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Norbury John W - - 2012
ABSTRACT: The available nuclear fragmentation data relevant to space radiation studies are reviewed. It is found that there are serious gaps in the data. Helium data are missing in the intervals 280 MeV n-3 GeV n and >15 GeV n. Carbon data are missing >15 GeV n. Iron projectile data ...
Kronenberg Amy - - 2012
ABSTRACT: The complex charged particle environments in space pose considerable challenges with regard to potential health consequences that can impact mission design and crew selection. The lack of knowledge of the biological effects of different ions in isolation and in combination is a particular concern because the risk uncertainties are ...
Story Michael - - 2012
ABSTRACT: The variability in radiosensitivity across the human population is governed in part by genetic factors. The ability to predict therapeutic response, identify individuals at greatest risk for adverse clinical responses after therapeutic radiation doses, or identify individuals at high risk for carcinogenesis from environmental or medical radiation exposures has ...
Peng Yuanlin - - 2012
ABSTRACT: Genetic variation in the capacity to repair radiation damage is an important factor influencing both cellular and tissue radiosensitivity variation among individuals as well as dose rate effects associated with such damage. This paper consists of two parts. The first part reviews some of the available data relating to ...
Pierce J Thomas - - 2012
Access "The Action Level"® Questions online at: http://www.acgih.org/products/joeh/alquestions.htm Access "The Action Level"® Answers online at: http://www.acgih.org/products/joeh/alanswers.htm Access "The Action Level"® Registration Form online at: https://www.acgih.org/products/joeh/alregfrm.htm "The Action Level,"® a self-study, continuing education program, provides a convenient and interesting opportunity for individuals to expand their knowledge in relevant areas of industrial ...
Brun J M - - 2012
Ducks (common, Muscovy and mule ducks) are the third most important bird species in animal production for human consumption worldwide. Our study aimed to improve the efficiency of mule duck breeding, thus contributing to the efficiency of food production in general. In the common duck, females can be bred either ...
Chew Few Ne - - 2012
An optimized cultivation condition is needed to maximize the functional green fluorescent protein (GFP) production. Six process variables (agitation rate, temperature, initial medium pH, concentration of inducer, time of induction, and inoculum density) were screened using the fractional factorial design. Three variables (agitation rate, temperature, and time of induction) exerted ...
Kahraman Mustafa - - 2012
NAD(+)-dependent formate dehydrogenase (FDH, EC 1.2.1.2) is of use in the regeneration of NAD(P)H coenzymes, and therefore has strong potential for practical application in chemical and medical industries. A low-cost production of recombinant Escherichia coli (E. coli) containing FDH from Candida methylica (cmFDH) was optimized in molasses-based medium by using ...
Durante Marco - - 2012
ABSTRACT: Heavy charged particles produce biological damage that is different from that normally produced by sparsely ionizing radiation, such as x- or gamma-rays, which are a large component of the natural radiation background. In fact, as a result of the different spatial distribution of the energy deposited along the core ...
Shrivastava Abhinav - - 2012
L-Asparaginase is an enzyme used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and other related malignancies. Its further use includes reduction of asparagine concentration in food products, which may lead to formation of acrylamide. Currently bacterial asparaginase is produced at industrial scale, but the enzyme isolated from bacterial origin is ...
Abraham Bisrat K - - 2012
Clinical trials of oral preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) have focused on regimens of tenofovir (TDF) with or without emtricitabine (FTC). However, TDF may be associated with toxicities (renal, bone), and FTC may select for drug resistance. Both are also first-line drugs for HIV treatment. In this review, we discuss agents that ...
Shafi Shahid - - 2012
Viability of trauma centers is threatened by cost of care provided to patients without health insurance. The health care reform of 2010 is likely to benefit trauma centers by mandating universal health insurance by 2014. However, the financial benefit of this mandate will depend on the reimbursement provided. The study ...
Gerrard Paul - - 2012
Age is an important prognostic indicator of outcomes following traumatic brain injuries. This study examines how outcomes for traumatic brain injuries in the acute care setting have changed during a recent 10-year period. Population-level data broken down by age group was obtained from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality ...
