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Results 801 - 850 of 2040
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Duah Nancy O NO Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, Legon, Accra, Ghana. - - 2012
In 2005, sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) became the drug of choice for intermittent preventive treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) in Ghana. Reports suggest the use of SP by others to treat uncomplicated malaria. Because of the increased use of SP, the prevalence of mutations in the genes, dihydrofolate reductase ...
Moss Ronald B RB NexBio Inc, San Diego California 92121, USA. - - 2012
DAS181, a novel host-directed antiviral in development for influenza treatment, was assessed in this phase II clinical trial. This study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II clinical trial assessing influenza viral load and patient safety in otherwise healthy influenza-infected participants. Participants were randomized to a single-dose, multiple-dose, or placebo group ...
Geisler William M WM Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, - - 2012
Renewed interest in chlamydia vaccination has revealed the need for a greater understanding of the seroprevalence of chlamydial infection in US populations. We used a Chlamydia trachomatis elementary body (EB)-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to define the characteristics of the humoral immune response and to determine seroprevalence. Two groups were analyzed: ...
Marshall Janice M JM School of Clinical & Experimental Medicine, College of Medical & Dental Sciences, The Medical School, Vincent Drive, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK. - - 2012
This review considers the contributions to exercise hyperaemia of substances released into the interstitial fluid, with emphasis on whether they are endothelium dependent or O(2) dependent. The early phase of exercise hyperaemia is attributable to K(+) released from contracting muscle fibres and acting extraluminally on arterioles. Hyperpolarization of vascular smooth ...
Wu Peng P School of Public Health, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, - - 2012
Although deaths associated with laboratory-confirmed influenza virus infections are rare, the excess mortality burden of influenza estimated from statistical models may more reliably quantify the impact of influenza in a population. We applied age-specific multiple linear regression models to all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates in Hong Kong from 1998 through ...
Mariotta Luca L Institute of Physiology and Zurich Center for Integrative Human Physiology (ZIHP), University of Zurich, Zurich, - - 2012
The uniporter TAT1 (Slc16a10) mediates the facilitated diffusion of aromatic amino acids (AAAs) across basolateral membranes of kidney, small intestine and liver epithelial cells, and across the plasma membrane of non-epithelial cells like skeletal myocytes. Its role for body AA homeostasis has now been investigated using newly generated TAT1 (Slc16a10) ...
Christel Carl J CJ Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, - - 2012
Dysregulation of L-type Ca(2+) currents in sinoatrial nodal (SAN) cells causes cardiac arrhythmia. Both Ca(v)1.2 and Ca(v)1.3 channels mediate sinoatrial L-type currents. Whether these channels exhibit differences in modulation and localization, which could affect their contribution to pacemaking, is unknown. In this study, we characterized voltage-dependent facilitation (VDF) and subcellular ...
Gifford Jayson R JR Department of Exercise Sciences, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, USA. - - 2012
Heating skin is believed to activate vanilloid type III and IV transient receptor potential ion channels (TRPV3, TRPV4, respectively), resulting in the release of ATP into the interstitial fluid. We examined the hypothesis that local skin heating would result in an accumulation of ATP in the interstitial fluid that would ...
Mallinson Joanne E JE MRC/Arthritis Research UK Centre for Musculoskeletal Ageing Research, School of Biomedical Sciences, Queen's Medical Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK. - - 2012
We previously reported that statin myopathy is associated with impaired carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation in fast-twitch rodent skeletal muscle, which we hypothesised occurred as a result of forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) mediated upregulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 (PDK4) gene transcription. Upregulation of FOXO gene targets known to regulate proteasomal and ...
Emmenegger B A BA Department of Pharmacology & Cancer Biology and Preston Robert Tisch Brain Tumor Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, - - 2013
Cerebellar granule neurons are the most abundant neurons in the brain, and a critical element of the circuitry that controls motor coordination and learning. In addition, granule neuron precursors (GNPs) are thought to represent cells of origin for medulloblastoma, the most common malignant brain tumor in children. Thus, understanding the ...
