-reactivity. Here we review and contextualize our contributions, which have emphasized the influence of structural changes and molecular flexibility. A repeated observation ...
Kamoi Koju - - 2012
Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) is the first discovered retrovirus causing malignancy in human. HTLV infection affects host's ocular tolerance and causes various diseases in the eye. Here we discuss the manifestations, mechanisms, treatments, and future directions of HTLV-related ocular diseases. RECENT FININGS: Recent serological researches showed that the number ...
Broughton Sophie E - - 2012
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin-3 (IL-3), and IL-5 are members of a discrete family of cytokines that regulates the growth, differentiation, migration and effector function activities of many hematopoietic cells and immunocytes. These cytokines are involved in normal responses to infectious agents, bridging innate and adaptive immunity. However, in certain ...
Morrato Elaine H - - 2012
: The Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act (FDAAA) of 2007 granted FDA-expanded drug safety authority. We hypothesized that meetings involving the FDA Drug Safety and Risk Management (DSaRM) Advisory Committee might serve as a barometer for the impact of FDAAA on drug safety regulatory decision making. : We conducted ...
Hu Lei - - 2012
The redox reaction of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP) is an important physiological and biochemical reaction in the human body, as it is involved in the oxidative metabolism of both endogenous and exogenous substrates. Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the only obligate electron donor for all of the hepatic microsomal CYP ...
Vaphiades Michael S - - 2012
To review ocular myasthenia gravis (OMG), a localized form of myasthenia gravis clinically involving only the extraocular, levator palpebrae superioris, and orbicularis oculi muscles. Ocular manifestations can masquerade as a variety of ocular motility disorders, including central nervous system disorders and peripheral cranial nerve palsies. While sparing the pupils, the ...
Lu Jinghua J Structural Immunology Section, Laboratory of Immunogenetics, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD, - - 2012
Pentraxins are innate pattern recognition molecules whose major function is to bind microbial pathogens or cellular debris during infection and inflammation and, by doing so, contribute to the clearance of necrotic cells as well as pathogens through complement activations. Fc receptors are the cellular mediators of antibody functions. Although conceptually ...
Graziul Christopher - - 2012
: Off-label prescribing, or the use of a medicine for non-Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved indications, is especially common for psychotropic therapies and often lacks scientific support. We quantified the association between 4 commercial characteristics of prescription medicines-product age, therapeutic class age, drug volume, and promotional expenditures-and off-label use of ...
Yin Yiyuan - - 2012
T-cell receptors (TCRs) recognize peptides presented by major histocompatibility complex molecules (pMHC) to discriminate between foreign and self-antigens. Whereas T-cell recognition of foreign peptides is essential for protection against microbial pathogens, recognition of self-peptides by T cells that have escaped negative selection in the thymus can lead to autoimmune disease. ...
Walsh Scott T R - - 2012
Over the past 13 years, numerous crystal structures of complexes of the common γ-chain (γ(c)) cytokine receptors and their cytokines have been solved. Even with the remarkable progress in the structural biology of γ(c) receptors and their cytokines or interleukins, there are valuable lessons to be learned from the structural ...
Du Dongyi Tony - - 2012
: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a Public Health Advisory entitled "Suicidal Thinking in Children and Adolescents Being Treated with Strattera (Atomoxetine)" on September 29, 2005. At FDA's request, the manufacturer subsequently added a boxed warning to the drug's labeling on November 8, 2005. : To evaluate whether ...
Yeh Steven - - 2012
Despite recent downtrends, tuberculosis remains a worldwide public health concern. This review provides an update on recent demographic data, clinical and experimental data, and diagnostic modalities. Quantitative PCR showing mycobacterial load in intraocular fluids may have an emerging role in the diagnosis of ocular tuberculosis when used in combination with ...
Dushek Omer O Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, - - 2012
Leukocytes play a critical role in recognizing and responding to infection and cancer. Central to this function is an array of cell-surface receptors that lack sequence homology. Many of these receptors have in common the fact that their signaling involves phosphorylation of cytoplasmic domains by extrinsic tyrosine kinases. These non-catalytic ...
Aparasu Rajender R - - 2012
: Antipsychotic use among dual-eligible nursing home residents is a concern for cost and safety considerations. : To examine the comparative risk of death in dual-eligible elderly nursing home residents using typical and atypical agents. : A retrospective cohort design matched on propensity score was used to examine the risk ...
Colpak Ayse I - - 2012
To review the literature on early visual manifestations of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) with regard to two patients who had visual problems preceding the onset of neurological symptoms. One patient had cortical visual disturbances and the other had visual loss due to retinal pigment epithelial changes. SSPE is a chronic ...
Zeng Xiankun - - 2012
Like the mammalian intestine, the Drosophila adult midgut is constantly replenished by multipotent intestinal stem cells (ISCs). Although it is well known that adult ISCs arise from adult midgut progenitors (AMPs), relatively little is known about the mechanisms that regulate AMP specification. Here, we demonstrate that Broad (Br)-mediated hormone signaling ...
Painter Corrie A - - 2012
Recent structural characterizations of classical and non-classical major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) proteins have provided a view into the dynamic nature of the MHCII-peptide binding groove and the role that structural changes play in peptide loading processes. Although there have been numerous reports of crystal structures for MHCII-peptide complexes, ...
Burroni Luca - - 2012
This study aimed to describe Tc-labeled RBC scintigraphy as a diagnostic method for orbital cavernous hemangiomas and to evaluate this diagnostic tool according to surgical outcomes. Fifty-five patients with clinical and radiological (US, CT, and/or MRI) suspicion of unilateral cavernous hemangioma of the orbit underwent Tc-RBC SPECT study.Qualitative and semiquantitative ...
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