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Results 301 - 350 of 2040
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Hansen Richard - - 2012
OBJECTIVES:The gastrointestinal microbiota is considered important in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pathogenesis. Discoveries from established disease cohorts report reduced bacterial diversity, changes in bacterial composition, and a protective role for Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in Crohn's disease (CD). The majority of studies to date are however potentially confounded by the effect of ...
Dahlman Sofie - - 2012
Objectives: This study compared results on cognitive tests measuring nonverbal visualization and reasoning, executive functions, and creativity between 36 boys with experience of living in the street and 31 housed yet socioeconomically equivalent boys, in Bolivia. Results: The street children scored significantly higher on the creativity measure, which is discussed ...
Marco-Jiménez F - - 2012
We examined the effect of prolonged high heat stress on reproductive performance and its relationship with gene expression in pre-implantation embryos and endometrial tissue. In experiment 1, primiparous rabbit does were divided into two environments: control does (maintained between 14 and 22°C) and heat-treated does housed in a climatic chamber ...
Peffer Karlijn - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Iron catalyzes the formation of free radicals, which could lead to damaged vascular walls and subsequent atherosclerosis. Blood donation decreases iron stores and can thus decrease cardiovascular risk. Even within blood donors, differences in stored iron are observed. This study investigates whether increasing lifetime number of donations decreases the ...
Xu Bin-Bin - - 2012
Gold nanodots were used as the precursory material to form micronanopatterns under pinpoint scanning by a tightly focused femtosecond laser beam. Different from the widely reported metal ions photoreduction mechanism, here gradient force in an optical trap generated around the laser focus is considered as the major mechanism for particle ...
Persson Asha - - 2012
Abstract Serodiscordant primary relationships, in which one partner is HIV-positive and the other is HIV-negative, are increasingly recognised as a key context for the transmission of HIV globally. Yet insights into the dynamics of serodiscordance remain relatively limited. I argue that to understand what makes serodiscordant couples engage in sexual ...
Hailer Yasmin D - - 2012
Previous studies have suggested that Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD) is associated with repetitive trauma, coagulation problems and anatomical abnormalities of the blood supply to the femoral head. The hypothesis that repetitive trauma can affect the blood supply of the femoral head, leading to LCPD, is supported by an animal model. For ...
Xu Xinxiu - - 2013
Environmental stress-mediated adaptation plays essential roles in the evolution of life. Cellular adaptation mechanisms usually involve the regulation of chromatin structure, transcription, mRNA stability and translation, which eventually lead to efficient changes in gene expression. Global epigenetic change is also involved in the reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent ...
Moreno-De-Luca D - - 2012
Copy number variants (CNVs) have a major role in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and several of these have reached statistical significance in case-control analyses. Nevertheless, current ASD cohorts are not large enough to detect very rare CNVs that may be causative or contributory (that is, risk alleles). ...
Lu Lee-Jane W - - 2012
Women with mostly mammographically dense fibroglandular tissue (breast density, BD) have a four- to six-fold increased risk for breast cancer compared to women with little BD. BD is most frequently estimated from two-dimensional (2D) views of mammograms by a histogram segmentation approach (HSM) and more recently by a mathematical algorithm ...
Clasie Benjamin M - - 2012
The γ-index is used routinely to establish correspondence between two dose distributions. The definition of the γ-index can be written with a single equation but solving this equation at millions of points is computationally expensive, especially in three dimensions. Our goal is to extend the vector-equation method in Bakai et ...
Zakai Neil A NA Departments of Medicine and Pathology, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont College of Medicine, USA. - - 2013
While anemia is associated with poor functional and mortality outcomes in the elderly, the impact of hemoglobin decline is less studied. We evaluated the determinants and consequences of hemoglobin decline in 3,758 non-anemic participants from the Cardiovascular Health Study, a prospective cohort of community-dwelling elderly ≥65 years old at baseline ...
Zhu Hongying H Electrical Engineering Department, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, - - 2013
Improving access to effective and affordable healthcare has long been a global endeavor. In this quest, the development of cost-effective and easy-to-use medical testing equipment that enables rapid and accurate diagnosis is essential to reduce the time and costs associated with healthcare services. To this end, point-of-care (POC) diagnostics plays ...