Kulvatunyou Narong - - 2012
For patients who present to the emergency department (ED) with symptomatic cholelithiasis, surgery is indicated only if they are diagnosed of acute cholecystitis (AC). We hypothesized that, because preoperative signs and diagnostic tests are not sensitive enough to diagnose AC, coupled with the potential health care burden of non-AC gallbladder, ...
Held Kathryn D - - 2012
The number of individuals exposed to particle radiations in cancer treatment worldwide is increasing rapidly, and space agencies are developing plans for long duration, deep space missions in which humans could be exposed to significant levels of radiation from charged particles. Hence, the NCRP 47 th Annual Meeting on "Scientific ...
Blakely Eleanor A - - 2012
The scientific basis for the physical and biological effectiveness of particle radiations has emerged from many decades of meticulous basic research. A diverse array of biologically relevant consequences at the molecular, cellular, tissue, and organism level have been reported, but what are the key processes and mechanisms that make particle ...
Paganetti Harald - - 2012
With the average age of radiation therapy patients decreasing and the advent of more complex treatment options comes the concern that the incidences of radiation-induced cancer might increase in the future. The carcinogenic effects of radiation are not well understood for the entire dose range experienced in radiation therapy. Longer ...
McGowan Ian I University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. - - 2012
Individuals practicing unprotected receptive anal intercourse are at particularly high risk of HIV infection. Men who have sex with men (MSM) in the developed and developing world continue to have disproportionate and increasing levels of HIV infection. The past few years have seen important progress in demonstrating the efficacy of ...
Dingfelder Michael M Department of Physics, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27858, USA. - - 2012
Monte Carlo track-structure simulations provide a detailed and accurate picture of radiation transport of charged particles through condensed matter of biological interest. Liquid water serves as a surrogate for soft tissue and is used in most Monte Carlo track-structure codes. Basic theories of radiation transport and track-structure simulations are discussed ...
Krakower Douglas D Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, - - 2012
Recent randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can decrease HIV incidence among several at-risk populations, including men who have sex with men, serodiscordant couples, and heterosexual men and women. As PrEP is a biomedical intervention that requires clinical monitoring and a high level of medication adherence, ...
Matthews Lynn T LT Massachusetts General Hospital, Center for Global Health and Division of Infectious Disease, Boston, USA. - - 2012
Many men and women living with HIV and their uninfected partners attempt to conceive children. HIV-prevention science can be applied to reduce sexual transmission risk while respecting couples' reproductive goals. Here we discuss antiretrovirals as prevention in the context of safer conception for HIV-serodiscordant couples. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) for the ...
Mensch Barbara S BS Population Council USA, New York, NY, USA. - - 2012
Assessment of acceptability is a central component of most oral PrEP and microbicide trials. In this paper we review current definitions and frameworks employed in acceptability research, discuss findings from recent studies of product acceptability and summarize trends in acceptability research. We conclude by offering a new framework for investigating ...
Escher Beate I BI National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (Entox), The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4108, Australia. - - 2012
The reporter gene assay AREc32 is based on the induction of the Nrf2 mediated oxidative stress response pathway in the human breast cancer cell line MCF7, where eight copies of the antioxidant response element (ARE) are linked to a reporter gene encoding for luciferase. The Nrf2-ARE pathway is responsive to ...
Skora Lukasz L Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Am Faßberg 11, Göttingen, - - 2012
Amyloid fibrils are the pathological hallmark of a large variety of neurodegenerative disorders. The structural characterization of amyloid fibrils, however, is challenging due to their non-crystalline, heterogeneous, and often dynamic nature. Thus, the structure of amyloid fibrils of many proteins is still unknown. We here show that the structure calculation ...
Wu Chia-Hsuan CH School of Engineering, Physiology and Biotechnology, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912, - - 2012
A major challenge to nanomaterial-based medicine is the ability to release drugs on-command. Here, we describe an innovative drug delivery system based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs), in which compounds can be released inside cells from within the nanotube "on-command" by inductive heating with an external alternating current or pulsed magnetic ...
Desai Bijoy J - - 2012
The binding of a ligand to orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC) is accompanied by a conformational change from an open, inactive conformation (E(o)) to a closed, active conformation (E(c)). As the substrate traverses the reaction coordinate to form the stabilized vinyl carbanion/carbene intermediate, interactions that destabilize the carboxylate group of the ...
