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Maestre-Reyna Manuel - - 2012
The human pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata harbors more than 20 surface-exposed, epithelial adhesins (Epas) for host cell adhesion. The Epa family recognizes host glycans and discriminates between target tissues by their adhesin (A) domains, but a detailed structural basis for ligand-binding specificity of Epa proteins has been lacking so far. ...
Brill Shlomo - - 2012
EmrE, a multidrug antiporter from Escherichia coli, has presented biochemists with unusual surprises. Here we describe the transformation of EmrE, a drug/H(+) antiporter to a polyamine importer by a single mutation. Antibiotic resistance in microorganisms may arise by mutations at certain chromosomal loci. To investigate this phenomenon, we used directed ...
Roby Yang A - - 2012
Zfp423/OAZ, a multi-zinc finger protein, is proposed to participate in neuronal differentiation through interactions with the Olf/EBF (O/E) family of transcription factors and mediate extrinsic BMP signaling pathways. These activities are associated with distinct domains of the Olf/EBF-associated zinc finger (OAZ) protein. Sustained OAZ expression arrests olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) ...
Fan Kai Y - - 2012
The symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) are related to changes in the frequency and pattern of activity in the reciprocally connected GABAergic external globus pallidus (GPe) and glutamatergic subthalamic nucleus (STN). In idiopathic and experimental PD, the GPe and STN exhibit hypoactivity and hyperactivity, respectively, and abnormal synchronous rhythmic burst ...
Miller Daniel L - - 2012
The Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a powerful system for the genetic and molecular analysis of neuronal excitability, synaptic transmission, and synaptic development. However, its use for studying age-dependent processes, such as maintenance of neuronal viability and synaptic stability, are temporally limited by the onset of pupariation and metamorphosis. ...
Kron Miriam - - 2012
Excitatory-inhibitory imbalance has been identified within specific brain microcircuits in models of Rett syndrome (RTT) and other autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). However, macrocircuit dysfunction across the RTT brain as a whole has not been defined. To approach this issue, we mapped expression of the activity-dependent, immediate-early gene product Fos in ...
Janssen Megan J - - 2012
The Neuregulin 1 (NRG1)/ErbB4 signaling pathway has been genetically and functionally implicated in the etiology underlying schizophrenia, and in the regulation of glutamatergic pyramidal neuron function and plasticity. However, ErbB4 receptors are expressed in subpopulations of GABAergic interneurons, but not in hippocampal or cortical pyramidal neurons, indicating that NRG1 effects ...
Jusuf Patricia R - - 2012
Within the developing vertebrate retina, particular subtypes of amacrine cells (ACs) tend to arise from progenitors expressing the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, Atoh7, which is necessary for the early generation of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). All ACs require the postmitotic expression of the bHLH pancreas transcription factor Ptf1a; however, ...
Chiu Gabriel S - - 2012
After hypoxia, a critical adverse outcome is the inability to create new memories. How anterograde amnesia develops or resolves remains elusive, but a link to brain-based IL-1 is suggested due to the vital role of IL-1 in both learning and brain injury. We examined memory formation in mice exposed to ...
Goncharova Elena A - - 2012
Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare genetic disease characterized by neoplastic growth of atypical smooth muscle-like LAM cells, destruction of lung parenchyma, obstruction of lymphatics, and formation of lung cysts, leading to spontaneous pneumothoraces (lung rupture and collapse) and progressive loss of pulmonary function. The disease is caused by mutational ...
Amatrudo Joseph M - - 2012
Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and high-resolution 3D morphometric analyses of layer 3 pyramidal neurons in in vitro slices of monkey primary visual cortex (V1) and dorsolateral granular prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) revealed that neurons in these two brain areas possess highly distinctive structural and functional properties. Area V1 pyramidal neurons are much ...
ten Dam Leroy - - 2012
To evaluate the reliability and accuracy of skeletal muscle CT to correctly identify different muscular dystrophies manifesting with limb-girdle weakness. Four evaluators assessed scans from 118 patients with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) caused by mutations in 7 different genes and from 32 controls. The conditions studied were scans of genetically ...
Xing Dajun - - 2012
Oscillatory neural activity within the gamma band (25-90 Hz) is generally thought to be able to provide a timing signal for harmonizing neural computations across different brain regions. Using time-frequency analyses of the dynamics of gamma-band activity in the local field potentials recorded from monkey primary visual cortex, we found ...
