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Sagiv Sharon K SK Department of Environmental Health, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA. - - 2012
To investigate the association of prenatal mercury exposure and fish intake with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related behavior. For a population-based prospective birth cohort recruited in New Bedford, Massachusetts (1993-1998), we analyzed data for children examined at age 8 years with peripartum maternal hair mercury measures (n = 421) or maternal report ...
Yu Xufen X Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Hawai'i at Hilo, Hilo, HI, - - 2012
Development of small molecule drug-like inhibitors blocking both nitric oxide synthase and NFκB could offer a synergistic therapeutic approach in the prevention and treatment of inflammation and cancer. During the course of evaluating the biological potential of a commercial compound library, 2-phenylindole (1) displayed inhibitory activity against nitrite production and ...
Maestre Fernando T - - 2012
Drylands occupy large portions of the Earth, and are a key terrestrial biome from the socio-ecological point of view. In spite of their extent and importance, the impacts of global environmental change on them remain poorly understood. In this introduction, we review some of the main expected impacts of global ...
Thomas Andrew D AD Institute of Geography & Earth Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth, UK. - - 2012
Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are an important source of organic carbon, and affect a range of ecosystem functions in arid and semiarid environments. Yet the impact of grazing disturbance on crust properties and soil CO(2) efflux remain poorly studied, particularly in African ecosystems. The effects of burial under wind-blown sand, ...
Salguero-Gómez Roberto R Evolutionary Biodemography Laboratory, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany. - - 2012
Desert species respond strongly to infrequent, intense pulses of precipitation. Consequently, indigenous flora has developed a rich repertoire of life-history strategies to deal with fluctuations in resource availability. Examinations of how future climate change will affect the biota often forecast negative impacts, but these-usually correlative-approaches overlook precipitation variation because they ...
Sala Osvaldo E OE School of Sustainability, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA. - - 2012
Variability of above-ground net primary production (ANPP) of arid to sub-humid ecosystems displays a closer association with precipitation when considered across space (based on multiyear averages for different locations) than through time (based on year-to-year change at single locations). Here, we propose a theory of controls of ANPP based on ...
D'Odorico Paolo P Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA. - - 2012
Research on ecosystem and societal response to global environmental change typically considers the effects of shifts in mean climate conditions. There is, however, some evidence of ongoing changes also in the variance of hydrologic and climate fluctuations. A relatively high interannual variability is a distinctive feature of the hydrologic regime ...
Huber-Sannwald Elisabeth E División de Ciencias Ambientales, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (IPICYT), San Luis Potosí SLP, Mexico. - - 2012
Drylands are one of the most diverse yet highly vulnerable social-ecological systems on Earth. Water scarcity has contributed to high levels of heterogeneity, variability and unpredictability, which together have shaped the long coadaptative process of coupling humans and nature. Land degradation and desertification in drylands are some of the largest ...
Escolar Cristina C Área de Biodiversidad y Conservación, Departamento de Biología y Geología, Escuela Superior de Ciencias Experimentales y Tecnología, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Móstoles 28933, Spain. - - 2012
Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are key biotic components of dryland ecosystems worldwide that control many functional processes, including carbon and nitrogen cycling, soil stabilization and infiltration. Regardless of their ecological importance and prevalence in drylands, very few studies have explicitly evaluated how climate change will affect the structure and composition ...
González-Megías Adela A Departamento de Zoología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain. - - 2012
Individual species respond to climate change by altering their abundance, distribution and phenology. Less is known, however, about how climate change affects multitrophic interactions, and its consequences for food-web dynamics. Here, we investigate the effect of future changes in rainfall patterns on detritivore-plant-herbivore interactions in a semiarid region in southern ...
Lan Zhichun Z State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of - - 2012
The increase in nutrient availability as a consequence of elevated nitrogen (N) deposition is an important component of global environmental change. This is likely to substantially affect the functioning and provisioning of ecosystem services by drylands, where water and N are often limited. We tested mechanisms of chronic N-enrichment-induced plant ...
Dougill Andrew J AJ School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK. - - 2012
Climate finance investments and international policy are driving new community-based projects incorporating payments for ecosystem services (PES) to simultaneously store carbon and generate livelihood benefits. Most community-based PES (CB-PES) research focuses on forest areas. Rangelands, which store globally significant quantities of carbon and support many of the world's poor, have ...
