Search Results
Results 601 - 650 of 1352
< 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 >
Lokugamage Kumari G - - 2012
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus nonstructural protein 1 (nsp1) binds to the 40S ribosomal subunit and inhibits translation, and it also induces a template-dependent endonucleolytic cleavage of host mRNAs. nsp1 inhibits the translation of cap-dependent and internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-driven mRNAs, including SARS coronavirus mRNAs, hepatitis C virus ...
Wei Li - - 2012
Virus infection activates host cellular signaling pathways, including the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway, which regulates diverse cellular activities related to cell growth, survival, and apoptosis. The present study demonstrated for the first time that porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), a major causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, which is ...
Bose Sandip K - - 2012
Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-mediated liver disease progression may reflect distinct molecular mechanisms for increased hepatocyte growth and hepatic stellate cell activation. In this study, we have observed that primary human hepatocytes, when infected in vitro with cell culture-grown HCV genotype 1a or 2a, display viral RNA and protein expression. Infected ...
Rybniker Jan - - 2012
Genetic modification of adeno-associated virus (AAV) capsids has previously been exploited to redirect viral tropism. Here we demonstrate that engineering of AAV capsids as scaffolds for antigen display augments antigen-specific immunogenicity. Combining antigen display with vector-mediated overexpression resulted in a single-shot prime-boost vaccine. This new class of vaccines induced immune ...
Feng Guozhong - - 2012
Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) DNA polymerase (DNApol) is essential for viral DNA replication. AcMNPV mutants resistant to aphidicolin, a selective inhibitor of viral DNA replication, and abacavir, an efficacious nucleoside analogue with inhibitory activity against reverse transcriptase, were selected by the serial passage of the parental AcMNPV in the ...
Perez Jasmine T - - 2012
Influenza A virus (IAV) is an unremitting virus that results in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Key to the viral life cycle is the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), a heterotrimeric complex responsible for both transcription and replication of the segmented genome. Here, we demonstrate that the viral polymerase utilizes a ...
Chu Daniel K W - - 2012
Using a pan-astrovirus reverse transcription-PCR assay, a great diversity of novel avastroviruses was detected from wild bird and poultry samples. Two groups of astroviruses detected from wild birds are genetically related or highly similar to previously known viruses in poultry. Most interestingly, a novel group of astroviruses was detected in ...
Yu Xing - - 2012
The rotavirus spike protein domain VP8* is essential for recognition of cell surface carbohydrate receptors, notably those incorporating N-acylneuraminic acids (members of the sialic acid family). N-Acetylneuraminic acids occur naturally in both animals and humans, whereas N-glycolylneuraminic acids are acquired only through dietary uptake in normal human tissues. The preference ...
Laverdure Sylvain - - 2012
In this study, an antisense luciferase-expressing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) molecular clone was used to infect primary cells. We found that antisense transcription activity from the 3' long terminal repeat (LTR) was significantly more abundant in monocyte-derived cells than in activated T lymphocytes. Moreover, by analyzing antisense transcription ...
Kato Sayuri E - - 2012
To investigate further the contribution of the adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) E1B 55-kDa protein to genome replication, viral DNA accumulation was examined in primary human fibroblasts and epithelial cells infected with Ad5 or the E1B 55-kDa-null mutant Hr6. Unexpectedly, all cell types were observed to contain a significantly higher concentration ...
Mitchell Jonathan K - - 2012
The baculovirus Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) initiates apoptosis in diverse insects through events triggered by virus DNA (vDNA) replication. To define the proapoptotic pathway and its role in antivirus defense, we investigated the link between the host's DNA damage response (DDR) and apoptosis. We report here that AcMNPV elicits ...
Ihalainen Teemu O - - 2012
Canine parvovirus (CPV) infection leads to reorganization of nuclear proteinaceous subcompartments. Our studies showed that virus infection causes a time-dependent increase in the amount of viral nonstructural protein NS1 mRNA. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching showed that the recovery kinetics of nuclear transcription-associated proteins, TATA binding protein (TBP), transcription factor IIB ...
