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MacMillan Carolyn J - - 2012
Angiogenesis in the animal model of multiple sclerosis experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is regulated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin-2. We determined whether VEGF blockade with the anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody bevacizumab could inhibit angiogenesis and affect peripheral pathogenic immune responses in EAE. Mice treated with bevacizumab from the ...
Goldstein Risë B - - 2012
The present study examined sex differences in lifetime Axis I and II psychiatric comorbidity of DSM-IV alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and drug use disorders (DUDs) among general population U.S. adults. Using data from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, Wave 2 lifetime ...
Berger Elizabeth A - - 2012
Studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) directly converts the normally susceptible C57BL/6J (B6) mouse to resistant after ocular infection through modulation of the inflammatory response. This study examines mechanisms by which VIP influences the healing phase following infection--specifically reconstitution of the extracellular matrix (ECM). B6 ...
Coburn Phillip S - - 2012
We tested the hypothesis that changes in the diabetic ocular environment facilitate the development of endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis (EBE). C57BL/6J mice were rendered diabetic with streptozotocin (STZ) for 1, 3, or 5 months' duration. Diabetic and age-matched nondiabetic mice were tail vein-injected with 10(8) CFU of Klebsiella pneumoniae, a common ...
Campbell Robert L - - 2012
Calpains are a family of complex multi-domain intracellular enzymes that share a calcium-dependent cysteine protease core. These are not degradative enzymes, but instead carry out limited cleavage of target proteins in response to calcium signalling. Selective cutting of cytoskeletal proteins to facilitate cell migration is one such function. The two ...
de Souza Leonardo Cruz - - 2012
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To critically review data on the use of neuroimaging tools in the clinical diagnostic investigation of dementias. RECENT FINDINGS: For many years, the use of neuroimaging tools in the evaluation of dementias has been restricted to excluding neurosurgical lesions that may account for the cognitive decline. However, ...
Beckett Karen K Division of Developmental Biology, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London, NW7 1AA, UK. - - 2013
Wingless acts as a morphogen in Drosophila wing discs, where it specifies cell fates and controls growth several cell diameters away from its site of expression. Thus, despite being acylated and membrane associated, Wingless spreads in the extracellular space. Recent studies have focussed on identifying the route that Wingless follows ...
Szabó András A Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Boston University Henry M. Goldman School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, - - 2012
The pancreatic serine protease chymotrypsin C (CTRC) cleaves the Leu81-Glu82 peptide bond in the calcium-binding loop of human cationic trypsinogen and thereby promotes its degradation. This serves as a protective mechanism against ectopic trypsinogen activation in the pancreas. In the present study, we demonstrate that cleavage of the Leu81-Glu82 peptide ...
Valldeoriola Francesc F Neurology Services, Movement Disorders Unit, Hospital Clinic i Provincial, Barcelona, - - 2013
To perform a comparative long-term analysis of the associated healthcare costs for the therapeutic options in advanced Parkinson's Disease (PD): deep brain stimulation (DBS), continuous duodenal levodopa-carbidopa infusion (CDLCI), and continuous subcutaneous apomorphine infusion (CSAI). Resource use associated with the pre-treatment period, procedure, and follow-up was assessed for the three ...
Lim Jongdoo J Department of Chemistry, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX 76129, - - 2012
Four gadolinium (Gd)-based macromolecular contrast agents, G3-(Gd-DOTA)(24), G5-(Gd-DOTA)(96), G3-(Gd-DTPA)(24), and G5-(Gd-DTPA)(96), were prepared that varied in the size of dendrimer (generation three and five), the type of chelate group (DTPA or DOTA), and the theoretical number of metalated chelates (24 and 96). Synthesis relied on a dichlorotriazine derivatized with a ...
Dhatwalia Richa - - 2012
UDP-galactopyranose mutase (UGM) plays an essential role in galactofuranose biosynthesis in microorganisms by catalyzing the conversion of UDP-galactopyranose to UDP-galactofuranose. The enzyme has gained attention recently as a promising target for the design of new antifungal, antitrypanosomal, and antileishmanial agents. Here we report the first crystal structure of UGM complexed ...
Tarwade Vinod - - 2012
Described is a Cu-catalyzed directed carbozincation of cyclopropenes with organozinc reagents prepared by I/Mg/Zn exchange. This protocol broadens the scope with respect to functional group tolerance and enables use of aryl iodide precursors, rather than purified diorganozinc precursors. Critical to diastereoselectivity of the carbozincation step is the removal of magnesium ...