Park Walter D WD William J von Liebig Transplant Center, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, - - 2012
After the first year after kidney transplantation, 3% to 5% of grafts fail each year but detailed studies of how grafts progress to failure are lacking. This study aimed to analyze the functional stability of kidney transplants between 1 and 5 years after transplantation and to identify initially well-functioning grafts ...
Modugno Francesmary F Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pennsylvania, - - 2012
Ovarian cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide among women in developed countries and the most lethal of all gynecologic malignancies. There is a critical need for the introduction of targeted therapies to improve outcome. Epidemiological evidence suggests a critical role for steroid hormones in ovarian tumorigenesis. There is ...
Koyama Ken Ichiro - - 2012
Restricting-type anorexia nervosa (AN-R), characterized by severe emaciation with long-term food restriction, is often difficult to treat. The present study investigated the overall intelligence quotient (IQ) scores and cognitive functions of patients with AN-R. Fourteen female inpatients with AN-R (body mass index 12.84 ± 0.41 kg/m(2)) and 10 healthy female ...
Sharma S K - - 2012
To study the efficacy and safety of Category III DOTS treatment (intermittent thrice-weekly rifampicin [RMP], isoniazid [INH] and pyrazinamide for 2 months, followed by RMP and INH for 4 months) under India's Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme in patients with uncomplicated small unilateral pleural effusion (<1500 ml). This prospective, multicentre, ...
Kyriakopoulos Paulina - - 2012
Antenatal tobacco and alcohol exposure are established risk factors for premature birth and an independent risk factor for cerebral palsy. Both exert adverse effects on fetal development. In children with cerebral palsy, whether antenatal exposure to tobacco or alcohol is associated with a difference in clinical profile remains unknown. The ...
Zeuzem S - - 2012
Summary.  It is unclear whether the current threshold for 'high' hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA level (800 000 IU/mL) is optimal for predicting sustained virological response (SVR). We retrospectively analysed pretreatment HCV RNA levels and SVR rates in 1529 mono-infected and 176 HIV-HCV co-infected patients treated with peginterferon alfa-2a (40 kD) plus ribavirin. ...
Kauta Shilpa R - - 2012
Narcolepsy is characterized by recurrent brief attacks of irresistible sleepiness. Signs can begin during childhood. However, diagnoses are frequently delayed by 10-15 years because of unfamiliarity with pediatric narcolepsy and variable presentations of its associated features (cataplexy, hypnagogic/hypnopompic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis). Therefore, patients may remain untreated during their formative ...
Bertelson Noelle L - - 2012
: Colonoscopy has an established role in reducing the burden of colorectal cancer through early detection and removal of polyps. For endoscopically unresectable polyps, colectomy is generally indicated to prevent malignant transformation or to remove cancer already present. : This study aimed to determine the incidence of malignancy and the ...
Beal Jules C - - 2012
Ohtahara syndrome and early myoclonic encephalopathy are the earliest presenting of the epileptic encephalopathies. They are typically distinguished from each other according to specific clinical and etiologic criteria. Nonetheless, considerable overlap exists between the two syndromes in terms of clinical presentation, prognosis, and electroencephalographic signature. Newer understandings of underlying etiologies ...
Bradley Jay C - - 2012
: To describe the manual no-fold push-in technique for Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) graft insertion and analyze postoperative endothelial cell loss. : Twenty consecutive patients underwent DSAEK surgery using the manual no-fold push-in technique. This insertion technique uses a 6-mm limbal wound, a Sheets glide, and a Sinskey ...
Yoon S Y - - 2012
Oxidative stress, mediated by an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants, contributes significantly to the pathogenesis of asthma. To evaluate the impact of serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) on the pulmonary function of Korean asthma patients. A total of 104 adult asthma patients enrolled from the COREA (Cohort for Reality and ...
Erol Ilknur - - 2012
Giant axonal neuropathy is a rare autosomal recessive disorder commonly characterized by chronic, progressive dysfunction in the peripheral nervous system. Lesions also can occur in the central nervous system, especially in the brainstem and cerebellum. We present cranial magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy findings in a 5-year-old Turkish ...