Lokugamage Nandadeva - - 2012
Rift Valley fever virus strain MP-12 was generated by serial plaque passages of parental strain ZH548 12 times in MRC-5 cells in the presence of a chemical mutagen, 5-fluorouracil. As a result, MP-12 encoded 4, 9, and 10 mutations in the S, M, and L segments, respectively. Among them, mutations ...
Hellman Kevin M - - 2012
In anesthetized rats, opioid analgesia is accompanied by a specific pattern of tonic activity in two neuronal populations within the medullary raphe magnus (RM): opioids silence pain-facilitatory ON cells and produce sustained discharge in pain-inhibitory OFF cells. These tonic activity patterns, hypothesized to generate a tonic analgesic state, have not ...
Tarquinio Daniel Charles - - 2012
Prominent growth failure typifies Rett syndrome (RTT). Our aims were to 1) develop RTT growth charts for clinical and research settings, 2) compare growth in children with RTT with that of unaffected children, and 3) compare growth patterns among RTT genotypes and phenotypes. A cohort of the RTT Rare Diseases ...
Luo Yanping - - 2012
In order to obtain a better molecular understanding of recurrent urinary tract infection (RUTI), we collected 75 cases with repeatedly occurring uncomplicated UTI. The genetic relationships among uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) isolates were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. While 39 (52%) of the RUTI cases were defined as "persistence" of ...
Barry Jeremy M - - 2012
It is widely held that spatial computations in the rodent hippocampus require the location-specific discharge of place cells that together form a stable cognitive map used to solve and perform spatial tasks. It is not known, however, if map stability requires persistent hippocampal synaptic strength changes that are vulnerable to ...
Leung Cindy W - - 2012
The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) aims to alleviate hunger among its beneficiaries by providing benefits to purchase nutritious foods. We conducted a comprehensive dietary analysis of low-income adults and examined differences in dietary intake between SNAP participants and nonparticipants. The study population comprised 3835 nonelderly adults with a household ...
Bozó Éva - - 2012
Due to the role of bradykinin B1 receptor (B1R) in pain and inflammation, B1R antagonists have been suggested as promising drug candidates in chronic pain states. The first disclosed B1R antagonists were peptidomimetics, however, during the last few years, novel chemotypes with improved pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties have been identified. ...
Mattei Josiemer - - 2012
TCF7L2 gene variants have been associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and higher adiposity. Observational studies and short-term trials have suggested that macronutrients may modify these effects. However, to our knowledge, this has yet to be verified in long-term interventions. In a long-term intervention setting, we investigated the ...
Tuan Nguyen T - - 2012
Associations between demographic-socioeconomic characteristics and childhood obesity are complex in the United States. We examined associations between demographic-socioeconomic characteristics (age, sex, race-ethnicity, family income, household size, and birthplace) and adiposity measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in US children. Data were from 8-19-y-old US children enrolled in NHANES 2001-2004 (n = ...
Fahy Jacques - - 2012
DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that modulates gene expression without altering the DNA base sequence. It plays a crucial role in cancer by silencing tumor suppressor genes (TSG). The DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) are the enzymes that catalyze DNA methylation and they are interesting therapeutical targets since DNA methylation is ...
Herman Sean B - - 2012
Velo-cardio-facial syndrome/DiGeorge syndrome, also known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is the most common microdeletion syndrome, with an estimated incidence of 1/2,000-1/4,000 live births. Approximately 9-11% of patients with this disorder have an overt cleft palate (CP), but the genetic factors responsible for CP in the 22q11DS subset are unknown. ...
Yi Huanfa - - 2012
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) have been a focus of recent study on tumor-mediated immune suppression. However, its role in Th17 cell differentiation and the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases (e.g., multiple sclerosis) has not been determined. We show in this study that development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice is ...
Hursting Stephen D - - 2012
Obesity is associated with increased risk and poor prognosis for many types of cancer. The mechanisms underlying the obesity-cancer link are becoming increasingly clear and provide multiple opportunities for primary to tertiary prevention. Several obesity-related host factors can influence tumor initiation, progression and/or response to therapy, and these have been ...
Foreman Brandon - - 2012
Generalized periodic discharges are increasingly recognized on continuous EEG monitoring, but their relationship to seizures and prognosis remains unclear. All adults with generalized periodic discharges from 1996 to 2006 were matched 1:1 to controls by age, etiology, and level of consciousness. Overall, 200 patients with generalized periodic discharges were matched ...
Diochot Sylvie - - 2012
Polypeptide toxins have played a central part in understanding physiological and physiopathological functions of ion channels. In the field of pain, they led to important advances in basic research and even to clinical applications. Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are generally considered principal players in the pain pathway, including in humans. ...