Vostrikov Vitaly V VV Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701, United - - 2012
Both Trp and Arg in transmembrane protein domains make important interactions with lipids at the membrane/water interface, but at different depths. Derivatives of the designed peptide GWALP23, acetyl-GGALW(5)LALALALALALALW(19)LAGA-amide, with single Trp anchors, have proven useful for characterizing such interactions. Indeed, previous work revealed quite different effects emanating from Arg substitutions ...
Obata Akiko - - 2012
The effects of niobium ions released from 60CaO-30P(2)O(5)-(10-x)Na(2)O-xNb(2)O(5) (mol %, x = 0-10) glasses on MC3T3-E1 cell functions were evaluated by culture tests with two systems; cell culture on glass plates, or in culture media containing glass extracts. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the cells cultured on the glass plates ...
Grzela Grzegorz G FOM Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics (AMOLF), c/o Philips Research, High-Tech Campus 4, 5656 AE Eindhoven, The Netherlands. - - 2012
We experimentally demonstrate the directional emission of polarized light from single semiconductor nanowires. The directionality of this emission has been directly determined with Fourier microphotoluminescence measurements of vertically oriented InP nanowires. Nanowires behave as efficient optical nanoantennas, with emission characteristics that are not only given by the material but also ...
Ghanty Uday - - 2012
8-Alkoxyadenosines have the potential to exist in anti or syn conformations around the glycosidic bond when paired opposite to U or G in the complementary strands, thereby placing the sterically demanding 8-alkoxy groups in the major or minor groove, respectively, of duplex RNA. These modified bases were used as "base ...
Holmes Tracy C - - 2012
Guadinomines are a recently discovered family of anti-infective compounds produced by Streptomyces sp. K01-0509 with a novel mode of action. With an IC(50) of 14 nM, guadinomine B is the most potent known inhibitor of the type III secretion system (TTSS) of Gram-negative bacteria. TTSS activity is required for the ...
Trost Barry M - - 2012
We describe a palladium-catalyzed diastereo- and enantioselective formal [3 + 2]-cycloaddition between substituted vinylcyclopropanes and electron-deficient olefins in the form of azlactone- and Meldrum's acid alkylidenes to give highly substituted cyclopentane products. By modulation of the electronic properties of the vinylcyclopropane and the electron-deficient olefin, high levels of stereoselectivity were ...
Haynes Stuart W SW Department of Biological Chemistry & Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, - - 2012
Members of the asperlicin family of fungal metabolites produced by Aspergillus alliaceus are known potent CCK(A) antagonists. Herein, we report the identification of the gene cluster responsible for directing their biosynthesis. We validate and probe the pathway by genetic manipulation, and provide the first biochemical characterization of the oxidative cyclization ...
Hong Xia X Institute of Marine and Environmental Technology and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Columbus Center Suite 236, 701 East Pratt St, Baltimore, Maryland 21202, United - - 2013
Glycan-binding proteins are important for a wide variety of basic research and clinical applications, but proteins with high affinity and selectivity for carbohydrates are difficult to obtain. Here we describe a facile and cost-effective strategy to generate monoclonal lamprey antibodies, called lambodies, that target glycan determinants. We screened a library ...
Piserchio Andrea A Department of Chemistry, The City College of New York, New York, NY 10031, - - 2012
Hematopoietic tyrosine phosphatase (HePTP) regulates orthogonal MAP kinase signaling cascades by dephosphorylating both extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38. HePTP recognizes a docking site (D-recruitment site, DRS) on its targets using a conserved N-terminal sequence motif (D-motif). Using solution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry, we compare, for ...
Jain-Gupta Neeta - - 2012
Brucellosis is the most common zoonotic disease worldwide and there is no vaccine for human use. Brucella melitensis Rev1, a live attenuated strain, is the commercial vaccine for small ruminants to prevent B. melitensis infections but has been associated with abortions in animals. Moreover, strain Rev1 is known to cause ...
Létourneau Mathieu - - 2012
Manganese oxide (MnO) nanoparticles have been suggested as a promising "positive" MRI contrast agent for cellular and molecular studies. Mn-based contrast agents could enable T(1)-weighted quantitative cell tracking procedures in vivo, based on signal enhancement. In this study, ultra-small MnO particles were synthesized and coated with thiolated molecules (DMSA) and ...