Dang Que - - 2012
Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of macaques can result in central nervous system disorders, such as meningitis and encephalitis. We studied 10 animals inoculated with brain-derived virus from animals with SIV encephalitis. Over half of the macaques developed SIV-induced neurologic disease. Elevated levels of systemic immune activation were observed to ...
de Boer S M - - 2012
The entry of the enveloped Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) into its host cell is mediated by the viral glycoproteins Gn and Gc. We investigated the RVFV entry process and, in particular, its pH-dependent activation mechanism using our recently developed nonspreading-RVFV-particle system. Entry of the virus into the host cell ...
Snyder Anthony J - - 2012
The 80 trimeric, glycoprotein spikes that cover the surface of alphavirus particles are required for mediating viral entry into a host cell. Spike assembly is a regulated process that requires interactions between five structural proteins, E3, E2, 6K and its translational frameshift product TF, and E1. E3 is a small, ...
Szafranski Przemyslaw - - 2013
An unanticipated and tremendous amount of the noncoding sequence of the human genome is transcribed. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) constitute a significant fraction of non-protein-coding transcripts; however, their functions remain enigmatic. We demonstrate that deletions of a small noncoding differentially methylated region at 16q24.1, including lncRNA genes, cause a lethal ...
Meunier Julien - - 2013
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are major post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, yet their origins and functional evolution in mammals remain little understood due to the lack of appropriate comparative data. Using RNA sequencing, we have generated extensive and comparable miRNA data for five organs in six species that represent all main mammalian ...
Carr B Veronica - - 2013
We have performed a series of studies to investigate the role of CD4(+) T-cells in the immune response to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) post-vaccination. Virus neutralizing antibody titres (VNT) in cattle vaccinated with killed FMD commercial vaccine were significantly reduced and class switching delayed as a consequence of rigorous in ...
Juleff Nicholas - - 2013
Analysis of full-genome sequences was previously used to trace the origin and transmission pathways of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) outbreaks in the UK in 2001 and 2007. Interpretation of these data was sometimes at variance with conventional epidemiological tracing, and was also used to predict the presence of undisclosed infected ...
Farley Brian M - - 2012
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) coordinate cell fate specification and differentiation in a variety of systems. RNA regulation is critical during oocyte development and early embryogenesis, in which RBPs control expression from maternal mRNAs encoding key cell fate determinants. The Caenorhabditis elegans Notch homologue glp-1 coordinates germline progenitor cell proliferation and anterior ...
Holec-Gasior Lucyna - - 2012
This study describes a Toxoplasma gondii IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on a new chimeric antigen containing three immunodominant regions from the MIC1, MAG1, and SAG1 proteins of the parasite and shows that this test is useful for diagnostic purposes and may replace the lysed and whole-cell antigens.
Alonso Annabel - - 2012
Microtubules and microtubule-associated proteins are fundamental for multiple cellular processes, including mitosis and intracellular motility, but the factors that control microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) are poorly understood. Here we show that two MAPs-the CLIP-170 homologue Bik1p and the Lis1 homologue Pac1p-interact with several proteins in the sumoylation pathway. Bik1p and Pac1p ...
Li Zengpeng - - 2012
The ARF tumor suppressor is a product of the INK4a/ARF locus, which is frequently mutated in human cancer. The expression of ARF is up-regulated in response to certain types of DNA damage, oncogene activation, and interferon stimuli. Through interaction with the p53 negative regulator MDM2, ARF controls a well-described p53/MDM2-dependent ...
Ohno Yusuke - - 2012
Palmitoylation plays important roles in the regulation of protein localization, stability, and activity. The protein acyltransferases (PATs) have a common DHHC Cys-rich domain. Twenty-three DHHC proteins have been identified in humans. However, it is unclear whether all of these DHHC proteins function as PATs. In addition, their substrate specificities remain ...
Koizumi Kazuhisa - - 2012
The small GTPase RhoD regulates actin cytoskeleton to collapse actin stress fibers and focal adhesions, resulting in suppression of cell migration and cytokinesis. It also induces alignment of early endosomes along actin filaments and reduces their motility. We show here that a constitutively activated RhoD generated two types of actin-containing ...
Lawson David W - - 2012
Evolutionary models of human reproduction argue that variation in fertility can be understood as the local optimization of a life-history trade-off between offspring quantity and 'quality'. Child survival is a fundamental dimension of quality in these models as early-life mortality represents a crucial selective bottleneck in human evolution. This perspective ...