Choi Jason C JC Department of Medicine and Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY, - - 2013
Mutations in the LMNA gene, which encodes lamin A and C (lamin A/C), cause a diverse spectrum of tissue-selective diseases termed laminopathies. The most prevalent form affects striated muscles as dilated cardiomyopathy with variable skeletal muscle involvement, which includes autosomal Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy. Mechanisms underlying the disease pathogenesis are beginning ...
Scimemi Annalisa A Synaptic Physiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, 35 Convent Drive 3C316, Bethesda, MD 20892-3701, USA. - - 2013
TRP channels were first identified as membrane proteins mediating phototransduction in fruit flies. Astrocytes were initially referred to as the silent elements of the nervous system. At the time these discoveries were made, few would have suspected TRP channels and astrocytes could contribute significantly to our understanding of brain signalling. ...
Kauhausen Jessica J The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, - - 2013
Cell replacement therapy for Parkinson's disease has predominantly focused on ectopic transplantation of fetal dopamine (DA) neurons into the striatum as a means to restore neurotransmission, rather than homotopic grafts into the site of cell loss, which would require extensive axonal growth. However, ectopic grafts fail to restore important aspects ...
Luo Ruixi R Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, Basic Science Building, Rm 225, Georgetown University School of Medicine, 3900 Reservoir Rd, Washington, DC 20007, - - 2013
Choline acetyltransferase-expressing interneurones (ChAT)(+) of the striatum influence the activity of medium spiny projecting neurones (MSNs) and striatal output via a disynaptic mechanism that involves GABAergic neurotransmission. Using transgenic mice that allow visual identification of MSNs and distinct populations of GABAergic interneurones expressing neuropeptide Y (NPY)(+), parvalbumin (PV)(+) and tyrosine ...
Buldyrev Ilya I Casey Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239, - - 2013
Lateral inhibition produces the centre-surround organization of retinal receptive fields, in which inhibition driven by the mean luminance enhances the sensitivity of ganglion cells to spatial and temporal contrast. Surround inhibition is generated in both synaptic layers; however, the synaptic mechanisms within the inner plexiform layer are not well characterized ...
Bulley Simon S Department of Biomedical Science, Charles E Schmidt College of Medicine, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL 33431, - - 2013
Taurine is one of the most abundant amino acids in the retina, throughout the CNS, and in heart and muscle cells. In keeping with its broad tissue distribution, taurine serves as a modulator of numerous basic processes, such as enzyme activity, cell development, myocardial function and cytoprotection. Despite this multitude ...
Renoir Thibault T Florey Neuroscience Institutes, Melbourne Brain Centre, University of Melbourne, VIC 3010, Melbourne, Australia. - - 2013
Psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety are reported in patients with Huntington's disease (HD). Recent studies suggest beneficial effects of environmental enrichment (EE) on HD progression possibly through the serotonergic system. We investigated the potential effectiveness of EE in correcting the affective-like phenotype of female R6/1 HD mice. In ...
Huang Yuhui Y Edwin L Steele Laboratory of Tumor Biology, Department of Radiation Oncology and Vaccine and Immunotherapy Center, Infectious Diseases Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, - - 2012
The recent approval of a prostate cancer vaccine has renewed hope for anticancer immunotherapies. However, the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment may limit the effectiveness of current immunotherapies. Antiangiogenic agents have the potential to modulate the tumor microenvironment and improve immunotherapy, but they often are used at high doses in the clinic ...
McEwen Bruce S BS Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA. - - 2012
Stress is a state of the mind, involving both brain and body as well as their interactions; it differs among individuals and reflects not only major life events but also the conflicts and pressures of daily life that alter physiological systems to produce a chronic stress burden that, in turn, ...
Ebihara Hideki H Laboratory of Virology, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NID), Rocky Mountain Laboratories (RML), Hamilton, Montana 59840, USA. - - 2013
Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) is a severe viral infection for which no effective treatment or vaccine is currently available. While the nonhuman primate (NHP) model is used for final evaluation of experimental vaccines and therapeutic efficacy, rodent models have been widely used in ebolavirus research because of their convenience. However, ...
