Search Results
Results 701 - 750 of 1352
< 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 >
Albrecht Matthias M Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland. - - 2012
Understanding the functional consequences of biodiversity loss is a major goal of ecology. Animal-mediated pollination is an essential ecosystem function and service provided to mankind. However, little is known how pollinator diversity could affect pollination services. Using a substitutive design, we experimentally manipulated functional group (FG) and species richness of ...
Knörnschild Mirjam M Institute of Experimental Ecology, University of Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89069 Ulm, Germany. - - 2012
Bat echolocation is primarily used for orientation and foraging but also holds great potential for social communication. The communicative function of echolocation calls is still largely unstudied, especially in the wild. Eavesdropping on vocal signatures encoding social information in echolocation calls has not, to our knowledge, been studied in free-living ...
Copeland Emily K EK Department of Biology, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2368, - - 2012
In recent years, studies have shown that reproductive effort decelerates in response to pathogenic infection. If infection substantially reduces a host's residual reproductive value (RRV), however, then an acceleration of effort may instead occur (e.g. terminal investment). Reproductive acceleration would theoretically allow hosts to maintain or exaggerate their sexual signal ...
Stearns Stephen C SC Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8102, USA. - - 2012
Because autosomal genes in sexually reproducing organisms spend on average half their time in each sex, and because the traits that they influence encounter different selection pressures in males and females, the evolutionary responses of one sex are constrained by processes occurring in the other sex. Although intralocus sexual conflict ...
Veijalainen Anu A Department of Biology, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland. - - 2012
The megadiverse parasitoid wasp family Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) is classically considered an exception to the extensively studied latitudinal diversity gradient: the majority of ichneumonid species are described from temperate regions. The gradient has been hypothesized to be dependent on the biology of the wasps, but recently questions of sampling and description ...
Engel Isaac I La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, La Jolla, CA 92037, - - 2012
The majority of mouse Vα14 invariant natural killer T (Vα14i NKT) cells produce several cytokines, including IFNγ and IL-4, very rapidly after activation. A subset of these cells, known as NKT17 cells, however, differentiates in the thymus to preferentially produce IL-17. Here, we show that the transcription factor-known as T ...
Lapalombella Rosa R Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, - - 2012
The nuclear export protein XPO1 is overexpressed in cancer, leading to the cytoplasmic mislocalization of multiple tumor suppressor proteins. Existing XPO1-targeting agents lack selectivity and have been associated with significant toxicity. Small molecule selective inhibitors of nuclear export (SINEs) were designed that specifically inhibit XPO1. Genetic experiments and X-ray structures ...
Antrobus Shane P SP Dept. of Physiology and Membrane Biology, School of Medicine, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616, - - 2012
Using antibodies prepared against a unique region (exon 22-24) of rat K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter-2 (KCC2), we confirmed that the ~140-kDa KCC2 protein is exclusively expressed in rat brain, but in chicken, we observed strong reactivity not only with the ~140-kDa KCC2 protein in brain but also a slightly larger ~145-kDa protein ...
Brands Michael W MW Dept. of Physiology, Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Health Sciences Univ., Augusta, GA 30912, USA. - - 2012
Insulin has long been hypothesized to cause sodium retention, potentially of enough magnitude to contribute to hypertension in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and Type II diabetes. There is an abundance of supportive evidence from correlational analyses in humans, acute insulin infusion studies in humans and animals, and chronic insulin infusion studies ...
Raikwar Nandita S NS Dept. of Internal Medicine, Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, - - 2012
Sgk1 is a relatively unstable kinase that regulates epithelial Na(+) transport in the distal nephron of the kidney. We identified a 5' variant alternate transcript of human Sgk1 (Sgk1_v3) that is expressed in the connecting tubule and collecting duct, is regulated by aldosterone and insulin, and is predicted to encode ...
Armenian Saro H SH Department of Population Sciences, City of Hope, 1500 E. Duarte Rd, Duarte, CA 91010-3000, USA. - - 2012
Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients may be at an increased risk of developing hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia (referred to as cardiovascular risk factors [CVRFs]); and these factors can potentially increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We examined the incidence and predictors of CVRFs and subsequent CVD in 1885 consecutive ...
Banh Cindy C Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, - - 2012
The SH2-containing inositol phosphatase-1 (SHIP-1) is a 5' inositol phosphatase known to negatively regulate the product of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K), phosphatidylinositol-3.4,5-trisphosphate. SHIP-1 can be recruited to a large number of inhibitory receptors expressed on natural killer (NK) cells. However, its role in NK cell development, maturation, and functions is not ...