Graziano P A - - 2012
Objectives:To investigate the role of toddlers' self-regulation skills and temperament in predicting weight outcomes in preadolescence.Methods:Participants for this study included 195 children (114 girls) obtained from three different cohorts participating in a larger ongoing longitudinal study. At 2 years of age, participants participated in several laboratory tasks designed to assess ...
Masuda Shigeo S Gene Expression Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, - - 2013
Blood transfusion medicine requires a constant supply of platelets, which is now totally donor dependent. Recent advances in the generation of platelets in vitro through megakaryocytes (MKs) may provide protocols not only via pluripotent stem cells, including induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and embryonic stem cells (ESCs), but also via ...
Frawley Geoff G Department of Paediatric Anaesthesia and Pain Management, Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Vic., Australia. - - 2013
To document the incidence of difficult intubation following mandibular distraction osteogenesis (MDO) in children with severe mandibular hypoplasia. Syndromes associated with significant mandibular hypoplasia, especially Pierre Robin sequence, provide a challenge in airway management both in and out of the operating room. Mandibular advancement using mandibular distraction osteogenesis devices has ...
Flint Jonathan J The Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN, - - 2012
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have transformed the field of human genetics and have led to the discovery of hundreds of genes that are implicated in human disease. The technological advances that drove this revolution are now poised to transform genetic studies in model organisms, including mice. However, the design of ...
Yates Lucy R LR Cancer Genome Project, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton CB10 1SA, - - 2012
The advent of massively parallel sequencing technologies has allowed the characterization of cancer genomes at an unprecedented resolution. Investigation of the mutational landscape of tumours is providing new insights into cancer genome evolution, laying bare the interplay of somatic mutation, adaptation of clones to their environment and natural selection. These ...
Sandborn William J WJ University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0956, USA. - - 2013
Andrographis paniculata has in vitro inhibitory activity against TNF-α, IL-1β and NF-κB. A pilot study of A. paniculata extract (HMPL-004) suggested similar efficacy to mesalamine for ulcerative colitis. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of A. paniculata extract (HMPL-004) in 224 adults with mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis. Patients were ...
Arpan Ishu I Department of Physical Therapy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, - - 2013
Skeletal muscles of children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) show enhanced susceptibility to damage and progressive lipid infiltration, which contribute to an increase in the MR proton transverse relaxation time (T₂). Therefore, the examination of T₂ changes in individual muscles may be useful for the monitoring of disease progression in ...
Saeidi N N Center for Engineering in Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Shriners Hospital for Children, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, - - 2012
All available treatments directed towards obesity and obesity-related complications are associated with suboptimal effectiveness/invasiveness ratios. Pharmacological, behavioral and lifestyle modification treatments are the least invasive, but also the least effective options, leading to modest weight loss that is difficult to maintain long-term. Gastrointestinal weight loss surgery (GIWLS) is the most ...
Montgomery Robbie K RK Department of Biomedical Engineering and South Texas Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases, The University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas 78249, - - 2013
Refrigeration of platelets (PLTs) offers an attractive alternative to the currently practiced storage at room temperature since it may mitigate problems associated with bacterial contamination and extend storage lifetime. Refrigeration causes a number of biophysical and biochemical changes in PLTs and decreases PLT circulation time in vivo. However, the effect ...
Locatelli Bruno G BG 1st Service of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Ospedali Riuniti di Bergamo, Bergamo, - - 2013
OBJECTIVES/AIM: This randomized control trial was designed to evaluate the incidence of emergence delirium (ED) in preschool children receiving sevoflurane or desflurane anesthesia combined with an effective caudal block. While ED has been described in children receiving sevoflurane or desflurane anesthesia, a direct comparison between the two agents using a ...
Jiao J - - 2012
Early life exposure to specific environmental factors can increase risk for developing psychopathology including major depression in adulthood. However, the molecular pathways and epigenetic mechanisms that mediate the effects of early environments on adult mood remain poorly understood. We examined the effects of different gestational and rearing conditions on adult ...