Scallan Joshua P JP Department of Medical Pharmacology & Physiology, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65212, - - 2013
Collecting lymphatic vessels generate pressure to transport lymph downstream to the subclavian vein against a significant pressure head. To investigate their response to elevated downstream pressure, collecting lymphatic vessels containing one valve (incomplete lymphangion) or two valves (complete lymphangion) were isolated from the rat mesentery and tied to glass cannulae ...
de Paoli Frank Vincenzo FV Department of Biomedicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aarhus University, Aarhus C, Denmark. - - 2013
Resting skeletal muscle fibres have a large membrane Cl(-) conductance (G(Cl)) that dampens their excitability. Recently, however, muscle activity was shown to induce PKC-mediated reduction in G(Cl) in rat muscles of 40-90%. To examine the physiological significance of this PKC-mediated G(Cl) reduction for the function of muscles, this study explored ...
Marchand-Pauvert Véronique V UPMC, Univ. Paris 06, Er 6, F-75005, Paris, France. - - 2013
The natural target of the botulinum neurototoxin type A (BoNT-A) is the neuromuscular junction. When injected into a muscle, BoNT-A is internalized by motoneurone terminals where it functions as an endopeptidase, cleaving protein components of the synaptic machinery responsible for vesicle docking and exocytosis. As a result, BoNT-A induces a ...
Gkrania-Klotsas Effrossyni E Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, United Kingdom. - - 2012
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is associated with ischemic heart disease (IHD) among organ transplant recipients. The relationship between the levels of antibody for CMV with IHD in immunocompetent individuals is uncertain. We measured baseline CMV immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels in 12,574 participants without IHD from the population-based EPIC-Norfolk cohort, aged 40-70 years ...
Keller Rebecca R Division of Molecular Microbiology, College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee, Scotland, - - 2012
Membrane protein assembly is a fundamental process in all cells. The membrane-bound Rieske iron-sulfur protein is an essential component of the cytochrome bc(1) and cytochrome b(6)f complexes, and it is exported across the energy-coupling membranes of bacteria and plants in a folded conformation by the twin arginine protein transport pathway ...
Lazdam Merzaka M Oxford Cardiovascular Clinical Research Facility, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DU, United - - 2012
Risk of hypertension in mother and offspring after preeclampsia is greater if preeclampsia develops early in pregnancy. We investigated whether those who develop early onset disease have unique adverse blood pressure characteristics. One hundred forty women were studied 6 to 13 years either after a pregnancy complicated by preeclampsia (45 ...
Wanigasekera Vishvarani V Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Nuffield Division of Anaesthetics, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford OX3 9DU, United Kingdom. - - 2012
Variability in opioid analgesia has been attributed to many factors. For example, genetic variability of the μ-opioid receptor (MOR)-encoding gene introduces variability in MOR function and endogenous opioid neurotransmission. Emerging evidence suggests that personality trait related to the experience of reward is linked to endogenous opioid neurotransmission. We hypothesized that ...
Hadders Michael A MA Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Medical Research Council, Cambridge CB2 0QH, United - - 2012
The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) proteins have a critical function in abscission, the final separation of the daughter cells during cytokinesis. Here, we describe the structure and function of a previously uncharacterized ESCRT-III interacting protein, MIT-domain containing protein 1 (MITD1). Crystal structures of MITD1 reveal a dimer, ...
Roy Anindita A Centre for Haematology, Imperial College London, London W12 0NN, United - - 2012
The 40-fold increase in childhood megakaryocyte-erythroid and B-cell leukemia in Down syndrome implicates trisomy 21 (T21) in perturbing fetal hematopoiesis. Here, we show that compared with primary disomic controls, primary T21 fetal liver (FL) hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitors are markedly increased, whereas granulocyte-macrophage progenitors are reduced. Commensurately, ...