Epplein Meira M Division of Epidemiology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 2525 West End Avenue, Nashville, TN 37203, USA. - - 2012
Helicobacter pylori is the leading risk factor for gastric cancer, yet only a fraction of infected individuals ever develop neoplasia. To identify potential predictive biomarkers, we assessed the association of 15 antibodies to H. pylori proteins and gastric cancer in a nested case-control study. Blood levels of antibodies were assessed ...
Austin S Bryn SB Division of Adolescent and Young Adult Medicine, Children's Hospital, 300 Longwood Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA. - - 2012
Lesbian and bisexual women may be at greater risk of breast cancer than heterosexual women during the premenopausal period due to disparities in risk factors. With 16 years of prospective data from a large cohort of U.S. women ages 25-58 years, we conducted a breast cancer risk assessment for 87,392 ...
Ponce-Coria José J Department of Anesthesiology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232, - - 2012
X-ray crystallography of the catalytic domain of oxidative stress response 1 (OSR1) has provided evidence for dimerization and domain swapping. However, the functional significance of dimer formation or domain swapping has yet to be addressed. In this study, we used nine glutamine residues to link the carboxyl end of one ...
Mahankali Madhu M Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Wright State University School of Medicine, Dayton, Ohio 45435, - - 2012
We have demonstrated that phospholipase D2 (PLD2) is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Rac2 and determined the PLD2 domains and amino acid site(s) responsible for its GEF activity. Experiments using GST fusion proteins or GST-free counterparts, purified proteins revealed that the PX domain is sufficient to exert GEF ...
Mi Rongjuan R Department of Biochemistry, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, - - 2012
Cosmc is the specific molecular chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum for T-synthase, a Golgi β3-galactosyltransferase that generates the core 1 O-glycan, Galβ1-3GalNAcα-Ser/Thr, in glycoproteins. Dysfunctional Cosmc results in the formation of inactive T-synthase and consequent expression of the Tn antigen (GalNAcα1-Ser/Thr), which is associated with several human diseases. However, the ...
Clarke Megan A MA Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, DHHS, Bethesda, Maryland, - - 2012
Sexually transmitted carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are extraordinarily prevalent worldwide. However, most incident HPV infections clear within a few years, whereas a small minority persists to invasive cancer. Recent studies indicate that detection of methylated viral DNA may distinguish women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+ (CIN2+) from those ...
Lam Tram K TK Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, - - 2012
Epidemiologic studies have reported that frequent consumption of quercetin-rich foods is inversely associated with lung cancer incidence. A quercetin-rich diet might modulate microRNA (miR) expression; however, this mechanism has not been fully examined. miR expression data were measured by a custom-made array in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 264 lung ...
Hoso Masaki M Department of Terrestrial Zoology, Naturalis Biodiversity Center, PO Box 9517, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands. - - 2012
Autotomy of body parts offers various prey animals immediate benefits of survival in compensation for considerable costs. I found that a land snail Satsuma caliginosa of populations coexisting with a snail-eating snake Pareas iwasakii survived the snake predation by autotomizing its foot, whereas those out of the snake range rarely ...
Baseler Walter A WA Center for Cardiovascular and Respiratory Sciences, Division of Exercise Physiology, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV 26506, - - 2012
Dysfunctional mitochondria are central in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Mitochondrial proteomic alterations resulting from diabetes mellitus have been reported although the mechanisms driving changes in proteomic signatures are unknown. microRNAs (miRNAs) have been considered as potential regulators of proteins. The goal of this study was to determine whether miRNAs ...
Li X C XC Laboratory of Receptor and Signal Transduction, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi 39216-4505, - - 2012
Expression of a cytosolic cyan fluorescent fusion protein of angiotensin II (ECFP/ANG II) in proximal tubules increases blood pressure in rodents. To determine cellular signaling pathways responsible for this response, we expressed ECFP/ANG II in transport-competent mouse proximal convoluted tubule cells (mPCT) from wild-type (WT) and type 1a ANG II ...
Gamba Gerardo G Molecular Physiology Unit, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutriciòn Salvador Zubirán, Mexico. - - 2012
The activity of the renal thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter (NCC) in the distal convoluted tubule plays a key role in defining arterial blood pressure levels. Increased or decreased activity of the NCC is associated with arterial hypertension or hypotension, respectively. Thus it is of major interest to understand the activity of ...
Forrest Abigail S AS Department of Pharmacology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, Nevada 89557-0573, - - 2012
Pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) are more depolarized and display higher Ca(2+) levels in pulmonary hypertension (PH). Whether the functional properties and expression of Ca(2+)-activated Cl- channels (Cl(Ca)), an important excitatory mechanism in PASMCs, are altered in PH is unknown. The potential role of Cl(Ca) channels in PH was ...
