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Mackay Joanna L - - 2013
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a powerful and versatile tool for probing the mechanical properties of biological samples. This chapter describes the procedures for using AFM indentation to measure the elastic moduli of living cells. We include step-by-step instructions for cantilever calibration and data acquisition using a combined AFM/optical microscope ...
Mühlfeld Christian - - 2013
This chapter deals with the stereological quantification of structural characteristics of the lung. The aim of design-based stereological methods is the unbiased and efficient estimation of structural features without making any assumptions on the underlying nature of the biological sample. The methods are based on rigorous sampling of location and ...
Trotman Winifred E - - 2013
Confocal laser scanning microscopy is commonly used to visualize and quantify protein expression. Visualization of the expression of multiple proteins in the same region via multifluorescence allows for the analysis of differential protein expression. The defining step of multifluorescence labeling is the selection of primary antibodies from different host species. ...
Naito Yuki - - 2013
RNA interference (RNAi) mediated by small interfering RNA (siRNA) is now widely used to knock down gene expression in a sequence-specific manner, making it a powerful tool not only for studying gene functions but also for therapeutic applications. siRNA decreases the expression level of the intended target gene with complete ...
Surendranath Vineeth - - 2013
RNA interference (RNAi) has grown to be one of the main techniques for loss-of-function studies, leading to the elucidation of biological function of genes in various cellular systems and model organisms. While for many invertebrates such as Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster) and Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) ...
Horn Thomas - - 2013
RNAi has become a very versatile tool to silence gene expression in a variety of organisms, in particular when classical genetic methods are missing. However, the application of this method in functional studies has raised new challenges in order to design RNAi reagents that minimize false positives and false negatives. ...
Sun Wei - - 2013
Optical microscopy is a simple yet robust strategy to study live cellular processes. By changing the wavelength of the illumination light, different non-fluorescent nanoparticle probes can be identified and tracked dynamically inside crowded living cells with either differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy or planar illumination microscopy (PIM). The translational and ...
Chernolovskaya Elena L - - 2013
Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are potent inducers of RNA interference-the conservative cellular process of posttranscriptional gene silencing. The silencing activity of siRNAs depends on the thermodynamic asymmetry of the siRNA duplex. Here, we describe the design of chemically modified fork-like siRNA (fsiRNAs) containing mismatches at the 3'-end region of the ...
Dallas Anne - - 2013
Synthetic shRNAs that are too short to be Dicer substrates (short shRNAs or sshRNAs) can be highly potent RNAi effectors when properly designed, with activities similar to or more potent than the more commonly used siRNAs targeting the same sequences. sshRNAs can be designed in two possible orientations: left- or ...
McGregor J E - - 2013
Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) (1) is an imaging technique which allows hydrated, insulating samples to be imaged under an electron beam. The resolution afforded by this technique is higher than conventional optical microscopy but lower than conventional scanning electron microscopy (CSEM). The major advantage of the technique is the ...
Bonekamp Nina A - - 2013
Peroxisomes and mitochondria are essential subcellular organelles in mammals. Interestingly, recent studies have elucidated that these highly dynamic and plastic organelles exhibit a much closer interrelationship than previously assumed. Peroxisomes and mitochondria are metabolically linked organelles, which are cooperating and cross-talking. They share key components of their division machinery and ...
Rao Donald D - - 2013
The discovery of RNA interference (RNAi) engendered great excitement and raised expectations regarding its potential applications in biomedical research and clinical usage. Over the ensuing years, expanded understanding of RNAi and preliminary results from early clinical trials tempered enthusiasm with realistic appraisal resulting in cautious optimism and a better understanding ...
Tanaka Hiromitsu - - 2013
Transfection of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression plasmids is conventionally performed for gene-specific knockdown in cultured mammalian and insect cells. Here, I describe a simple method to synthesize an inverted repeat DNA in a U6 small nuclear RNA promoter-based parent vector using a single-stranded inverted repeat DNA and Bst DNA ...
Meding Stephan - - 2013
MALDI (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization) Imaging mass spectrometry is a powerful new method for analyzing the spatial distribution of molecules in tissues. Several different classes of cellular constituents such as proteins, peptides, lipids, and small molecules can be analyzed in situ while maintaining the morphological integrity of the tissue. This allows ...