Song Xiao X Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA. - - 2013
Missing covariates often arise in biomedical studies with survival outcomes. Existing approaches for missing covariates generally assume proportional hazards. The proportionality assumption may not hold in practice, as illustrated by data from a mouse leukemia study with covariate effects changing over time. To tackle this restriction, we study the missing ...
Bat Taha T Hematology Branch, National Heart, Lung, and BloodInstitute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, - - 2013
The ability to distinguish increased platelet (PLT) destruction from PLT hypoproduction is important in the care of patients with marrow failure syndromes and patients receiving high-dose chemotherapy. The measurement of immature circulating PLTs based on RNA content using an automated counter is now feasible. This study evaluated the impact of ...
Storm Benjamin C - - 2012
There is a positivity bias in autobiographical memory such that people are more likely to remember positive events from their past than they are to remember negative ones. Inhibition may promote this positivity bias by deterring negative memories from being retrieved. In our first experiment, we measured individual differences in ...
Barrère Caroline - - 2012
Polyolefin, including polypropylene (PP), constitutes an important class of materials. In particular, the recent interest in recycling plastic wastes necessitates their characterization as well as their degradation mechanism understood. PP materials characterization by mass spectrometry, including polymer and additives parts, is not direct and generally involves a pyrolysis step to ...
Shin Kyung-Min - - 2012
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and the prevalence of hypertension tends to increase with age. Current treatments for hypertension have adverse side effects and poor adherence. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of moxibustion on blood pressure in individuals with pre- ...
Kim Ansoon - - 2012
Simple and rapid detection of trace amounts of melamine in milk products has been achieved with a portable sensor system based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The sensor system comprised high performance gold nanofinger SERS sensor chips and a custom-built prototype portable Raman spectrometer. Compared to the FDA procedure and ...
Advani Ranjana H - - 2012
PURPOSESurvival and progression of mature B-cell malignancies depend on signals from the B-cell antigen receptor, and Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a critical signaling kinase in this pathway. We evaluated ibrutinib (PCI-32765), a small-molecule irreversible inhibitor of BTK, in patients with B-cell malignancies. PATIENTS AND METHODSPatients with relapsed or refractory ...
Balogh Dora - - 2012
Au nanoparticles (NPs) are functionalized with chiral (R) or (S) binaphthol phenylboronic acid ligands, (1a) or (1b). The (R)- or (S)-binaphthol phenylboronic acid ligands form donor-acceptor complexes with the chiral dicationic helicene, helquat (P)-HQ2+ or (M)-HQ2+, (2a) or (2b). The association constants between (1a)/(2a) and (1a)/(2b) correspond to (7.0 ± ...
Magariños Marta - - 2012
This is a review of the biological processes and the main signaling pathways required to generate the different otic cell types, with particular emphasis on the actions of insulin-like growth factor I. The sensory organs responsible of hearing and balance have a common embryonic origin in the otic placode. Lineages ...
Green Steven H - - 2012
The spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) are the afferent neurons of the cochlea, connecting the auditory sensory cells-hair cells-to the brainstem cochlear nuclei. The neurotrophins neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are expressed in the cochlea and both support SGN survival during development. These neurotrophins remain expressed in the postnatal ...
Lockley Andrew John - - 2012
We welcome the suggested methods of intervention in the methane budget detailed by Stolaroff et al. We consider available literature and technology and suggest five new techniques. We also offer additional detail on five Stolaroff techniques: drainage management; lake sealing; bubble management; ignition; & compression oxidation. The original paper frames ...
Duong Cuong V - - 2012
DNA methylation is one of several epigenetic modifications that together with genetic aberrations are hallmarks of tumourigenesis including those emanating from the pituitary gland. In this study we examined DNA methylation across 27578 CpG sites spanning more than 14000 genes in the major pituitary adenoma subtypes. Genome-wide changes were first ...
Ding Dalian - - 2012
Cisplatin, carboplatin, nedaplatin, and oxaliplatin are widely used in contemporary oncology; however, their ototoxic and neurotoxic side effects are quite different as discussed in this review. Cisplatin is considered the most ototoxic, but despite its reputation, the magnitude of hair cell loss that occurs with a single, large drug bolus ...