Satoh Minoru M Dept. of Nephrology and Hypertension, Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama Japan. - - 2012
Augmented Wnt signaling has been implicated in many fibrotic diseases including obstructive nephropathy. Soluble form Klotho has been reported to function as a secreted Wnt antagonist. In this study, we tested whether Klotho protein could reduce renal fibrosis by inhibition of Wnt signaling. Transgenic mice that overexpressed Klotho, wild-type mice, ...
Stevens J W JW Centre for Bayesian Statistics in Health Economics, University of Sheffield, UK. - - 2012
A systematic review and network meta-analysis was undertaken to consider the evidence for the efficacy and tolerability of placebo, cilostazol, naftidrofuryl oxalate and pentoxifylline in patients with intermittent claudication due to peripheral arterial disease (PAD). MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science, ...
Rha Dong-wook DW Department and Research Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South - - 2013
To compare the effects of platelet-rich plasma injection with those of dry needling on shoulder pain and function in patients with rotator cuff disease. A single-centre, prospective, randomized, double-blinded, controlled study. University rehabilitation hospital. Thirty-nine patients with a supraspinatus tendon lesion (tendinosis or a partial tear less than 1.0 cm, ...
Asaad Wael F WF Department of Neurobiology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, - - 2013
Behavioral, psychological, and physiological experiments often require the ability to present sensory stimuli, monitor and record subjects' responses, interface with a wide range of devices, and precisely control the timing of events within a behavioral task. Here, we describe our recent progress developing an accessible and full-featured software system for ...
Yao Dan D Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, - - 2013
Rodent animal models have been widely used for studying neurologic and toxicological events associated with cocaine abuse. It is known that the mouse is more susceptible to cocaine-induced hepatotoxicity (CIH) than the rat. However, the causes behind this species-dependent sensitivity to cocaine have not been elucidated. In this study, cocaine ...
Cheng Xianrui X Program in Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA. - - 2013
During early embryonic development, a network of regulatory interactions among genes dynamically determines a pattern of differentiated tissues. We show that important timing information associated with the interactions can be faithfully represented in autonomous Boolean models in which binary variables representing expression levels are updated in continuous time, and that ...
Kovalev Alexander E AE Department Functional Morphology and Biomechanics, Zoological Institute of the University of Kiel, Am Botanischen Garten 1-9, Kiel, - - 2013
Reliable attachment ability of insect adhesive pads is proposed to be due to pad secretion. It has been shown that surface roughness strongly reduces adhesion forces of insect pads. This effect has been explained by decreased contact area and rapid fluid absorption from the pad surface by rough surfaces. However, ...
Ardekani Reza R Molecular and Computational Biology Program, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-2910, - - 2013
The increasing interest in the investigation of social behaviours of a group of animals has heightened the need for developing tools that provide robust quantitative data. Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as an attractive model for behavioural analysis; however, there are still limited ways to monitor fly behaviour in a quantitative ...
Jacobson Samuel G SG Scheie Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. - - 2013
The GUCY2D gene encodes retinal membrane guanylyl cyclase (RetGC1), a key component of the phototransduction machinery in photoreceptors. Mutations in GUCY2D cause Leber congenital amaurosis type 1 (LCA1), an autosomal recessive human retinal blinding disease. The effects of RetGC1 deficiency on human rod and cone photoreceptor structure and function are ...
Anderson Wendy G WG University of California, San Francisco, California 94143-0903, USA. - - 2013
Hospital physicians care for most seriously ill patients in the United States. We employed dimensional analysis to describe communication about death and dying in audio-recorded admission encounters between seriously ill patients and hospitalists. Acknowledging or not acknowledging the possibility of dying emerged as a key process. Acknowledgment was rare, and ...
Tokarz Rafal R Center for Infection and Immunity, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. - - 2013
We report the discovery of two enteroviruses detected in nasopharyngeal samples obtained from subjects with respiratory disease in Peru. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that both viruses belong to a clade within the species Human enterovirus C, which includes the recently characterized human enteroviruses 109 and 104. Members of this clade have ...
Templeton Jennifer J JJ Department of Biology, Knox College, Galesburg, IL 61401, USA. - - 2012
Birds choose mates on the basis of colour, song and body size, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying these mating decisions. Reports that zebra finches prefer to view mates with the right eye during courtship, and that immediate early gene expression associated with courtship behaviour is lateralized in ...
Orban de Xivry Jean-Jacques JJ Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. - - 2013
Both abrupt and gradually imposed perturbations produce adaptive changes in motor output, but the neural basis of adaptation may be distinct. Here, we measured the state of the primary motor cortex (M1) and the corticospinal network during adaptation by measuring motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) before reach onset using transcranial magnetic stimulation ...
