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Goncharova Elena A - - 2012
Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare genetic disease characterized by neoplastic growth of atypical smooth muscle-like LAM cells, destruction of lung parenchyma, obstruction of lymphatics, and formation of lung cysts, leading to spontaneous pneumothoraces (lung rupture and collapse) and progressive loss of pulmonary function. The disease is caused by mutational ...
Amatrudo Joseph M - - 2012
Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and high-resolution 3D morphometric analyses of layer 3 pyramidal neurons in in vitro slices of monkey primary visual cortex (V1) and dorsolateral granular prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) revealed that neurons in these two brain areas possess highly distinctive structural and functional properties. Area V1 pyramidal neurons are much ...
ten Dam Leroy - - 2012
To evaluate the reliability and accuracy of skeletal muscle CT to correctly identify different muscular dystrophies manifesting with limb-girdle weakness. Four evaluators assessed scans from 118 patients with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) caused by mutations in 7 different genes and from 32 controls. The conditions studied were scans of genetically ...
Xing Dajun - - 2012
Oscillatory neural activity within the gamma band (25-90 Hz) is generally thought to be able to provide a timing signal for harmonizing neural computations across different brain regions. Using time-frequency analyses of the dynamics of gamma-band activity in the local field potentials recorded from monkey primary visual cortex, we found ...
Lokugamage Nandadeva - - 2012
Rift Valley fever virus strain MP-12 was generated by serial plaque passages of parental strain ZH548 12 times in MRC-5 cells in the presence of a chemical mutagen, 5-fluorouracil. As a result, MP-12 encoded 4, 9, and 10 mutations in the S, M, and L segments, respectively. Among them, mutations ...
Hellman Kevin M - - 2012
In anesthetized rats, opioid analgesia is accompanied by a specific pattern of tonic activity in two neuronal populations within the medullary raphe magnus (RM): opioids silence pain-facilitatory ON cells and produce sustained discharge in pain-inhibitory OFF cells. These tonic activity patterns, hypothesized to generate a tonic analgesic state, have not ...
Tarquinio Daniel Charles - - 2012
Prominent growth failure typifies Rett syndrome (RTT). Our aims were to 1) develop RTT growth charts for clinical and research settings, 2) compare growth in children with RTT with that of unaffected children, and 3) compare growth patterns among RTT genotypes and phenotypes. A cohort of the RTT Rare Diseases ...
Luo Yanping - - 2012
In order to obtain a better molecular understanding of recurrent urinary tract infection (RUTI), we collected 75 cases with repeatedly occurring uncomplicated UTI. The genetic relationships among uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) isolates were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. While 39 (52%) of the RUTI cases were defined as "persistence" of ...
Barry Jeremy M - - 2012
It is widely held that spatial computations in the rodent hippocampus require the location-specific discharge of place cells that together form a stable cognitive map used to solve and perform spatial tasks. It is not known, however, if map stability requires persistent hippocampal synaptic strength changes that are vulnerable to ...
Leung Cindy W - - 2012
The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) aims to alleviate hunger among its beneficiaries by providing benefits to purchase nutritious foods. We conducted a comprehensive dietary analysis of low-income adults and examined differences in dietary intake between SNAP participants and nonparticipants. The study population comprised 3835 nonelderly adults with a household ...
Bozó Éva - - 2012
Due to the role of bradykinin B1 receptor (B1R) in pain and inflammation, B1R antagonists have been suggested as promising drug candidates in chronic pain states. The first disclosed B1R antagonists were peptidomimetics, however, during the last few years, novel chemotypes with improved pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties have been identified. ...
Mattei Josiemer - - 2012
TCF7L2 gene variants have been associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and higher adiposity. Observational studies and short-term trials have suggested that macronutrients may modify these effects. However, to our knowledge, this has yet to be verified in long-term interventions. In a long-term intervention setting, we investigated the ...
Tuan Nguyen T - - 2012
Associations between demographic-socioeconomic characteristics and childhood obesity are complex in the United States. We examined associations between demographic-socioeconomic characteristics (age, sex, race-ethnicity, family income, household size, and birthplace) and adiposity measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in US children. Data were from 8-19-y-old US children enrolled in NHANES 2001-2004 (n = ...
Fahy Jacques - - 2012
DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that modulates gene expression without altering the DNA base sequence. It plays a crucial role in cancer by silencing tumor suppressor genes (TSG). The DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) are the enzymes that catalyze DNA methylation and they are interesting therapeutical targets since DNA methylation is ...