Cannon Jamie A - - 2012
: Surgical site infection is a major cause of morbidity after colorectal resections. Despite evidence that preoperative oral antibiotics with mechanical bowel preparation reduce surgical site infection rates, the use of oral antibiotics is decreasing. Currently, the administration of oral antibiotics is controversial and considered ineffective without mechanical bowel preparation. ...
Vadivel Vellingiri - - 2012
Nuts are an integral part of the Mediterranean food patterns, and their incorporation into the regular diets of human beings is believed to provide many health benefits. The recent recognition of nuts as "heart-healthy" foods by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has given a major boost to the positive ...
Neuman Heather B - - 2012
: Patients with rectal cancer who have a temporary ostomy report good quality of life despite identifying a number of stoma-related difficulties. : This study aimed to qualitatively explore the experiences of patients with rectal cancer who have a temporary ileostomy to better understand the discordant findings of previous quantitative ...
Haas Eric M - - 2012
: Initially described in 2008, single-incision laparoscopic colectomy has evolved into a safe and feasible surgical approach. Noted advantages include elimination of trocar-site incisions and improved cosmesis. Additional benefits including reduced abdominal wall trauma, diminished pain, and shorter length of hospitalization have been proposed. Following utilization in over 150 colectomies, ...
Bressler Joseph P - - 2012
The study examined whether maternal serum antibodies from mothers of autistic children preferentially bind to lymphocytes of their autistic children compared with unaffected siblings. In a previous study, maternal serum antibodies from mothers mediated cytotoxicity with complement to lymphocytes of their autistic children. Here, maternal serum antibody binding was examined ...
Farrell Donald F - - 2012
Neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy constitutes a distinct genetic disorder of autosomal recessive inheritance, and is distinguishable from the cerebro-hepato-renal syndrome of Zellweger and X-linked juvenile adrenoleukodystrophy, although all three conditions store very long chain fatty acids. Abnormal clinical features in neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy are generally present at birth, and include muscle hypotonia, severe ...
Ozkale Murat - - 2012
The phenotypically heterogeneous, autosomal recessive Vici syndrome was first described in 1988 in a sister and brother with oculocutaneous albinism, agenesis of the corpus callosum, cataract, cardiomyopathy, cleft lip, and immunodeficiency. Only 14 cases of Vici syndrome have yet been reported, several involving morphologic and functional defects in addition to ...
David S - - 2012
The diagnosis of tuberculosis is seriously hampered in the absence of standard biosafety laboratory facilities for specimen concentration and Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture. Within a laboratory twinning arrangement, heat-fixed direct smear and sediment from 74 bleach-processed and 20 non-processed specimens from Cumura Hospital, Guinea-Bissau, were sent to Lisbon for molecular evaluation ...
Ottenhoff T H M - - 2012
In this review, we discuss the 'knowns' and 'unknowns' of host defence towards Mycobacterium tuberculosis. With regard to the 'knowns', both protective and immunopathogenic mechanisms are discussed, including recently discovered new pathways of host defence and inflammatory immunopathology. With regard to the 'unknowns', there will be emphasis on unanswered key ...
Wallin Ulrik G - - 2012
: The ligation of the intersphincteric fistula tract procedure has been reported to have high cure rates, with minimal impairment of continence. : The aim of this study was to evaluate the success rates and functional outcome after the ligation of the intersphincteric fistula tract procedure. : This study was ...
Jalal Kabir - - 2012
This study sought to determine whether galactocerebrosidase activity is predictive of Krabbe onset age, or of survival from onset when controlling for age at onset of signs. We analyzed data on 55 symptomatic patients from the Hunter James Kelly Research Institute's World-Wide Registry. They were tested for galactocerebrosidase activity at ...
Connelly Tara M - - 2012
: Anal complications of Crohn's disease range from painless skin tags to debilitating fistulas that are imperfectly treated with tumor necrosis factor antagonists. The recent discovery of more than 190 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with Crohn's disease offers the opportunity to genetically define the severity of anal disease in Crohn's disease ...