Lambeth Luke S - - 2013
Since the first application of RNA interference (RNAi) in mammalian cells, the expression of short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) for targeted gene silencing has become a benchmark technology. Using plasmid and viral vectoring systems, the transcription of shRNA precursors that are effectively processed by the RNAi pathway can lead to potent ...
Golubeva Yelena - - 2013
Laser capture microdissection (LCM) allows the precise procurement of enriched cell populations from a heterogeneous tissue, or live cell culture, under direct microscopic visualization. Histologically enriched cell populations can be procured by harvesting cells of interest directly or isolating specific cells by ablating unwanted cells. The basic components of laser ...
Shlyakhtenko Luda S LS Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, - - 2013
Surface preparation is a key step for reliable and reproducible imaging of DNA and protein-DNA complexes with atomic force microscopy (AFM). This article describes the approaches for chemical functionalization of the mica surface. One approach utilizes 3-aminopropyl-trietoxy silane (APTES), enabling one to obtain a smooth surface termed AP-mica. This surface ...
Pozarowski Piotr P The Brander Cancer Research Institute, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, - - 2013
Laser scanning cytometer (LSC) is the microscope-based cytofluorometer that offers a plethora of unique analytical capabilities, not provided by flow cytometry (FCM). This review describes attributes of LSC and covers its numerous applications derived from plentitude of the parameters that can be measured. Among many LSC applications the following are ...
Webb Donna J DJ Department of Biological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, - - 2013
Epi-fluorescence microscopy is available in most life sciences research laboratories, and when optimized can be a central laboratory tool. In this chapter, the epi-fluorescence light path is introduced and the various components are discussed in detail. Recommendations are made for incident lamp light sources, excitation and emission filters, dichroic mirrors, ...
Maniar Kruti P KP Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21231, - - 2013
The majority of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) is high-grade and is related to high-risk human papillomavirus (HRHPV) (most commonly HPV 16). It is considered to be the precursor of HRHPV-related vulvar squamous cell carcinoma. Vulvar condyloma acuminatum is low-risk HPV (LRHPV)-related (most commonly types 6 and 11) and has virtually ...
McLachlan Sandra M SM Thyroid Autoimmune Disease Unit, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center and UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California 90048, USA. - - 2013
Thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) antibodies that stimulate the thyroid (TSAb) cause Graves' hyperthyroidism and TSHR antibodies which block thyrotropin action (TBAb) are occasionally responsible for hypothyroidism. Unusual patients switch from TSAb to TBAb (or vice versa) with concomitant thyroid function changes. We have examined case reports to obtain insight into the ...
Farne Hugo A HA Queen Elizabeth Hospital, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK. - - 2013
To assess the ability of C-reactive (CRP) protein, against the other commonly used metrics, to predict metronidazole treatment failure in Clostridium difficile infection. We retrospectively reviewed the case notes of 65 patients with C. difficile infection initially treated with metronidazole. Patients were grouped on the basis of outcome: those who ...
Liu Li-Ting LT School of Occupational Therapy, National Taiwan University, 100 Taipei, - - 2013
The purpose of this study is to examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Paediatric Volitional Questionnaire (PVQ-C) for use amongst preschoolers in Taiwan. Forty preschoolers with developmental delays were randomly selected from northern Taiwan, along with another 40 typically developing preschoolers. The data was analysed using ...
Masedunskas Andrius A Intracellular Membrane Trafficking Unit, Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD, - - 2013
Intravital microscopy is a powerful tool that enables imaging various biological processes in live animals. Here, we describe a series of procedures designed to image subcellular structures, such as endosomes and secretory vesicles in the salivary glands (SGs) of live rats. To this aim, we used fluorescently labeled molecules and/or ...
Prins Mayumi L ML Department of Neurosurgery, University of California, School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. - - 2013
Among the 3.5 million annual new head injury cases is a subpopulation of children and young adults who experience repeated traumatic brain injury (TBI). The duration of vulnerability after a single TBI remains unknown, and biomarkers have yet to be determined. Decreases in glucose metabolism (cerebral metabolic rate of glucose ...