Patel D - - 2012
Estimating another person's subjective confidence is crucial for social interaction, but how this inference is achieved is unknown. Previous research has demonstrated that the speed at which people make decisions is correlated with their confidence in their decision. Here, we show that (i) subjects are able to infer the subjective ...
Spurny Radovan - - 2012
GABA(A) receptors are pentameric ligand-gated ion channels involved in fast inhibitory neurotransmission and are allosterically modulated by the anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, and sedative-hypnotic benzodiazepines. Here we show that the prokaryotic homolog ELIC also is activated by GABA and is modulated by benzodiazepines with effects comparable to those at GABA(A) receptors. Crystal ...
Hu Xiaobang - - 2012
Multiple mechanisms contribute to a photoreceptor's ability to adapt to ambient light conditions. The mosquito Aedes aegypti expresses the long-wavelength rhodopsin Aaop1 in all R1-R6 photoreceptors and most R8 photoreceptors. These photoreceptors alter the cellular location of Aaop1 and reorganize their photosensitive rhabdomeric membranes on a daily basis. During daylight ...
Ma Tao - - 2012
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an endogenous intestinal peptide that enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Its natural cleavage product GLP-1(9-36)(amide) possesses distinct properties and does not affect insulin secretion. Here we report that pretreatment of hippocampal slices with GLP-1(9-36)(amide) prevented impaired long-term potentiation (LTP) and enhanced long-term depression induced by exogenous amyloid ...
Rolfs Martin - - 2012
Humans and other animals with foveate vision make saccadic eye movements to prioritize the visual analysis of behaviorally relevant information. Even before movement onset, visual processing is selectively enhanced at the target of a saccade, presumably gated by brain areas controlling eye movements. Here we assess concurrent changes in visual ...
Zallocchi Marisa - - 2012
Usher syndrome is a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by hearing and balance dysfunction and progressive retinitis pigmentosa. Mouse models carrying mutations for the nine Usher-associated genes have splayed stereocilia, and some show delayed maturation of ribbon synapses suggesting these proteins may play different roles in terminal differentiation of auditory hair ...
Beffert Uwe - - 2012
Microtubule organization and dynamics are essential during axon and dendrite formation and maintenance in neurons. However, little is known about the regulation of microtubule dynamics during synaptic development and function in mammalian neurons. Here, we present evidence that the microtubule plus-end tracking protein CLASP2 (cytoplasmic linker associated protein 2) is ...
Wimmer Ralf D - - 2012
Sleep spindles are synchronized 11-15 Hz electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillations predominant during nonrapid-eye-movement sleep (NREMS). Rhythmic bursting in the reticular thalamic nucleus (nRt), arising from interplay between Ca(v)3.3-type Ca(2+) channels and Ca(2+)-dependent small-conductance-type 2 (SK2) K(+) channels, underlies spindle generation. Correlative evidence indicates that spindles contribute to memory consolidation and protection ...
Schecterson Leslayann C - - 2012
The chick embryo (Gallus domesticus) is one of the most important model systems in vertebrate developmental biology. The development and function of its auditory brainstem circuitry is exceptionally well studied. These circuits represent an excellent system for genetic manipulation to investigate mechanisms controlling neural circuit formation, synaptogenesis, neuronal polarity, and ...
Lin Shen - - 2012
Microtubules are nearly uniformly oriented in the axons of vertebrate neurons but are non-uniformly oriented in their dendrites. Studies to date suggest a scenario for establishing these microtubule patterns whereby microtubules are transported into the axon and nascent dendrites with plus-ends-leading, and then additional microtubules of the opposite orientation are ...
Yuthavong Yongyuth - - 2012
Malarial dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is the target of antifolate antimalarial drugs such as pyrimethamine and cycloguanil, the clinical efficacy of which have been compromised by resistance arising through mutations at various sites on the enzyme. Here, we describe the use of cocrystal structures with inhibitors and substrates, along with efficacy ...