Barry Caswell C UCL Institutes of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, London WC1N 3AR, United Kingdom. caswell.barry@ucl.ac.uk - - 2012
The hippocampal formation plays key roles in representing an animal's location and in detecting environmental novelty to create or update those representations. However, the mechanisms behind this latter function are unclear. Here, we show that environmental novelty causes the spatial firing patterns of grid cells to expand in scale and ...
Pillay Timesh D TD University College London, Medical School, Rockefeller Building, University Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK. - - 2013
This longitudinal study aimed to evaluate the impact of a multifaceted educational intervention (Sexual Health in Practice, SHIP) on general practice HIV testing rates in a high prevalence London area. SHIP offered training in sexual health clinical skills to general practitioners (GPs) and practice nurses (PNs) in Haringey. SHIP training ...
Manchanda P K PK Department of Molecular, Virology, Immunology, and Medical Genetics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, - - 2013
Schwannomas are peripheral nerve sheath tumors that often occur in the setting of an inherited tumor predisposition syndrome, including neurofibromatosis types 1 (NF1) and 2 (NF2), familial schwannomatosis and Carney complex. Loss of the NF2 tumor suppressor (encoding NF2, or Merlin) is associated with upregulation of the Rac1 small GTPase, ...
Ying M M Department of Pathology, Children's Hospital Los Angeles Saban Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA, - - 2013
The biological relationships among self-renewal, tumorigenicity and lineage differentiation of human osteosarcoma-initiating cells (OSIC) remain elusive, making it difficult to identify and distinguish OSIC from osteosarcoma-forming cells (OSFC) for developing OSIC-targeted therapies. Using a new inverse-lineage tracking strategy coupled with serial human-to-mouse xenotransplantation, we identified a subpopulation of osteosarcoma cells ...
Tan Shi-Xiong SX Diabetes and Obesity Research Program, The Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, Sydney, New South Wales, - - 2012
The Rab GTPase-activating protein TBC1D4/AS160 regulates GLUT4 trafficking in adipocytes. Nonphosphorylated AS160 binds to GLUT4 vesicles and inhibits GLUT4 translocation, and AS160 phosphorylation overcomes this inhibitory effect. In the present study we detected several new functional features of AS160. The second phosphotyrosine-binding domain in AS160 encodes a phospholipid-binding domain that ...
Iwahara Toshinori T Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biochemistry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, - - 2012
SIRT3 is a member of the Sir2 family of NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylases that promotes longevity in many organisms. The processed short form of SIRT3 is a well-established mitochondrial protein whose deacetylase activity regulates various metabolic processes. However, the presence of full-length (FL) SIRT3 in the nucleus and its functional importance ...
Guo Changcun C The Preston Robert Tisch Brain Tumor Center at Duke, Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation Institute, cDepartment of Pathology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, - - 2012
Myeloid/lymphoid or mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL)-family genes encode histone lysine methyltransferases that play important roles in epigenetic regulation of gene transcription. MLL genes are frequently mutated in human cancers. Unlike MLL1, MLL2 (also known as ALR/MLL4) and its homolog MLL3 are not well-understood. Specifically, little is known regarding the extent of ...
Chou Stella T ST Division of Hematology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104, - - 2012
Patients with Down syndrome (trisomy 21, T21) have hematologic abnormalities throughout life. Newborns frequently exhibit abnormal blood counts and a clonal preleukemia. Human T21 fetal livers contain expanded erythro-megakaryocytic precursors with enhanced proliferative capacity. The impact of T21 on the earliest stages of embryonic hematopoiesis is unknown and nearly impossible ...
Wynne Joseph P JP Cancer Institute, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, - - 2012
Adaptive immunity depends on lymphocyte adhesion that is mediated by the integrin lymphocyte functional antigen 1 (LFA-1). The small guanosine triphosphatase Rap1 regulates LFA-1 adhesiveness through one of its effectors, Rap1-interacting adapter molecule (RIAM). We show that RIAM was recruited to the lymphocyte plasma membrane (PM) through its Ras association ...
Lau Wei Ling WL Department of Nephrology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, - - 2013
Chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is a systemic syndrome characterized by imbalances in mineral homeostasis, renal osteodystrophy (ROD) and ectopic calcification. The mechanisms underlying this syndrome in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are not yet clear. We examined the effect of normal phosphate (NP) or high phosphate (HP) ...