Cantarín-Extremera Verónica - - 2012
Hopkins syndrome occurs after an acute asthma attack. An immune-mediated mechanism has been suggested. Immunoglobulin or methylprednisone pulse therapies comprise the most useful treatment. We describe a 3-year-old girl who developed severe weakness in her left arm, 7 days after an acute asthma attack. A complete blood count with autoimmune ...
Tang Jihong - - 2012
We present a 10-year-old boy with a greater than 5-year history of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea. He experienced nine episodes of bacterial meningitis and underwent four surgical repairs, including two endoscopic repairs via the lateral nasal cavity, a craniotomy repair via forehead epidural, and endoscopic repair in combination with a ventriculoperitoneal ...
Kuruvilla Kevin - - 2012
: Total proctocolectomy with IPAA is frequently considered the procedure of choice for surgical patients with ulcerative colitis, presumably owing to an expectation of improved quality of life in comparison with an ileostomy. : The goal of our study was to determine whether long-term quality of life among patients with ...
Motavaf M - - 2012
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains a major cause of chronic liver disease with an estimated 170 million carriers worldwide. Current treatments have significant side effects and have met with only partial success. Therefore, alternative antiviral drugs that efficiently block virus production are needed. During recent decades, RNA interference (RNAi) technology ...
Fang Sandy H - - 2012
: Although the perineal approach in the surgical management of rectal prolapse has a higher recurrence, it is the accepted approach for higher-risk patients because of its lower morbidity. : The aim of this study was to determine outcomes of abdominal versus perineal approaches to rectal prolapse repair. DESIGN SETTINGS:: ...
Conesa-Botella A - - 2012
To examine whether hypovitaminosis D is a risk factor for the development of tuberculosis (TB) associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). We measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25D) concentrations in four groups of patients at Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda: 1) patients co-infected with TB and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) receiving ...
Orpinas Pamela - - 2012
Despite evidence documenting the negative consequences, psychological dating violence occurs frequently in adolescent dating relationships. No information exists on the trajectories that adolescents follow and their association to nonphysical peer violence. The sample comprised 624 randomly selected 6th graders. In yearly surveys from 6th through 12th grade, 550 of the ...
Sasmono R T - - 2012
Patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) visiting government TB diagnostic and treatment centres in Makassar City, South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia, from February to October 2008 were included in the study. To determine the distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes in Makassar. Cross-sectional study. Spoligotyping, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem ...
Ma Liya - - 2012
Supplementation studies of glutamine, arginine, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have established the safety of each of these nutrients in neonates. However, the potential for a more stable and soluble dipeptide, arginyl-glutamine (Arg-Gln) or DHA, a long-chain ω-3 fatty acid with anti-inflammatory properties, to exert benefits on hyperoxia-induced lung injury has ...
Tal Galit - - 2012
We evaluated the significance of head circumference growth velocity as related to developmental deficits during infancy. Head circumferences, lengths, and developmental diagnoses were retrieved in a standard manner at ≥2 time points from 437 infants with developmental deficits, and 3909 normally developing infants. Infants' ages ranged from 1-24 months, with ...
Mott Jared - - 2012
Central nervous system manifestations of acute myeloid leukemia are rare at presentation. Acute cranial nerve findings on neurologic examination can be indications for brain imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging can highlight cranial nerves emerging from the brainstem, particularly if they are gadolinium-enhanced or thickened. We describe a 15-month-old girl with acute ...
Shental Omri - - 2012
Rates of postoperative complications are particularly high among patients with Crohn's disease. The aim of this study was to assess whether positive inflammatory histological margins, among other factors, pose a risk for intra-abdominal septic complications in patients with Crohn's disease undergoing ileocolic resection. A retrospective study of patient records, during ...
Sun Yanxia - - 2012
Postoperative pain management remains a significant challenge after abdominal surgery. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of systemic lidocaine for postoperative pain management and recovery after abdominal surgery. Data were derived from Medline (1966-2010), CINAHL, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Scopus. Randomized controlled ...
Flamand Véronique H - - 2012
Muscle spasticity in pediatric cerebral palsy limits movement and disrupts motor performance, thus its reduction is important in rehabilitation to optimize functional motor development. Our pilot study used repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation, because this emerging technology influences spinal and cerebral synaptic transmission, and its antispastic effects were reported in adult ...
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