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Results 701 - 750 of 2040
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Yoo Sa Kan - - 2012
Tissue injury can lead to scar formation or tissue regeneration. How regenerative animals sense initial tissue injury and transform wound signals into regenerative growth is an unresolved question. Previously, we found that the Src family kinase (SFK) Lyn functions as a redox sensor in leukocytes that detects H(2)O(2) at wounds ...
Boyce W Thomas - - 2012
Socioeconomic status (SES) is the single most potent determinant of health within human populations, from infancy through old age. Although the social stratification of health is nearly universal, there is persistent uncertainty regarding the dimensions of SES that effect such inequalities and thus little clarity about the principles of intervention ...
Lam Lucia L - - 2012
Epigenetics is emerging as an attractive mechanism to explain the persistent genomic embedding of early-life experiences. Tightly linked to chromatin, which packages DNA into chromosomes, epigenetic marks primarily serve to regulate the activity of genes. DNA methylation is the most accessible and characterized component of the many chromatin marks that ...
Burns James Geoffrey - - 2012
Early life adversity has known impacts on adult health and behavior, yet little is known about the gene-environment interactions (GEIs) that underlie these consequences. We used the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to show that chronic early nutritional adversity interacts with rover and sitter allelic variants of foraging (for) to affect ...
McDade Thomas W - - 2012
Recent research has implicated inflammatory processes in the pathophysiology of a wide range of chronic degenerative diseases, although inflammation has long been recognized as a critical line of defense against infectious disease. However, current scientific understandings of the links between chronic low-grade inflammation and diseases of aging are based primarily ...
Rutter Michael - - 2012
The starting point for the study of adverse experiences is that some have enduring consequences that continue after the period of exposure to the adversity. That raises four basic issues: whether social adversities can be considered homogeneous, whether the crucial effect lies in the "objective" or subjectively perceived "effective" environment, ...
Kolb Bryan - - 2012
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) receives input from all other cortical regions and functions to plan and direct motor, cognitive, affective, and social behavior across time. It has a prolonged development, which allows the acquisition of complex cognitive abilities through experience but makes it susceptible to factors that can lead to ...
Shonkoff Jack P - - 2012
Extensive evidence that personal experiences and environmental exposures are embedded biologically (for better or for worse) and the cumulative knowledge of more than four decades of intervention research provide a promising opportunity to mobilize evolving scientific insights to catalyze a new era of more effective early childhood policy and practice. ...
Mashoodh Rahia - - 2012
Paternal environmental experiences are significant predictors of developmental outcomes in offspring and can occur even in the absence of paternal care. Although there has been a recent focus on the role of environmentally induced changes in the male germline in producing these effects, the potential mediating role of mothers has ...
Suderman Matthew - - 2012
Early life experience is associated with long-term effects on behavior and epigenetic programming of the NR3C1 (GLUCOCORTICOID RECEPTOR) gene in the hippocampus of both rats and humans. However, it is unlikely that such effects completely capture the evolutionarily conserved epigenetic mechanisms of early adaptation to environment. Here we present DNA ...
Almas Alisa N - - 2012
The present study examined the social skills of previously institutionalized, 8-y-old Romanian children from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project and the influence of attachment security and brain electrical activity (alpha power) on these skills. Participants included children randomized to an intervention involving foster care [Foster Care Group (FCG)], children randomized ...
Karmiloff-Smith Annette - - 2012
One might expect that children with varying genetic mutations or children raised in low socioeconomic status environments would display different deficits. Although this expectation may hold for phenotypic outcomes in older children and adults, cross-syndrome comparisons in infancy reveal many common neural and sociocognitive deficits. The challenge is to track ...
Weikum Whitney M - - 2012
Language acquisition reflects a complex interplay between biology and early experience. Psychotropic medication exposure has been shown to alter neural plasticity and shift sensitive periods in perceptual development. Notably, serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) are antidepressant agents increasingly prescribed to manage antenatal mood disorders, and depressed maternal mood per se during ...