Nikolova Evgenia N - - 2012
Sequence-specific DNA flexibility plays a key role in a variety of cellular interactions that are critical for gene packaging, expression, and regulation, yet few studies have experimentally explored the sequence dependence of DNA dynamics that occur on biologically relevant time scales. Here, we use nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) carbon spin ...
Dunlap Tareisha T Department of Medicinal Chemistry & Pharmacognosy, University of Illinois College of Pharmacy, 833 South Wood Street, Chicago, Illinois 60612, United - - 2012
The promising therapeutic potential of the NO-donating hybrid aspirin prodrugs (NO-ASA) includes induction of chemopreventive mechanisms and has been reported in almost 100 publications. One example, NCX-4040 (pNO-ASA), is bioactivated by esterase to a quinone methide (QM) electrophile. In cell cultures, pNO-ASA and QM-donating X-ASA prodrugs that cannot release NO ...
Hong Yi Y McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15219, - - 2012
Biodegradable polymers with high elasticity, low thrombogenicity, and drug loading capacity continue to be pursued for vascular engineering applications, including vascular grafts and stents. A biodegradable elastomeric polyurethane was designed as a candidate material for use as a drug-eluting stent coating, such that it was nonthrombogenic and could provide antiproliferative ...
Ghosh Santosh K - - 2012
Wounding of the oral mucosa occurs frequently in a highly septic environment. Remarkably, these wounds heal quickly and the oral cavity, for the most part, remains healthy. Deciphering the normal human oral epithelial cell (NHOEC) proteome is critical for understanding the mechanism(s) of protection elicited when the mucosal barrier is ...
Yu Zhiyong Z Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, - - 2012
Design of inhibitors for N-myristoyltransferase (NMT), an enzyme responsible for protein trafficking in Plasmodium falciparum , the most lethal species of parasites that cause malaria, is described. Chemistry-driven optimization of compound 1 from a focused NMT inhibitor library led to the identification of two early lead compounds 4 and 25, ...
Zheng Mengyao M Department of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmacy, Philipps-Universität Marburg, - - 2012
Polycationic nanocarriers attract increasing attention to the field of siRNA delivery. We investigated the self-assembly of siRNA vs pDNA with polycations, which are broadly used for nonviral gene and siRNA delivery. Although polyethyleneimine (PEI) was routinely adopted as siRNA carrier based on its efficacy in delivering pDNA, it has not ...
Kappetein A Pieter - - 2012
The aim of the current Valve Academic Research Consortium (VARC)-2 initiative was to revisit the selection and definitions of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) clinical endpoints to make them more suitable to the present and future needs of clinical trials. In addition, this document is intended to expand the understanding ...
Warlick Benjamin P - - 2012
Rhodospirillum rubrum produces 5-methylthioadenosine (MTA) from S-adenosylmethionine in polyamine biosynthesis; however, R. rubrum lacks the classical methionine salvage pathway. Instead, MTA is converted to 5-methylthio-d-ribose 1-phosphate (MTR 1-P) and adenine; MTR 1-P is isomerized to 1-methylthio-d-xylulose 5-phosphate (MTXu 5-P) and reductively dethiomethylated to 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP), an intermediate in the ...
Xie Xiaojiang - - 2012
We report here for the first time on a reversible photodynamic bulk optode sensor based on the photoswitching of a spiropyran derivative (Sp). The photoswitching of Sp induces a large basicity increase in the polymeric phase, which triggers the extraction of Cl(-) and H(+). Cl(-) is stabilized by a lipophilic ...
Melzer Michael - - 2012
The first highly stretchable and sensitive spin valve sensor on elastomeric membranes are demonstrated. The sensor elements exhibit stable GMR behavior up to tensile strains of 29% in in situ stretching experiments and show no fatigue over 500 loading cycles. This remarkable stretchability is achieved by a predetermined periodic fracture ...
Seidu-Larry Salifu - - 2012
A propargyl containing guanosine phosphoramidite was synthesized and incorporated into siRNA, enabling click-ligation with an azido fluorophore onto the nucleobase sugar edge. Duplex stability was not affected by labeling at this new site, which allowed deconvolution of the effects of label, structure and attachment site on RNAi activity.