Peña Alejandro A Departamento de Biología Molecular, Universidad de Cantabria, and Instituto de Biomedicina y Biotecnología de Cantabria (IBBTEC), UC-CSIC-SODERCAN, Santander, - - 2012
VirB4 proteins are ATPases essential for pilus biogenesis and protein transport in type IV secretion systems. These proteins contain a motor domain that shares structural similarities with the motor domains of DNA translocases, such as the VirD4/TrwB conjugative coupling proteins and the chromosome segregation pump FtsK. Here, we report the ...
Xu Miao M National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, - - 2012
Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) and Wolman disease are two members of a family of storage disorders caused by mutations of genes encoding lysosomal proteins. Deficiency in function of either the NPC1 or NPC2 protein in NPC disease or lysosomal acid lipase in Wolman disease results in defective cellular cholesterol ...
Mailloux Ryan J RJ Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology, and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1H - - 2012
The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in glucose-stimulated insulin release remains controversial because ROS have been shown to both amplify and impede insulin release. In regard to preventing insulin release, ROS activates uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2), a mitochondrial inner membrane protein that negatively regulates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) by uncoupling ...
Haining Elizabeth J EJ School of Biosciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United - - 2012
A disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10) is a ubiquitous transmembrane metalloprotease that cleaves the extracellular regions from over 40 different transmembrane target proteins, including Notch and amyloid precursor protein. ADAM10 is essential for embryonic development and is also important in inflammation, cancer, and Alzheimer disease. However, ADAM10 regulation remains poorly ...
Liu Yingying Y Key Laboratory of Cell Proliferation and Differentiation of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100191, - - 2012
Tau is a major member of the neuronal microtubule-associated proteins. It promotes tubulin assembly and stabilizes axonal microtubules. Previous studies have demonstrated that Tau forms cross-bridges between microtubules, with some particles located on cross-bridges, suggesting that some proteins interact with Tau and might be involved in regulating Tau-related microtubule dynamics. ...
Zhang Qian Q Program in Emerging Infectious Diseases, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, KTP Building, 8 College Road, Singapore - - 2012
Dengue virus surface proteins, envelope (E) and pre-membrane (prM), undergo rearrangement during the maturation process at acidic condition. prM-stem region binds tighter to both E protein and lipid membrane when environment becomes acidic. At acidic condition, E proteins are attracted to the membrane-associated prM-stem. prM-stem region induces virus structural changes ...
Matsubara Tsutomu T Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, - - 2012
Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) is activated as a result of liver injury, such as cholestasis. However, its influence on endogenous metabolism is not known. This study demonstrated that TGFβ regulates hepatic phospholipid and bile acid homeostasis through MAD homolog 3 (SMAD3) activation as revealed by lithocholic acid-induced experimental intrahepatic cholestasis. ...
Jones Brian W BW Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, - - 2012
Protein kinase A (PKA) is activated during sympathetic stimulation of the heart and phosphorylates key proteins involved in cardiac Ca(2+) handling, including the L-type Ca(2+) channel (Ca(V)1.2) and phospholamban (PLN). This results in acceleration and amplification of the beat-to-beat changes in cytosolic Ca(2+) in cardiomyocytes and, in turn, an increased ...
Hiremath Minoti M Department of Biological Sciences, Boise State University, Boise, ID 83725, - - 2012
Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) regulates cell fate and specifies the mammary mesenchyme during embryonic development. Loss of PTHrP or its receptor (Pthr1) abolishes the expression of mammary mesenchyme markers and allows mammary bud cells to revert to an epidermal fate. By contrast, overexpression of PTHrP in basal keratinocytes induces inappropriate ...
Krogan Naden T NT Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, - - 2012
The development and coordination of complex tissues in eukaryotes requires precise spatial control of fate-specifying genes. Although investigations of such control have traditionally focused on mechanisms of transcriptional activation, transcriptional repression has emerged as being equally important in the establishment of gene expression territories. In the angiosperm flower, specification of ...
Cunningham Melissa D MD Program in Genomics of Differentiation, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, - - 2012
Wapl protein regulates binding of the cohesin complex to chromosomes during interphase and helps remove cohesin from chromosomes at mitosis. We isolated a dominant mutation in wapl (wapl(AG)) in a screen for mutations that counteract silencing mediated by an engrailed Polycomb-group response element. wapl(AG) hemizygotes die as pharate adults and ...
Pope Michael R MR Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, - - 2012
Intestinal ischemic events, which are followed by reperfusion, induce significant tissue damage and frequently result in multiple organ failure, with >70% mortality. Upon reperfusion, excessive inflammation leads to exacerbated tissue damage. Previous studies indicated that binding of the serum protein, β2-glycoprotein I, to the endothelium initiates a cascade of inflammatory ...