Adler Nancy - - 2012
Health disparities research spans multiple fields and methods and documents strong links between social disadvantage and poor health. Associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and health are often taken as evidence for the causal impact of SES on health, but alternative explanations, including the impact of health on SES, are plausible. ...
Barr Ronald G - - 2012
Head trauma from abuse, including shaken baby syndrome, is a devastating and potentially lethal form of infant physical abuse first recognized in the early 1970s. What has been less recognized is the role of the early increase in crying in otherwise normal infants in the first few months of life ...
Fernald Lia C H - - 2012
Gradients across socio-economic position exist for many measures of children's health and development in higher-income countries. These associations may not be consistent, however, among the millions of children living in lower- and middle-income countries. Our objective was to examine child development and growth in young children across socio-economic position in ...
Yang Eun-Jin - - 2012
Preference behaviors are often established during early life, but the underlying neural circuit mechanisms remain unknown. Adapting a unique nesting behavior assay, we confirmed a "critical period" for developing music preference in C57BL/6 mice. Early music exposure between postnatal days 15 and 24 reversed their innate bias for silent shelter, ...
Lee Sang-Hyuk - - 2012
We present a single molecule method for counting proteins within a diffraction-limited area when using photoactivated localization microscopy. The intrinsic blinking of photoactivatable fluorescent proteins mEos2 and Dendra2 leads to an overcounting error, which constitutes a major obstacle for their use as molecular counting tags. Here, we introduce a kinetic ...
Kaehr Bryan - - 2012
Tissue-derived cultured cells exhibit a remarkable range of morphological features in vitro, depending on phenotypic expression and environmental interactions. Translation of these cellular architectures into inorganic materials would provide routes to generate hierarchical nanomaterials with stabilized structures and functions. Here, we describe the fabrication of cell/silica composites (CSCs) and their ...
Terashima Mia - - 2012
Cyclic photosynthetic electron flow (CEF) is crucial to photosynthesis because it participates in the control of chloroplast energy and redox metabolism, and it is particularly induced under adverse environmental conditions. Here we report that down-regulation of the chloroplast localized Ca(2+) sensor (CAS) protein by an RNAi approach in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii ...
Reid Chris R - - 2012
Spatial memory enhances an organism's navigational ability. Memory typically resides within the brain, but what if an organism has no brain? We show that the brainless slime mold Physarum polycephalum constructs a form of spatial memory by avoiding areas it has previously explored. This mechanism allows the slime mold to ...
De la Huerta Irina - - 2012
Single progenitors can give rise to any and all of the main retinal cell types: photoreceptors, interneurons (horizontal, bipolar, and amacrine cells), retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), and glia. Many of these types are divisible into multiple functionally, structurally, and molecularly distinct subtypes (e.g., ~25 for RGCs). It remains unknown when ...
Oakley Robert H - - 2012
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) compose the largest family of cell surface receptors and are the most common target of therapeutic drugs. The nonvisual arrestins, β-arrestin-1 and β-arrestin-2, are multifunctional scaffolding proteins that play critical roles in GPCR signaling. On binding of activated GPCRs at the plasma membrane, β-arrestins terminate G ...
Agarwal Vinayak - - 2012
Although the pimeloyl moiety was long known to be a biotin precursor, the mechanism of assembly of this C7 α,ω-dicarboxylic acid was only recently elucidated. In Escherichia coli, pimelate is made by bypassing the strict specificity of the fatty acid synthetic pathway. BioC methylates the free carboxyl of a malonyl ...
Clark Nathaniel E - - 2012
Schindler/Kanzaki disease is an inherited metabolic disease with no current treatment options. This neurologic disease results from a defect in the lysosomal α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (α-NAGAL) enzyme. In this report, we show evidence that the iminosugar DGJNAc can inhibit, stabilize, and chaperone human α-NAGAL both in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrate ...
Boardman Jason D - - 2012
Recent research suggests that the genotype of one individual in a friendship pair is predictive of the genotype of his/her friend. These results provide tentative support for the genetic homophily perspective, which has important implications for social and genetic epidemiology because it substantiates a particular form of gene-environment correlation. This ...