Cardwell Robyn D - - 2012
Efforts to develop engineered tendons and ligaments have focused on the use of a biomaterial scaffold and a stem cell source. However, the ideal scaffold microenvironment to promote stem cell differentiation and development of organized extracellular matrix is unknown. Through electrospinning, fibre scaffolds can be designed with tailorable architectures to ...
Torp Madsen Jakob - - 2012
Background. Two readings of patch test reactions are recommended. Objectives. To evaluate the outcome of a second patch test reading of TRUE Test® allergens on D6/7 in relation to negative or doubtful reactions on D3/4. Methods. This was a retrospective investigation of patch test data from January 1992 to October ...
Lin H - - 2012
Colorectal carcinoma is one of the most frequent cancer diseases. For patients with this type of cancer, liver metastases are the main cause of death. Therefore, new therapeutic approaches are urgently needed to improve the outcomes. We found that both mRNA and protein levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP3) ...
Nakase Ikuhiko - - 2012
Simple substitution of d-lysine with d-arginine in antimicrobial peptide (RLA) considerably improved its membrane permeability and increased mitochondrial accumulation. The potential use of RLA in preventing apoptotic cell death is also demonstrated through delivery of the Bcl-x(L) BH4 domain peptide.
Zou G F - - 2012
In this tutorial article, the recent development of polymer assisted deposition (PAD) for the growth of a wide range of materials, in particular in thin films, is reviewed. Specifically, we describe the unique chemistry and processes of PAD for the deposition of metals, metal-oxides, metal-nitrides, metal-carbides, and their derived composites. ...
Woyciechowska Marta - - 2012
An unexpected yet disciplined course of catalytic Mukaiyama-aldol reaction instead of the expected vinylogous Mukaiyama-aldol reaction has been observed for the reaction of silyloxyfuran with various aldehydes under Lewis acid catalytic control in water-containing solvents.
Sun Ranran - - 2012
Four optically active {(2,3,9,10,16,17,23,24-octa[(S)-2-methylbutoxy]} phthalocyanine derivatives with different central metal ions, namely (S)-H(2)Pc(β-OC(5)H(11))(8) (), (S)-ZnPc(β-OC(5)H(11))(8) (), (S)-CuPc(β-OC(5)H(11))(8) (), and (S)-NiPc(β-OC(5)H(11))(8) () have been synthesized and their self-assembly behaviors systematically investigated by electronic absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques, ...
Rupp Beat - - 2012
Molecular motors can be immobilized to transport filaments and loads that are attached to these filaments inside a nano-device. However, if motors are distributed uniformly over a flat surface, the motility is undirected, and the filaments move equally in all directions. For many applications it is important to control the ...
Bang Eun-Kyoung - - 2012
An estrone phosphoramidite, synthesized in a single step, was directly incorporated at the 5' ends of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). The resulting estrone-conjugated siRNAs readily pass through cellular membranes and down-regulate the target protein, and show specific distributions in vivo.
Huggins David J - - 2012
The structures of biomolecules and the strengths of association between them depend critically on interactions with water molecules. Thus, understanding these interactions is a prerequisite for understanding the structure and function of all biomolecules. Inhomogeneous fluid solvation theory provides a framework to derive thermodynamic properties of individual water molecules from ...
Klein Hubert - - 2012
An efficient, novel and direct access to 1-halo-1,3-butadienes is developed. This stereoselective ruthenium-catalysed reaction proceeds under mild conditions via the head-to-head oxidative coupling of two alkynes and a concomitant hydrohalogenation.
Alvarez-Ospina Harry - - 2012
INTRODUCTION: Dysphania graveolens is used mainly in Mexican traditional medicine against gastrointestinal ailments. Previous investigations revealed that its flavonoids are important active principles; however, there is not a reliable and accurate analytical method for determining these compounds in the crude drug or preparations of the plant. In addition, its volatile ...
Liu Yarong - - 2012
As a consequence of their well-defined nanostructure and intrinsic bioactive functionality, virus-based nanoparticles have shown promise for mediating gene delivery. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) nanoparticles, which possess an excellent safety profile and therapeutic potential, hold potential for use in human gene therapy. However, because of their native tropisms, the applicability of ...
Bardella Vanessa Bellini - - 2012
Previous cytogenetic studies in triatomines have described the occurrence of holokinetic chromosomes, heterochromatin distribution and the location of rDNA sites, but few aspects of nuclear organization in this group have been discussed. In this study, we focused on ultrastructural and cytogenetic features and differences in cystic cells of seminiferous tubules ...