Herman Sean B - - 2012
Velo-cardio-facial syndrome/DiGeorge syndrome, also known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is the most common microdeletion syndrome, with an estimated incidence of 1/2,000-1/4,000 live births. Approximately 9-11% of patients with this disorder have an overt cleft palate (CP), but the genetic factors responsible for CP in the 22q11DS subset are unknown. ...
Yi Huanfa - - 2012
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) have been a focus of recent study on tumor-mediated immune suppression. However, its role in Th17 cell differentiation and the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases (e.g., multiple sclerosis) has not been determined. We show in this study that development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice is ...
Hursting Stephen D - - 2012
Obesity is associated with increased risk and poor prognosis for many types of cancer. The mechanisms underlying the obesity-cancer link are becoming increasingly clear and provide multiple opportunities for primary to tertiary prevention. Several obesity-related host factors can influence tumor initiation, progression and/or response to therapy, and these have been ...
Foreman Brandon - - 2012
Generalized periodic discharges are increasingly recognized on continuous EEG monitoring, but their relationship to seizures and prognosis remains unclear. All adults with generalized periodic discharges from 1996 to 2006 were matched 1:1 to controls by age, etiology, and level of consciousness. Overall, 200 patients with generalized periodic discharges were matched ...
Diochot Sylvie - - 2012
Polypeptide toxins have played a central part in understanding physiological and physiopathological functions of ion channels. In the field of pain, they led to important advances in basic research and even to clinical applications. Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are generally considered principal players in the pain pathway, including in humans. ...
Peña Alejandro A Departamento de Biología Molecular, Universidad de Cantabria, and Instituto de Biomedicina y Biotecnología de Cantabria (IBBTEC), UC-CSIC-SODERCAN, Santander, - - 2012
VirB4 proteins are ATPases essential for pilus biogenesis and protein transport in type IV secretion systems. These proteins contain a motor domain that shares structural similarities with the motor domains of DNA translocases, such as the VirD4/TrwB conjugative coupling proteins and the chromosome segregation pump FtsK. Here, we report the ...
Xu Miao M National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, - - 2012
Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) and Wolman disease are two members of a family of storage disorders caused by mutations of genes encoding lysosomal proteins. Deficiency in function of either the NPC1 or NPC2 protein in NPC disease or lysosomal acid lipase in Wolman disease results in defective cellular cholesterol ...
Mailloux Ryan J RJ Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology, and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1H - - 2012
The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in glucose-stimulated insulin release remains controversial because ROS have been shown to both amplify and impede insulin release. In regard to preventing insulin release, ROS activates uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2), a mitochondrial inner membrane protein that negatively regulates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) by uncoupling ...
Haining Elizabeth J EJ School of Biosciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United - - 2012
A disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10) is a ubiquitous transmembrane metalloprotease that cleaves the extracellular regions from over 40 different transmembrane target proteins, including Notch and amyloid precursor protein. ADAM10 is essential for embryonic development and is also important in inflammation, cancer, and Alzheimer disease. However, ADAM10 regulation remains poorly ...
Liu Yingying Y Key Laboratory of Cell Proliferation and Differentiation of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100191, - - 2012
Tau is a major member of the neuronal microtubule-associated proteins. It promotes tubulin assembly and stabilizes axonal microtubules. Previous studies have demonstrated that Tau forms cross-bridges between microtubules, with some particles located on cross-bridges, suggesting that some proteins interact with Tau and might be involved in regulating Tau-related microtubule dynamics. ...
Zhang Qian Q Program in Emerging Infectious Diseases, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, KTP Building, 8 College Road, Singapore - - 2012
Dengue virus surface proteins, envelope (E) and pre-membrane (prM), undergo rearrangement during the maturation process at acidic condition. prM-stem region binds tighter to both E protein and lipid membrane when environment becomes acidic. At acidic condition, E proteins are attracted to the membrane-associated prM-stem. prM-stem region induces virus structural changes ...
Matsubara Tsutomu T Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, - - 2012
Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) is activated as a result of liver injury, such as cholestasis. However, its influence on endogenous metabolism is not known. This study demonstrated that TGFβ regulates hepatic phospholipid and bile acid homeostasis through MAD homolog 3 (SMAD3) activation as revealed by lithocholic acid-induced experimental intrahepatic cholestasis. ...
Jones Brian W BW Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, - - 2012
Protein kinase A (PKA) is activated during sympathetic stimulation of the heart and phosphorylates key proteins involved in cardiac Ca(2+) handling, including the L-type Ca(2+) channel (Ca(V)1.2) and phospholamban (PLN). This results in acceleration and amplification of the beat-to-beat changes in cytosolic Ca(2+) in cardiomyocytes and, in turn, an increased ...