Duerkop Breck A - - 2012
The mammalian intestine is home to a dense community of bacteria and its associated bacteriophage (phage). Virtually nothing is known about how phages impact the establishment and maintenance of resident bacterial communities in the intestine. Here, we examine the phages harbored by Enterococcus faecalis, a commensal of the human intestine. ...
Ghiglione Jean-François - - 2012
The Antarctic and Arctic regions offer a unique opportunity to test factors shaping biogeography of marine microbial communities because these regions are geographically far apart, yet share similar selection pressures. Here, we report a comprehensive comparison of bacterioplankton diversity between polar oceans, using standardized methods for pyrosequencing the V6 region ...
Kirkby Nicholas S - - 2012
Prostacyclin is an antithrombotic hormone produced by the endothelium, whose production is dependent on cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes of which two isoforms exist. It is widely believed that COX-2 drives prostacyclin production and that this explains the cardiovascular toxicity associated with COX-2 inhibition, yet the evidence for this relies on indirect ...
Walogorsky Michael - - 2012
Mutations in muscle ACh receptors cause slow-channel syndrome (SCS) and Escobar syndrome, two forms of congenital myasthenia. SCS is a dominant disorder with mutations reported for all receptor subunits except γ. Escobar syndrome is distinct, with mutations located exclusively in γ, and characterized by developmental improvement of muscle function. The ...
Kim Sang Bum - - 2012
Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a key transcriptional regulator for antioxidant and anti-inflammation enzymes that binds to its endogenous inhibitor protein, Kelch-like ECH (erythroid cell-derived protein with CNC homology)-associated protein 1, in the cytoplasm under normal conditions. Various endogenous or environmental oxidative stresses, such as ionizing radiation (IR), ...
Maclean Glenn A - - 2012
Trisomy 21 is associated with hematopoietic abnormalities in the fetal liver, a preleukemic condition termed transient myeloproliferative disorder, and increased incidence of acute megakaryoblastic leukemia. Human trisomy 21 pluripotent cells of various origins, human embryonic stem (hES), and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, were differentiated in vitro as a model ...
Bavetsias Vassilios - - 2012
Optimization of the imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine-based series of Aurora kinase inhibitors led to the identification of 6-chloro-7-(4-(4-chlorobenzyl)piperazin-1-yl)-2-(1,3-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (27e), a potent inhibitor of Aurora kinases (Aurora-A K(d) = 7.5 nM, Aurora-B K(d) = 48 nM), FLT3 kinase (K(d) = 6.2 nM), and FLT3 mutants including FLT3-ITD (K(d) = 38 nM) and FLT3(D835Y) (K(d) ...
Sahly Iman - - 2012
The mechanisms underlying retinal dystrophy in Usher syndrome type I (USH1) remain unknown because mutant mice lacking any of the USH1 proteins-myosin VIIa, harmonin, cadherin-23, protocadherin-15, sans-do not display retinal degeneration. We found here that, in macaque photoreceptor cells, all USH1 proteins colocalized at membrane interfaces (i) between the inner ...
Lapointe Jérôme - - 2012
Mclk1 (also known as Coq7) and Coq3 code for mitochondrial enzymes implicated in the biosynthetic pathway of ubiquinone (coenzyme Q or UQ). Mclk1(+/-) mice are long-lived but have dysfunctional mitochondria. This phenotype remains unexplained, as no changes in UQ content were observed in these mutants. By producing highly purified submitochondrial ...
Fernald Russell D - - 2012
Social animals live in complex physical and social environments requiring them to attend and rapidly respond to social and environmental information by changing their behavior. A key social influence is rank or status, a ubiquitous element in animal societies. Rank typically regulates access to reproduction and other resources, among other ...
Hertzman Clyde - - 2012
This paper describes evidence that led to the concept of biological embedding and research approaches designed to elucidates its mechanisms. Biological embedding occurs when experience gets under the skin and alters human biological and developmental processes; when systematic differences in experience in different social environments in society lead to systematically ...