Cromey Douglas W DW Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Southwest Environmental Health Sciences Center, Arizona Research Labs-Division of Biotechnology, Arizona Cancer Center, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tuscon, AZ, USA. - - 2013
The scientific community has become very concerned about inappropriate image manipulation. In journals that check figures after acceptance, 20-25% of the papers contained at least one figure that did not comply with the journal's instructions to authors. The scientific press continues to report a small, but steady stream of cases ...
Falgarone Géraldine - - 2013
The role of stress in the pathophysiology of Graves' disease is suggested by several clinical observations, by recent advances in immunology and by better understanding of autoimmune diseases which provides new insights into potential effects of stress hormones on T helper cell imbalance involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. ...
Neudecker Ryen A - - 2012
Abstract Spring creeks are important spawning and rearing areas for wild trout, but the stable flows, cool temperatures, and high nutrient levels that characterize these unique habitats may also make them highly susceptible to establishment and proliferation of the whirling disease pathogen Myxobolus cerebralis. We evaluated the spatial and temporal ...
Chakrabarti R - - 2012
Abstract Larval rohu Labeo rohita were fed four different diets: three of the diets contained Achyranthes aspera (prickly chaff-flower) seeds at 0.10% (D1), 0.25% (D2), or 0.50% (D3); the fourth diet was a control diet (D4; no A. aspera supplementation). After 70 d, the rohu were injected intraperitoneally with live ...
Karnon Jonathan - - 2012
Regular blood transfusions for beta-thalassaemia patients lead to the accumulation of iron deposits in the body. In order to remove such deposits, iron chelation therapy is required. Subcutaneously administered deferoxamine has been the gold standard chelation therapy for over 40 years. Deferasirox is a newer chelation therapy that is taken orally ...
Horowitz Lisa M - - 2012
To develop a brief screening instrument to assess the risk for suicide in pediatric emergency department patients. A prospective, cross-sectional instrument-development study evaluated 17 candidate screening questions assessing suicide risk in young patients. The Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire served as the criterion standard. Three urban, pediatric emergency departments associated with tertiary ...
Puel Anne A Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Necker Branch, Inserm U980 and University Paris Descartes, Necker Medical School, Paris Sorbonne Cité, Paris, - - 2012
Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) is characterized by recurrent or persistent symptomatic infection of the nails, skin and mucosae mostly by Candida albicans. CMC is common in patients with profound primary T-cell immunodeficiency, who often display multiple infectious and autoimmune diseases. Patients with syndromic CMC, including autosomal dominant hyper IgE syndrome ...
Horvitz-Lennon Marcela M RAND Corporation, 4570 Fifth Ave., Suite 600, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA. - - 2012
This study evaluated the effect of race-ethnicity and geography on the adoption of a pharmacological innovation (long-acting injectable risperidone [LAIR]) among Medicaid beneficiaries with schizophrenia as well as the contribution of geographic location to observed racial-ethnic disparities. The data source was a claims data set from the Florida Medicaid program ...
Thomas Laura A - - 2012
CONTEXT Youth with bipolar disorder (BD) and those with severe, nonepisodic irritability (severe mood dysregulation [SMD]) exhibit amygdala dysfunction during facial emotion processing. However, studies have not compared such patients with each other and with comparison individuals in neural responsiveness to subtle changes in facial emotion; the ability to process ...
Green Michael F - - 2012
CONTEXT Schizophrenia remains a highly disabling disorder, but the specific determinants and pathways that lead to functional impairment are not well understood. It is not known whether these key determinants of outcome lie on 1 or multiple pathways. OBJECTIVE To evaluate theoretically based models of pathways to functional outcome starting ...
Keren Ron R Division of General Pediatrics, Center for Pediatric Clinical Effectiveness, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. - - 2012
To use information about prevalence, cost, and variation in resource utilization to prioritize comparative effectiveness research topics in hospital pediatrics. Retrospective analysis of administrative and billing data for hospital encounters. Thirty-eight freestanding US children's hospitals from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2009. Children hospitalized with conditions that accounted for ...
Kass David A - - 2013
Heart disease is a major cause of death and morbidity worldwide, particularly so in industrialized nations. A major contributor to its varied pathophysiology is abnormal oxidative/reductive and nitrosative stress. While oxidant-scavenging therapies for cardiovascular disease have been disappointing to date, new insights into the precise sources of oxidative/nitrosative stress, its ...