Krogan Naden T NT Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, - - 2012
The development and coordination of complex tissues in eukaryotes requires precise spatial control of fate-specifying genes. Although investigations of such control have traditionally focused on mechanisms of transcriptional activation, transcriptional repression has emerged as being equally important in the establishment of gene expression territories. In the angiosperm flower, specification of ...
Cunningham Melissa D MD Program in Genomics of Differentiation, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, - - 2012
Wapl protein regulates binding of the cohesin complex to chromosomes during interphase and helps remove cohesin from chromosomes at mitosis. We isolated a dominant mutation in wapl (wapl(AG)) in a screen for mutations that counteract silencing mediated by an engrailed Polycomb-group response element. wapl(AG) hemizygotes die as pharate adults and ...
Pope Michael R MR Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, - - 2012
Intestinal ischemic events, which are followed by reperfusion, induce significant tissue damage and frequently result in multiple organ failure, with >70% mortality. Upon reperfusion, excessive inflammation leads to exacerbated tissue damage. Previous studies indicated that binding of the serum protein, β2-glycoprotein I, to the endothelium initiates a cascade of inflammatory ...
Suisman Jessica L JL Department of Psychology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, - - 2012
Current research on the etiology of thin-ideal internalization focuses on psychosocial influences (e.g., media exposure). The possibility that genetic influences also account for variance in thin-ideal internalization has never been directly examined. This study used a twin design to estimate genetic effects on thin-ideal internalization and examine if environmental influences ...
Lanaspa Miguel A MA Division of Renal Diseases and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado, Denver, CO 80045, USA. - - 2012
Uric acid is an independent risk factor in fructose-induced fatty liver, but whether it is a marker or a cause remains unknown. Hepatocytes exposed to uric acid developed mitochondrial dysfunction and increased de novo lipogenesis, and its blockade prevented fructose-induced lipogenesis. Rather than a consequence, uric acid induces fatty liver ...
San Martin Loreto L Department of Physiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Concepcion, 403901 Concepcion, - - 2012
Gβγ interaction with GlyR is an important determinant in ethanol potentiation of this channel. A small peptide, RQH(C7), can inhibit ethanol potentiation of GlyR currents. Results with RQH(C7) indicate that ethanol mediated potentiation of GlyR is in part by Gβγ activation. Molecular interaction between Gβγ and GlyR could be used ...
Suntharalingam Amirthaa A Department of Molecular Medicine and Byrd Alzheimer's Research Institute, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33613, - - 2012
Mutant myocilin accumulates in the endoplasmic reticulum for unknown reasons. Glucose-regulated protein (Grp) 94 depletion reduces mutant myocilin by engaging autophagy. Grp94 triages mutant myocilin through ER-associated degradation, subverting autophagy. Treating glaucoma could be possible by inhibiting Grp94 and reducing its novel client, mutant myocilin. Clearance of misfolded proteins in ...
Taniguchi Makoto M Division of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, 86 Nishi-Machi, Yonago 683-8503, - - 2012
The role of "sphingolipid rheostat" by ceramide and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) in the regulation of autophagy remains unclear. In human leukemia HL-60 cells, amino acid deprivation (AA(-)) caused autophagy with an increase in acid sphingomyleinase (SMase) activity and ceramide, which serves as an autophagy inducing lipid. Knockdown of acid SMase ...
Seddik Riad R Department of Biomedicine, University of Basel, 4056 Basel, - - 2012
GABA(B) receptors assemble from principle and auxiliary subunits. The principle subunits GABA(B1) and GABA(B2) form functional heteromeric GABA(B(1,2)) receptors that associate with homotetramers of auxiliary KCTD8, -12, -12b, or -16 (named after their K(+) channel tetramerization domain) subunits. These auxiliary subunits constitute receptor subtypes with distinct functional properties. KCTD12 and ...
Yu Shaoning S Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Galveston, Texas 77555-1055, - - 2012
Transduction of biological signals at the molecular level involves the activation and/or inhibition of allosteric proteins. In the transcription factor cAMP receptor protein (CRP) from Escherichia coli, the allosteric activation, or apo-holo transition, involves rigid body motions of domains and structural rearrangements within the hinge region connecting the cAMP- and ...
Crooks Daniel R DR Department of Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057, - - 2012
ISCU myopathy is a disease caused by muscle-specific deficiency of the Fe-S cluster scaffold protein ISCU. MyoD expression enhanced ISCU mRNA mis-splicing, and oxidative stress exacerbated ISCU depletion in patient cells. ISCU protein deficiency in patients results from muscle-specific mis-splicing as well as oxidative stress. Oxidative stress negatively influences the ...