Vogel Simon M - - 2012
The proteins MDM2 and MDM4 are key negative regulators of the tumor suppressor protein p53, which are frequently upregulated in cancer cells. They inhibit the transactivation activity of p53 by binding separately or in concert to its transactivation domain. MDM2 is also a ubiquitin ligase that leads to the degradation ...
Hoze Nathanael - - 2012
Simultaneous tracking of many thousands of individual particles in live cells is possible now with the advent of high-density superresolution imaging methods. We present an approach to extract local biophysical properties of cell-particle interaction from such newly acquired large collection of data. Because classical methods do not keep the spatial ...
Araya Carlos L - - 2012
The ability of a protein to carry out a given function results from fundamental physicochemical properties that include the protein's structure, mechanism of action, and thermodynamic stability. Traditional approaches to study these properties have typically required the direct measurement of the property of interest, oftentimes a laborious undertaking. Although protein ...
Sos Martin L - - 2012
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) accounts for about 15% of all lung cancers. The prognosis of SCLC patients is devastating and no biologically targeted therapeutics are active in this tumor type. To develop a framework for development of specific SCLC-targeted drugs we conducted a combined genomic and pharmacological vulnerability screen ...
Maestre-Reyna Manuel - - 2012
The human pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata harbors more than 20 surface-exposed, epithelial adhesins (Epas) for host cell adhesion. The Epa family recognizes host glycans and discriminates between target tissues by their adhesin (A) domains, but a detailed structural basis for ligand-binding specificity of Epa proteins has been lacking so far. ...
Brill Shlomo - - 2012
EmrE, a multidrug antiporter from Escherichia coli, has presented biochemists with unusual surprises. Here we describe the transformation of EmrE, a drug/H(+) antiporter to a polyamine importer by a single mutation. Antibiotic resistance in microorganisms may arise by mutations at certain chromosomal loci. To investigate this phenomenon, we used directed ...
Roby Yang A - - 2012
Zfp423/OAZ, a multi-zinc finger protein, is proposed to participate in neuronal differentiation through interactions with the Olf/EBF (O/E) family of transcription factors and mediate extrinsic BMP signaling pathways. These activities are associated with distinct domains of the Olf/EBF-associated zinc finger (OAZ) protein. Sustained OAZ expression arrests olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) ...
Fan Kai Y - - 2012
The symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) are related to changes in the frequency and pattern of activity in the reciprocally connected GABAergic external globus pallidus (GPe) and glutamatergic subthalamic nucleus (STN). In idiopathic and experimental PD, the GPe and STN exhibit hypoactivity and hyperactivity, respectively, and abnormal synchronous rhythmic burst ...
Miller Daniel L - - 2012
The Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a powerful system for the genetic and molecular analysis of neuronal excitability, synaptic transmission, and synaptic development. However, its use for studying age-dependent processes, such as maintenance of neuronal viability and synaptic stability, are temporally limited by the onset of pupariation and metamorphosis. ...
Kron Miriam - - 2012
Excitatory-inhibitory imbalance has been identified within specific brain microcircuits in models of Rett syndrome (RTT) and other autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). However, macrocircuit dysfunction across the RTT brain as a whole has not been defined. To approach this issue, we mapped expression of the activity-dependent, immediate-early gene product Fos in ...
Janssen Megan J - - 2012
The Neuregulin 1 (NRG1)/ErbB4 signaling pathway has been genetically and functionally implicated in the etiology underlying schizophrenia, and in the regulation of glutamatergic pyramidal neuron function and plasticity. However, ErbB4 receptors are expressed in subpopulations of GABAergic interneurons, but not in hippocampal or cortical pyramidal neurons, indicating that NRG1 effects ...
Jusuf Patricia R - - 2012
Within the developing vertebrate retina, particular subtypes of amacrine cells (ACs) tend to arise from progenitors expressing the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, Atoh7, which is necessary for the early generation of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). All ACs require the postmitotic expression of the bHLH pancreas transcription factor Ptf1a; however, ...
Chiu Gabriel S - - 2012
After hypoxia, a critical adverse outcome is the inability to create new memories. How anterograde amnesia develops or resolves remains elusive, but a link to brain-based IL-1 is suggested due to the vital role of IL-1 in both learning and brain injury. We examined memory formation in mice exposed to ...
< 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 >