Gallotti Roberto - - 2012
Neonatal aortic thrombosis is a potentially life-threatening condition with significant morbidity and mortality if undiagnosed and untreated. The most common location of arterial thrombosis in neonates is in the abdominal aorta and is associated with umbilical artery catheterisation. There are only a few previous reports of thrombosis in the ascending ...
Zhang Xiqi - - 2012
A series of remarkable multifunctional 9,10-distyrylanthracene derivatives (, n = 7-12) was synthesized. All derivatives possess typical aggregation-induced emission (AIE) property. Some of the derivatives exhibit multifunctional properties, including AIE, mechanofluorochromism, vapochromism, thermochromism, and mesomorphism, which are rarely found to exist simultaneously in a single compound.
Chew Wee-Siong - - 2012
Context: Increased use of engineered nanoparticles may result in exposure of workers and consumers, making them a health concern. Objective: To identify potential blood miRNA biomarkers after intravenous gold nanoparticle (AuNP) exposure. Materials and methods: miRNA microarray analysis was carried out on blood of rats at 1 week and 2 ...
Jonsson Cecilia - - 2012
Objective: The aim is to describe how children and youths perform leisure activities, 1 year after a mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Methods: Basis is to compile previously collected material; patients were extracted from a prospective randomized controlled trial of MTBI. A retrospective analysis was conducted among 73 children and ...
Lund Adam - - 2012
Introduction/Problem A review of the mass-gathering medicine literature confirms that the research community currently lacks a standardized approach to data collection and reporting in relation to large-scale community events. This lack of consistency, particularly with regard to event characteristics, patient characteristics, acuity determination, and reporting of illness and injury rates ...
GagoĊ› Mariusz - - 2012
In this paper, we propose a new way of thinking about molecular self-organization of the antibiotic amphotericin B (AmB) by examination its N-iodoacetyl derivative (AmB-I). This choice was dictated by the simplicity of AmB-I crystallization as compared to pure AmB. The studies focus on spectroscopic investigations of the monocrystal and ...
Modha Sachin G - - 2012
A regioselective approach for the synthesis of pyrrolopyridinones and pyrroloazepinones is reported employing an Ugi reaction followed by a gold(i) or platinum(ii) catalyzed intramolecular hydroarylation.
Sadig Jessie E R - - 2012
N-(o-halophenyl)imidoyl chlorides and the corresponding imidates are easily prepared and can be utilised as complementary substrates for the synthesis of important heterocycles. The preparation of N-substituted benzimidazoles was possible from the palladium-catalyzed reaction of both class of substrate with a variety of N-nucleophiles. The use of the imidate precursor for ...
Papp K A - - 2012
Background  Apremilast, a small molecule specific inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 4, works intracellularly to modulate pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediator production. Objective  Assess apremilast efficacy and safety in moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. Methods  Phase II, 12-week, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, dose-comparison study of 259 subjects randomized 1 : 1 : 1 ...
Brown Joseph - - 2012
Mineral Pot Filters (MPFs) are household water treatment (HWT) devices that are manufactured and distributed by the private sector, with millions of users in Southeast Asia. Their effectiveness in reducing waterborne microbes has not been previously investigated. We purchased three types of MPFs available on the Cambodian market for systematic ...
Xiao Fuhong - - 2012
The copper-promoted three-component coupling sequence for substituted quinoline formation from aldehydes, anilines and acetone is described. Various 2-arylquinolines were selectively obtained in good yields under mild conditions. The reaction tolerated a wide range of functionalities.
Nie J - - 2012
Skin homeostasis is maintained by controlling the balance between proliferation and differentiation of epidermal stem cells. The microenvironment, including extrinsic stresses, growth factors, soluble molecules, cell-ECM and cell-cell communications, plays an important role in cell fate determination in vivo and in vitro. In response to external signals, keratinocytes cooperate with ...
Chen De-Li - - 2012
Adsorption of noble gases on metal surfaces is determined by weak interactions. We applied two versions of the nonlocal van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) to compute adsorption energies of Ar, Kr, and Xe on Pt(111), Pd(111), Cu(111), and Cu(110) metal surfaces. We compared our results with data obtained using ...
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