Burbrink Frank T FT Department of Biology, The College of Staten Island, The City University of New York, 2800 Victory Boulevard, Staten Island, NY 10314, USA. - - 2012
Adaptive radiation (AR) theory predicts that groups sharing the same source of ecological opportunity (EO) will experience deterministic species diversification and morphological evolution. Thus, deterministic ecological and morphological evolution should be correlated with deterministic patterns in the tempo and mode of speciation for groups in similar habitats and time periods. ...
Albrecht Matthias M Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland. - - 2012
Understanding the functional consequences of biodiversity loss is a major goal of ecology. Animal-mediated pollination is an essential ecosystem function and service provided to mankind. However, little is known how pollinator diversity could affect pollination services. Using a substitutive design, we experimentally manipulated functional group (FG) and species richness of ...
Knörnschild Mirjam M Institute of Experimental Ecology, University of Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89069 Ulm, Germany. - - 2012
Bat echolocation is primarily used for orientation and foraging but also holds great potential for social communication. The communicative function of echolocation calls is still largely unstudied, especially in the wild. Eavesdropping on vocal signatures encoding social information in echolocation calls has not, to our knowledge, been studied in free-living ...
Copeland Emily K EK Department of Biology, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2368, - - 2012
In recent years, studies have shown that reproductive effort decelerates in response to pathogenic infection. If infection substantially reduces a host's residual reproductive value (RRV), however, then an acceleration of effort may instead occur (e.g. terminal investment). Reproductive acceleration would theoretically allow hosts to maintain or exaggerate their sexual signal ...
Stearns Stephen C SC Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8102, USA. - - 2012
Because autosomal genes in sexually reproducing organisms spend on average half their time in each sex, and because the traits that they influence encounter different selection pressures in males and females, the evolutionary responses of one sex are constrained by processes occurring in the other sex. Although intralocus sexual conflict ...
Veijalainen Anu A Department of Biology, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland. - - 2012
The megadiverse parasitoid wasp family Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) is classically considered an exception to the extensively studied latitudinal diversity gradient: the majority of ichneumonid species are described from temperate regions. The gradient has been hypothesized to be dependent on the biology of the wasps, but recently questions of sampling and description ...
Engel Isaac I La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, La Jolla, CA 92037, - - 2012
The majority of mouse Vα14 invariant natural killer T (Vα14i NKT) cells produce several cytokines, including IFNγ and IL-4, very rapidly after activation. A subset of these cells, known as NKT17 cells, however, differentiates in the thymus to preferentially produce IL-17. Here, we show that the transcription factor-known as T ...
Lapalombella Rosa R Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, - - 2012
The nuclear export protein XPO1 is overexpressed in cancer, leading to the cytoplasmic mislocalization of multiple tumor suppressor proteins. Existing XPO1-targeting agents lack selectivity and have been associated with significant toxicity. Small molecule selective inhibitors of nuclear export (SINEs) were designed that specifically inhibit XPO1. Genetic experiments and X-ray structures ...
Antrobus Shane P SP Dept. of Physiology and Membrane Biology, School of Medicine, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616, - - 2012
Using antibodies prepared against a unique region (exon 22-24) of rat K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter-2 (KCC2), we confirmed that the ~140-kDa KCC2 protein is exclusively expressed in rat brain, but in chicken, we observed strong reactivity not only with the ~140-kDa KCC2 protein in brain but also a slightly larger ~145-kDa protein ...
Brands Michael W MW Dept. of Physiology, Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Health Sciences Univ., Augusta, GA 30912, USA. - - 2012
Insulin has long been hypothesized to cause sodium retention, potentially of enough magnitude to contribute to hypertension in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and Type II diabetes. There is an abundance of supportive evidence from correlational analyses in humans, acute insulin infusion studies in humans and animals, and chronic insulin infusion studies ...
Raikwar Nandita S NS Dept. of Internal Medicine, Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, - - 2012
Sgk1 is a relatively unstable kinase that regulates epithelial Na(+) transport in the distal nephron of the kidney. We identified a 5' variant alternate transcript of human Sgk1 (Sgk1_v3) that is expressed in the connecting tubule and collecting duct, is regulated by aldosterone and insulin, and is predicted to encode ...
Armenian Saro H SH Department of Population Sciences, City of Hope, 1500 E. Duarte Rd, Duarte, CA 91010-3000, USA. - - 2012
Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients may be at an increased risk of developing hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia (referred to as cardiovascular risk factors [CVRFs]); and these factors can potentially increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We examined the incidence and predictors of CVRFs and subsequent CVD in 1885 consecutive ...
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