Suisman Jessica L JL Department of Psychology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, - - 2012
Current research on the etiology of thin-ideal internalization focuses on psychosocial influences (e.g., media exposure). The possibility that genetic influences also account for variance in thin-ideal internalization has never been directly examined. This study used a twin design to estimate genetic effects on thin-ideal internalization and examine if environmental influences ...
Lanaspa Miguel A MA Division of Renal Diseases and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado, Denver, CO 80045, USA. - - 2012
Uric acid is an independent risk factor in fructose-induced fatty liver, but whether it is a marker or a cause remains unknown. Hepatocytes exposed to uric acid developed mitochondrial dysfunction and increased de novo lipogenesis, and its blockade prevented fructose-induced lipogenesis. Rather than a consequence, uric acid induces fatty liver ...
San Martin Loreto L Department of Physiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Concepcion, 403901 Concepcion, - - 2012
Gβγ interaction with GlyR is an important determinant in ethanol potentiation of this channel. A small peptide, RQH(C7), can inhibit ethanol potentiation of GlyR currents. Results with RQH(C7) indicate that ethanol mediated potentiation of GlyR is in part by Gβγ activation. Molecular interaction between Gβγ and GlyR could be used ...
Suntharalingam Amirthaa A Department of Molecular Medicine and Byrd Alzheimer's Research Institute, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33613, - - 2012
Mutant myocilin accumulates in the endoplasmic reticulum for unknown reasons. Glucose-regulated protein (Grp) 94 depletion reduces mutant myocilin by engaging autophagy. Grp94 triages mutant myocilin through ER-associated degradation, subverting autophagy. Treating glaucoma could be possible by inhibiting Grp94 and reducing its novel client, mutant myocilin. Clearance of misfolded proteins in ...
Taniguchi Makoto M Division of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, 86 Nishi-Machi, Yonago 683-8503, - - 2012
The role of "sphingolipid rheostat" by ceramide and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) in the regulation of autophagy remains unclear. In human leukemia HL-60 cells, amino acid deprivation (AA(-)) caused autophagy with an increase in acid sphingomyleinase (SMase) activity and ceramide, which serves as an autophagy inducing lipid. Knockdown of acid SMase ...
Seddik Riad R Department of Biomedicine, University of Basel, 4056 Basel, - - 2012
GABA(B) receptors assemble from principle and auxiliary subunits. The principle subunits GABA(B1) and GABA(B2) form functional heteromeric GABA(B(1,2)) receptors that associate with homotetramers of auxiliary KCTD8, -12, -12b, or -16 (named after their K(+) channel tetramerization domain) subunits. These auxiliary subunits constitute receptor subtypes with distinct functional properties. KCTD12 and ...
Yu Shaoning S Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Galveston, Texas 77555-1055, - - 2012
Transduction of biological signals at the molecular level involves the activation and/or inhibition of allosteric proteins. In the transcription factor cAMP receptor protein (CRP) from Escherichia coli, the allosteric activation, or apo-holo transition, involves rigid body motions of domains and structural rearrangements within the hinge region connecting the cAMP- and ...
Wang Xiwei X Anhui Key Laboratory for Cellular Dynamics and University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027, - - 2012
Chromosome segregation in mitosis is orchestrated by the dynamic interactions between the kinetochore and spindle microtubules. Our recent study shows that mitotic motor CENP-E cooperates with SKAP to orchestrate an accurate chromosome movement in mitosis. However, it remains elusive how kinetochore core microtubule binding activity KMN (KNL1-MIS12-NDC80) regulates microtubule plus-end ...
Crooks Daniel R DR Department of Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057, - - 2012
ISCU myopathy is a disease caused by muscle-specific deficiency of the Fe-S cluster scaffold protein ISCU. MyoD expression enhanced ISCU mRNA mis-splicing, and oxidative stress exacerbated ISCU depletion in patient cells. ISCU protein deficiency in patients results from muscle-specific mis-splicing as well as oxidative stress. Oxidative stress negatively influences the ...
Burbrink Frank T FT Department of Biology, The College of Staten Island, The City University of New York, 2800 Victory Boulevard, Staten Island, NY 10314, USA. - - 2012
Adaptive radiation (AR) theory predicts that groups sharing the same source of ecological opportunity (EO) will experience deterministic species diversification and morphological evolution. Thus, deterministic ecological and morphological evolution should be correlated with deterministic patterns in the tempo and mode of speciation for groups in similar habitats and time periods. ...
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