Bagot Rosemary C - - 2012
Variations in maternal care in the rat affect hippocampal morphology and function as well as performance on hippocampal-dependent tests of learning and memory in the offspring. Preliminary genome-wide analyses of gene transcription and DNA methylation of the molecular basis for such maternal effects suggested differences in the epigenetic state and ...
Thiollier Clarisse - - 2012
Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) is a heterogeneous disease generally associated with poor prognosis. Gene expression profiles indicate the existence of distinct molecular subgroups, and several genetic alterations have been characterized in the past years, including the t(1;22)(p13;q13) and the trisomy 21 associated with GATA1 mutations. However, the majority of patients ...
Hansen Wiebke - - 2012
Infiltration of Foxp3(+) regulatory T (T reg) cells is considered to be a critical step during tumor development and progression. T reg cells supposedly suppress locally an effective anti-tumor immune response within tumor tissues, although the precise mechanism by which T reg cells infiltrate the tumor is still unclear. We ...
Karnowski Alex - - 2012
A strong humoral response to infection requires the collaboration of several hematopoietic cell types that communicate via antigen presentation, surface coreceptors and their ligands, and secreted factors. The proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 has been shown to promote the differentiation of activated CD4(+) T cells into T follicular helper cells (T(FH) cells) ...
Bertrand Olivier J N - - 2012
Cells are capable of a variety of dramatic stimuli-responsive mechanical behaviors. These capabilities are enabled by the pervading cytoskeletal network, an active gel composed of structural filaments (e.g., actin) that are acted upon by motor proteins (e.g., myosin). Here, we describe the synthesis and characterization of an active gel using ...
Adhikari Aashish N - - 2012
Motivated by the relationship between the folding mechanism and the native structure, we develop a unified approach for predicting folding pathways and tertiary structure using only the primary sequence as input. Simulations begin from a realistic unfolded state devoid of secondary structure and use a chain representation lacking explicit side ...
Clegg Christopher H - - 2012
Extensive preparation is underway to mitigate the next pandemic influenza outbreak. New vaccine technologies intended to supplant egg-based production methods are being developed, with recombinant hemagglutinin (rHA) as the most advanced program for preventing seasonal and avian H5N1 Influenza. Increased efforts are being focused on adjuvants that can broaden vaccine ...
Heger Peter - - 2012
The great majority of metazoans belong to bilaterian phyla. They diversified during a short interval in Earth's history known as the Cambrian explosion, ~540 million years ago. However, the genetic basis of these events is poorly understood. Here we argue that the vertebrate genome organizer CTCF (CCCTC-binding factor) played an ...
Song Rui - - 2012
Neuroimaging studies using positron emission tomography suggest that reduced dopamine D(2) receptor availability in the neostriatum is associated with increased vulnerability to drug addiction in humans and experimental animals. The role of D(3) receptors (D(3)Rs) in the neurobiology of addiction remains unclear, however. Here we report that D(3)R KO (D(3)(-/-)) ...
Lei Yong - - 2012
Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) are an approach for directed gene disruption and have been proved to be effective in various animal models. Here, we report that TALENs can induce somatic mutations in Xenopus embryos with reliably high efficiency and that such mutations are heritable through germ-line transmission. We modified ...
Shankarappa Sahadev A - - 2012
Aberrant neuronal activity in injured peripheral nerves is believed to be an important factor in the development of neuropathic pain. Pharmacological blockade of that activity has been shown to mitigate the onset of associated molecular events in the nervous system. However, results in preventing onset of pain behaviors by providing ...
Xi Zhenxiang - - 2012
The angiosperm order Malpighiales includes ~16,000 species and constitutes up to 40% of the understory tree diversity in tropical rain forests. Despite remarkable progress in angiosperm systematics during the last 20 y, relationships within Malpighiales remain poorly resolved, possibly owing to its rapid rise during the mid-Cretaceous. Using phylogenomic approaches, ...
Morin Emmanuelle - - 2012
Agaricus bisporus is the model fungus for the adaptation, persistence, and growth in the humic-rich leaf-litter environment. Aside from its ecological role, A. bisporus has been an important component of the human diet for over 200 y and worldwide cultivation of the "button mushroom" forms a multibillion dollar industry. We ...
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