Chen Derrick J - - 2012
Both cavernous angiomas and focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) are well recognized causes of pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Anecdotal cases of FCD adjacent to cavernous angiomas have been documented in the literature. This study systematically reviews a series of cavernous angiomas in epilepsy patients, looking for evidence of coexistent FCD. 146 patients were ...
Nadeem Shahid - - 2012
Denitrifying bacteria have variable ability to perform efficient and balanced denitrification during oxygen depletion. NO is often assumed to exert a positive feedback in the transcription of denitrification genes, since NO-dependent activators have been identified. The regulatory network of denitrification is complex, however, and the significance of NO signalling needs ...
Radhakumary Changerath - - 2012
This article reports a simple dipping method for the detection of cyanide ions in water and biological samples, such as blood, using chitosan-gold nanoparticle (CH-Au NP) composite films prepared using CH-Au NP colloids. Here, gold nanoparticles were generated by heating (to ∼80 °C) a solution of chitosan and gold chloride, ...
Benton David - - 2012
The criteria used to establish dietary reference values are discussed and it is suggested that the too often the "need" they aim to satisfy is at the best vaguely specified. The proposition is considered that if we aim to establish optimal nutrition we will gain from considering psychological in addition ...
Liu Guo-Min - - 2012
The conventional lumbar separation was performed by removing soft tissue, subsidiary structures and leaving only the vertebral body. The vertebral body was cut into two halves along the median sagittal plane, keeping the upper and lower end plates of each half, which were subsequently used for biomechanical, morphological and density ...
Lee J - - 2012
To investigate the characteristics of patients with a localized retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defect and normal optic disc appearance compared with normal tension glaucoma (NTG) patients. A total of 40 patients with an unchanged RNFL defect for more than 5 years and normal optic disc appearance, who were presumed ...
Ray Valerie A - - 2012
Biofilm formation by Vibrio fischeri is a complex process involving multiple regulators, including the sensor kinase (SK) RscS and the response regulator (RR) SypG, which control the symbiosis polysaccharide (syp) locus. To identify other regulators of biofilm formation in V. fischeri, we screened a transposon library for mutants defective in wrinkled ...
Dao Kinh-Luan D - - 2012
Abstract: The estrogen receptor (ER) is a potentially useful biological target for the diagnosis and therapy in hormonally responsive human breast cancer. This protein is often over expressed both on the membrane and nuclear compartment of breast cancer cells and provides a mechanism for both localization and therapy. Over the ...
Inoue K - - 2012
We investigated the appearance frequency of eyelid pigmentation and eyelash bristles after the use of five types of prostaglandin (PG) analogs. This study included 250 eyes from 250 patients diagnosed with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension who were treated with either latanoprost, travoprost, tafluprost, bimatoprost, or isopropyl unoprostone for ...
Girmenia Corrado - - 2012
In the attempt to establish key therapy definitions and provide shared approaches to invasive fungal diseases in neutropenic patients, trials of empiric, preeemptive and targeted antifungal therapy (EAT, PAT and TAT) were reviewed, and a Consensus Development Conference Project was convened. The Expert-Panel concurred that all antifungal treatments, including EAT, ...
Miyazaki Ryo - - 2012
Aim:  Although previous studies have shown that consumption of green tea catechins (GTC) and walking might prevent development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the effects of GTC supplementation on CVD risk in active older people are unknown. Methods:  A total of 52 older adults (male/female 20/32, mean age 69.1 ± 5.9 years) participating ...
Yu Junping - - 2012
The effects of two C(60) derivatives: C(60)[C(COOH)(2)](3) and C(60)(NH(2))(x)(OH)(y), have been investigated on the bioluminescence of humanized Gaussia luciferase (hGluc) for the first time. Utilizing the dual properties of carboxyl C(60) with luminescence quenching and free radicals scavenging, a novel BRET system was constructed for protease detection with high sensitivity.
Gilbert Gregg H GH Department of Clinical and Community Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-0007, USA. - - 2013
Practice-based research networks (PBRNs) provide a venue to foster evidence-based care. We tested the hypothesis that a higher level of participation in a dental PBRN is associated with greater stated change toward evidence-based practice. A total of 565 dental PBRN practitioner-investigators completed a baseline questionnaire entitled 'Assessment of Caries Diagnosis ...
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