Wang Qi Q Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203, People's Republic of - - 2013
Five new highly oxygenated oplopane sesquiterpenes, songaricalarins A-E (1-5), and two known analogues (6 and 7) were isolated from the roots and rhizomes of Ligularia songarica. Their structures and configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including 2D-NMR techniques, and the structure of 1 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. All ...
Schmidt Timo T TT Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany. - - 2013
The underlying neurobiology of addictive or repetitive behaviours, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), involves dopaminergic dysregulation. While addictive behaviour depends strongly on mesolimbocortical dopaminergic responses, repetitive behaviours have been associated with dopaminergic dysregulation in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuitry. The present study investigates differences in brain stimulation reward in rats with ...
Wagner Thor A TA Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, Washington 98101, USA. - - 2013
Non-invasive diagnostic assays to evaluate mitochondrial toxicity could have significant clinical utility for HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART). This study compared the ratio of mitochondrial to nuclear DNA determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to the ratio of mitochondrial to nuclear-encoded proteins by flow cytometry, in peripheral blood ...
Scott John D JD Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. - - 2013
Second messenger responses rely on where and when the enzymes that propagate these signals become active. Spatial and temporal organization of certain signaling enzymes is controlled in part by A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). This family of regulatory proteins was originally classified on the basis of their ability to compartmentalize the ...
Angeli Simon S Department of Otolaryngology, University of Miami, Miami, Florida 33136, - - 2012
This article is a review of the genes and genetic disorders that affect hearing in humans and a few selected mouse models of deafness. Genetics is playing an increasingly critical role in the practice of medicine. This is not only in part to the importance that genetic knowledge has on ...
Tauseef Mohammad M Department of Pharmacology, 2 Center for Lung and Vascular Biology, University of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago, IL 61605, - - 2012
Lung vascular endothelial barrier disruption and the accompanying inflammation are primary pathogenic features of acute lung injury (ALI); however, the basis for the development of both remains unclear. Studies have shown that activation of transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels induces Ca(2+) entry, which is essential for increased endothelial permeability. ...
Jin Kyubok K Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, - - 2013
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) results in hypertriglyceridemia which is largely due to impaired clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins occasioned by downregulation of lipoprotein lipase and very low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor in the skeletal muscle and adipose tissue and of hepatic lipase and LDL receptor-related protein in the liver. However, data on ...
Bao Le L Department of Statistics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, 323 Thomas Building, PA 16802, USA. - - 2012
United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS reports regularly on estimated levels and trends in HIV/AIDS epidemics, which are evaluated using an epidemiological model within the Estimation and Projection Package (EPP). The relatively simple four-parameter model of HIV incidence used in EPP through the previous round of estimates has encountered challenges when ...
Mehta Pankaj P Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA. - - 2012
Cells often perform computations in order to respond to environmental cues. A simple example is the classic problem, first considered by Berg and Purcell, of determining the concentration of a chemical ligand in the surrounding media. On general theoretical grounds, it is expected that such computations require cells to consume ...
Bawa-Khalfe Tasneem T Department of Cardiology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA. - - 2012
Two Sentrin/small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-specific protease 7 (SENP7) variants are naturally expressed in breast epithelia. Breast cancer (BCa) onset down-regulates the short SENP7 splice variant (SENP7S) and enhances the long transcript (SENP7L). Here, we show that SENP7L induction promotes gene expression profiles that favor aberrant proliferation and initiate epithelial-mesenchymal transition ...
Al-Shareffi Esam E Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Stony Brook University, New York, NY 11794-5215, - - 2013
Protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 (Pofut1) and protein O-fucosyltransferase 2 (Pofut2) add O-linked fucose at distinct consensus sequences in properly folded epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats and thrombospondin type-1 (TSR) repeats, respectively. Glycan chain elongation past O-fucose can occur to yield a tetrasaccharide on EGF repeats and a disaccharide on TSRs. Elimination ...
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