Yuan Meng - - 2012
Most immunoassays for determination of small molecules are still designed based upon the "trial and error" method, due to the lack of understanding of antibody recognition. In the present study, we developed a heterologous indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of triazine herbicides with the limits of detection ...
Roberts Amy E - - 2012
Barth syndrome (BTHS); MIM accession # 302060) is a rare X-linked recessive cardioskeletal mitochondrial myopathy with features of cardiomyopathy, neutropenia, and growth abnormalities. The objectives of this study were to further elucidate the natural history, clinical disease presentation, and course, and describe growth characteristics for males with BTHS. Patients with ...
Wu Tingting - - 2012
Immunosuppressive CD11b(+)Gr1(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells and TGF-β have been shown to negatively regulate host immunity against allografts. Our results demonstrated that Smad3-deficient mice or mice reconstituted with Smad3-deficient hematopoietic cells rejected allogeneic skin or heart grafts in a significantly slower manner compared with littermates or wild-type (WT) control mice. Transplanted ...
Dey Anil W - - 2012
III-V semiconductors have so far predominately been employed for n-type transistors in high-frequency applications. This development is based on the advantageous transport properties and the large variety of heterostructure combinations in the family of III-V semiconductors. In contrast, reports on p-type devices with high hole mobility suitable for complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor ...
Anderson Connie - - 2012
OBJECTIVES:Anecdotal reports suggest that elopement behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) increases risk of injury or death and places a major burden on families. This study assessed parent-reported elopement occurrence and associated factors among children with ASDs.METHODS:Information on elopement frequency, associated characteristics, and consequences was collected via an ...
Zhu Zhengwei - - 2012
SUMMARY: Numerous metagenomics projects have produced tremendous amounts of sequencing data. Aligning these sequences to reference genomes is an essential analysis in metagenomics studies. Large-scale alignment data call for intuitive and efficient visualization tool. However, current tools such as various genome browsers are highly specialized to handle intraspecies mapping results. ...
Iyoda Masayuki - - 2012
BackgroundImatinib is a selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor that can block platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor activity. Imatinib is also known as an anti-inflammatory agent. We examined the therapeutic effects of long- or short-term imatinib treatment in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats with established anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) nephritis.MethodsNephrotoxic serum (NTS) nephritis was ...
Pearson Erin S - - 2012
To date, there is a paucity of qualitative research examining the influence of community-based interventions for childhood obesity on the participants themselves. This study explored the experiences of children who participated in the Children's Health and Activity Modification Program (C.H.A.M.P.), a four-week day camp for children with obesity aged 8-14, ...
Georgiev Plamen - - 2012
During sensory transduction, Drosophila photoreceptors experience substantial increases in intracellular Ca(2+) levels ([Ca(2+)](i)). Nevertheless in a number of mutants associated with excessive Ca(2+) influx through transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, Drosophila photoreceptors undergo loss of normal cellular structure manifest as a retinal degeneration. However, the molecular mechanisms that underpin this ...
Goyal Vinay - - 2012
This article provides a mini review of the current state of infrared neural stimulation (INS), and new experimental results concerning INS damage thresholds. INS promises to be an attractive alternative for neural interfaces. With this method, one can attain spatially selective neural stimulation that is not possible with electrical stimulation. ...
Lei Yan - - 2012
P3HT:Ag2S hybrid solar cells with broad absorption from UV to NIR band were directly fabricated on ITO glass by using a room temperature, low energy consumption, and low-cost soft-chemical strategy. The resulting Ag2S nanosheet arrays facilitate the construction of perfect percolation structure with organic P3HT to form ordered bulk heterojunctions ...
Bokhorst Leonard P - - 2012
Study Type - Diagnosis (validating cohort) Level of Evidence 1b What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? The European Randomized study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) showed a reduction in prostate cancer mortality of 21% for PSA-based screening at a median follow-up of 11 years. In ...
Badieyan Somayesadat - - 2012
β-Glucosidases (3.2.1.21) can be found in all domains of living organisms, where they play essential roles in the removal of terminal glucosyl residues from non-reducing ends of saccharides and glycosides. Two active site amino acid residues, a nucleophile and a proton donor, play key roles in the hydrolytic mechanism. Besides ...
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