Varnado Cornelius L CL Department of Biochemistry & Cell Biology, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005, - - 2013
The worldwide blood shortage has generated a significant demand for alternatives to whole blood and packed red blood cells for use in transfusion therapy. One such alternative involves the use of acellular recombinant hemoglobin (Hb) as an oxygen carrier. Large amounts of recombinant human Hb can be expressed and purified ...
Stallard Tom S - - 2012
Since its discovery at Jupiter in 1988, emission from H(3)(+) has been used as a valuable diagnostic tool in our understanding of the upper atmospheres of the giant planets. One of the lasting questions we have about the giant planets is why the measured upper atmosphere temperatures are always consistently ...
Larsson Mats - - 2012
The dissociative recombination of H(3)(+) has been an intriguing problem for more than half a century. The early experiments on H(3)(+) during the first 20 years were carried out without mass analysis in decaying plasma afterglows, and thus the measured rates pertained to an uncontrolled mixture of H(3)(+) and impurity ...
Kreckel Holger - - 2012
The dissociative recombination (DR) of H(3)(+) is a key process in interstellar chemistry. More than 30 experimental studies of the DR process have been published in the literature. The H(3)(+) DR rate coefficient results obtained from these measurements, however, have not always been consistent. The outcome seems to depend on ...
Lis Dariusz C - - 2012
With a 3.5 m diameter telescope passively cooled to approximately 80 K, and a science payload comprising two direct detection cameras/medium resolution imaging spectrometers (PACS and SPIRE) and a very high spectral resolution heterodyne spectrometer (HIFI), the Herschel Space Observatory is providing extraordinary observational opportunities in the 55-670 μm spectral range. HIFI has ...
van der Tak F F S - - 2012
The H(3)(+) ion plays a key role in the chemistry of dense interstellar gas clouds where stars and planets are forming. The low temperatures and high extinctions of such clouds make direct observations of H(3)(+) impossible, but lead to large abundances of H(2)D(+) and D(2)H(+) that are very useful probes ...
Dohnal P - - 2012
Results of an experimental study of binary recombination of para- and ortho-H(3)(+) ions with electrons are presented. Near-infrared cavity-ring-down absorption spectroscopy was used to probe the lowest rotational states of H(3)(+) ions in the temperature range of 77-200 K in an H(3)(+)-dominated afterglow plasma. By changing the para/ortho abundance ratio, we ...
Berg Max - - 2012
We report on the recent observation of new spectral lines of cold H(3)(+) ions lying well in the visible spectral region. Transitions from the two lowest ro-vibrational levels to final levels up to 16,700 cm(-1), almost half way to the dissociation limit, have been measured, involving up to eight vibrational quanta. ...
Crabtree Kyle N - - 2012
In diffuse molecular clouds, the nuclear spin temperature of H(3)(+) (approx. 30 K) is much lower than the cloud kinetic temperature (approx. 70 K). To understand this temperature discrepancy, we have measured the ratio of the hop to exchange pathways (α) in the H(3)(+) + H(2) --> H(2) + H(3)(+) reaction (which ...
Kluge Lars - - 2012
The proton affinities of hydrogen and oxygen are very similar. Therefore, it has been discussed that the proton transfer from the omnipresent H(3)(+) to molecular oxygen in the near thermoneutral reaction H(3)(+) + O(2) <--> O(2)H(+) + H(2) effectively binds the interstellar oxygen in O(2)H(+). In this work, the proton ...
Jungen Ch - - 2012
The dissociative recombination (DR) of H(3)(+) ions with electrons, producing neutral atomic and molecular fragments, is driven primarily by the vibronic Jahn-Teller (JT) interaction between the electronic components of the pe' e(-)-H(3)(+) collision (Rydberg) channel. The JT parameters characterizing this interaction are therefore of great interest as they are required ...
Geballe T R - - 2012
The central 400 parsecs of the Milky Way, a region known as the central molecular zone (CMZ), contains interstellar gas in a wide range of physical environments, from ultra-hot, rarified and highly ionized to warm, dense and molecular. The combination of infrared spectroscopy of H(3)(+) and CO is a powerful ...
Oka Takeshi - - 2012
The great developments in the chemistry, astronomy and physics of H(3)(+) since 2006, which have led to this Royal Society Theo Murphy Meeting, are reviewed.
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