Li Yanen Y Department of Community and Preventive Medicine, University of Rochester, 265 Crittenden Blvd, Rochester, NY 14642, USA. - - 2013
to our knowledge no research has investigated the effect of home visiting nurse (HVN) interventions on individual instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). to investigate the effects of an HVN intervention on the difficulty or dependence in six individual IADLs. a secondary analysis of a randomised controlled study comparing an ...
Lundström Susanna L SL Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Division of Physiological Chemistry II, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, - - 2013
Mast cells are inflammatory cells that play key roles in health and disease. They are distributed in all tissues and appear in two main phenotypes, connective tissue and mucosal mast cells, with differing capacities to release inflammatory mediators. A metabolic profiling approach was used to obtain a more comprehensive understanding ...
Mattei P L PL Department of Dermatology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, - - 2013
The cutaneous effects of rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma kinase B (BRAF) inhibitors are not well understood. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), keratoacanthoma, and photosensitivity have been described in patients taking BRAF inhibitors. To characterize the timing and frequency of skin lesions in patients receiving BRAF inhibitor therapy, we utilized a retrospective case ...
Zhang Shengwei S Department of Biomedical Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 60616, - - 2013
To investigate the effect of standardized and study-specific human brain diffusion tensor templates on the accuracy of spatial normalization, without ignoring the important roles of data quality and registration algorithm effectiveness. Two groups of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) datasets, with and without visible artifacts, were normalized to two standardized diffusion ...
Yang Alicia W AW Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, USA. - - 2013
To evaluate the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) partial volume effect on diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) metrics in white matter and cortical gray matter. Four healthy volunteers participated in this study. Standard DKI and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) DKI experiments were performed using a twice-refocused-spin-echo diffusion sequence. The conventional diffusion tensor ...
Rist P M PM Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA. - - 2013
Several biomarkers have been associated with an increased risk of ischaemic stroke. However, the association between these biomarkers and functional outcome from cerebral ischaemic events is unclear. We aimed to assess the patterns of association between cardiovascular disease biomarkers and functional outcomes after incident ischaemic cerebral events in women. Prospective ...
Lou Chunbo C Synthetic Biology Center, Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, - - 2012
Synthetic genetic programs are built from circuits that integrate sensors and implement temporal control of gene expression. Transcriptional circuits are layered by using promoters to carry the signal between circuits. In other words, the output promoter of one circuit serves as the input promoter to the next. Thus, connecting circuits ...
Schnettler Esther E Laboratory of Virology, Wageningen University, Wageningen, - - 2012
West Nile virus (WNV) and dengue virus (DENV) are highly pathogenic, mosquito-borne flaviviruses (family Flaviviridae) that cause severe disease and death in humans. WNV and DENV actively replicate in mosquitoes and human hosts and thus encounter different host immune responses. RNA interference (RNAi) is the predominant antiviral response against invading ...
Thompson S G SG Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, UK. - - 2012
The long-term effects of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) screening were investigated in extended follow-up from the UK Multicentre Aneurysm Screening Study (MASS) randomized trial. A population-based sample of men aged 65-74 years were randomized individually to invitation to ultrasound screening (invited group) or to a control group not offered screening. ...
Mazel-Sanchez Béryl B Biomedical Sciences Research Complex, School of Biology, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, Scotland, United - - 2012
Bunyamwera virus (BUNV) is the prototype virus for both the genus Orthobunyavirus and the family Bunyaviridae. BUNV has a tripartite, negative-sense RNA genome. The coding region of each segment is flanked by untranslated regions (UTRs) that are partially complementary. The UTRs play an important role in the virus life cycle ...
Croxson Paula L PL Glickenhaus Laboratory of Neuropsychology, Friedman Brain Institute, and Department of Neuroscience, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, - - 2012
Episodic memory depends on a network of interconnected brain structures including the inferior temporal cortex, hippocampus, fornix, and mammillary bodies. We have previously shown that a moderate episodic memory impairment in monkeys with transection of the fornix is exacerbated by prior depletion of acetylcholine from inferotemporal cortex, despite the fact ...
Gould Ian C IC Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3UD, United Kingdom. - - 2012
To decide effectively, information must not only be integrated from multiple sources, but it must be distributed across the brain if it is to influence structures such as motor cortex that execute choices. Human participants integrated information from multiple, but only partially informative, cues in a probabilistic reasoning task in ...
Akerboom Jasper J Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Janelia Farm Research Campus, Ashburn, Virginia 20147, - - 2012
Genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs) are powerful tools for systems neuroscience. Recent efforts in protein engineering have significantly increased the performance of GECIs. The state-of-the art single-wavelength GECI, GCaMP3, has been deployed in a number of model organisms and can reliably detect three or more action potentials in short bursts ...
< 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 >