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Results 351 - 400 of 4411
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Yang Jinnan - - 2012
DL-2-Amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (APB) is often used as a tool to block On pathways in studies of interactions between On and Off pathways in retinas. APB is an agonist of mGluR6 receptors and hyperpolarizes the On cone bipolar cells and rod bipolar cells. How APB affects Off responses of retinal ganglion ...
Solheim Tora S - - 2012
Background. There are no established treatments for cachexia. Recently it has been suggested that the evidence for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) treatment is sufficient to support its regular clinical use. Primary objective in this systematic review was to assess efficacy and safety of NSAID treatment in improving body weight and muscle ...
Diz A P - - 2012
The exposed and sheltered ecotypes of the marine snail Littorina saxatilis from European rocky shores are considered a key model system to study adaptation and ecological speciation. Previous studies showed that two ecotypes (RB and SU) of this species in NW Spain have adapted differently to different shore levels and ...
Obi Yoshitsugu - - 2012
Phosphate is a macronutrient essential for the survival of living organisms, and phosphate depletion impairs cellular functions in various organ systems. However, epidemiological studies have shown that high phosphate level, even within normal range, is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. This association is partly explained by ...
Grant Marcia M City of Hope National Medical Center, Beckman Research Institute, Duarte, CA, USA. - - 2012
For some patients diagnosed with rectal cancer, surgery will involve the creation of a temporary or permanent ostomy. When the colostomy is located in the sigmoid or descending colon, regulation of fecal output can occur through irrigation, a procedure that involves instilling fluid into the bowel to flush out gas ...
Roghi Alberto - - 2012
Magnetic resonance imaging provides excellent spatial resolution and tissue characterization analysis while not exposing patients to ionizing radiation or potentially nephrotoxic iodinate contrast agents. Magnetic resonance imaging has developed into an extensively applied diagnostic tool for all fields of medicine, whilst at the same time an increasing number of patients ...
Cleveland Jennifer L - - 2012
and Overview The authors set out to identify factors associated with implementation by U.S. dentists of four practices first recommended in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Guidelines for Infection Control in Dental Health-Care Settings-2003. /st> In 2008, the authors surveyed a stratified random sample of 6,825 U.S. dentists. ...
Salameh P - - 2012
Although Lebanon is a highly polluted country, so far no study has specifically been designed to assess the association between outdoor air pollution and chronic bronchitis in this country. To assess the association between exposure to outdoor air pollution and chronic bronchitis in Lebanon. A pilot case-control study was conducted ...
Dalla-Favera Riccardo - - 2012
The lymphoid tissues, including both the B and T cell lineages, are characterized by a unique level of biological complexity due to the anatomical organization of functionally distinct cell subpopulations and complex processes of genetic alteration required to generate immune responses. Not surprisingly, this physiological diversity and complexity is mirrored ...
Bleijerveld Onno B - - 2012
Coronary atherosclerosis represents the major cause of death in Western societies. As atherosclerosis typically progresses over years without giving rise to clinical symptoms, biomarkers are urgently needed to identify patients at risk. Over the last decade, evidence has accumulated suggesting cross-talk between the diseased vasculature and cells of the innate ...
Zakareia Faten A - - 2012
To evaluate plasma levels of adrenomedullin (AM) and ghrelin and their correlation with the electrophysiological changes in diabetic neuropathy. The current study was conducted from March 2008 to November 2010 at the Clinical Physiology Department, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia on 90 females ...
Sado Tetsu - - 2012
Complete resection of Masaoka stage I and II thymoma leads to good prognosis. In recent years, technological development of endoscopy enables thymectomy by thoracoscopic method instead of median sternotomy approach. We perform thoracoscopic thymectomy for thymoma without myasthenia gravis via 2 trocars introduced in unilateral pleural cavity and a small ...
O'Neill Jessica - - 2012
A large number of pharmacological studies have used capsaicin as a tool to activate many physiological systems, with an emphasis on pain research but also including functions such as the cardiovascular system, the respiratory system, and the urinary tract. Understanding the actions of capsaicin led to the discovery its receptor, ...
Nussbaumer-Ochsner Yvonne - - 2012
Susceptible subjects ascending rapidly to high altitude develop pulmonary edema (HAPE). We evaluated whether HAPE leads to sleep and breathing disturbances that are alleviated by dexamethasone. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial with open-label extension. One night in sleep laboratory at 490 m, 2 nights in mountain hut at 4,559 m. 21 ...
Carlson Gabrielle A - - 2012
Issues complicating the differential diagnosis of bipolar disorder in young people are discussed. They include: a) the subtype of bipolar disorder being considered; b) the person's age and stage of development; c) whether one views bipolar disorder more conservatively, requiring clear episodes that mark a distinct change from premorbid levels ...
Hebling Christine M - - 2012
Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) in addition to milk, eggs, fish, crustaceans, wheat, tree nuts, and soybean are commonly referred to as the "big eight" foods that contribute to the majority of food allergies worldwide. Despite the severity of allergic reactions and growing prevalence in children and adults, there is no cure ...
Hurst Carrie S - - 2012
A total of 40 qualitative studies were reviewed and coded according to the college student stressors they represented. These studies utilized a variety of qualitative methods to examine stressors representing the following themes: relationships, lack of resources, academics, the environment, expectations, diversity, transitions and other stressors. Relationship stressors were the ...
Clemente F - - 2012
We considered genome-wide four-fold degenerate sites from an African Drosophila melanogaster population and compared them to short introns. To include divergence and to polarize the data, we used its close relatives Drosophila simulans, Drosophila sechellia, Drosophila erecta and Drosophila yakuba as outgroups. In D. melanogaster, the GC content at four-fold degenerate ...
Dawber Chris - - 2012
This paper outlines an evaluation of reflective practice groups (RPG) involving nurses and midwives from three clinical nursing specialties at Redcliffe and Caboolture Hospitals, Queensland, Australia. The groups were facilitated by the consultation liaison psychiatry nurse and author using a process-focused, whole-of-group approach to explore clinical narrative in a supportive ...
Mizobuchi Masahide - - 2012
In the latter 1990s, phosphate, as well as calcium, has been shown to have a direct action on parathyroid function. Since then although many researchers have tried to detect the phosphate sensor in parathyroid gland, none has found it yet. In 2000s, the importance of FGF23 was revealed in patients ...
Zetka Eric Scott - - 2012
Almost all systemic agents used in cancer therapy can cause infusion-related reactions. Hypersensitivity or infusion reactions to platinum compounds are acquired, whereas reactions to taxanes and monoclonal antibodies usually occur during the first few minutes of the first infusion. By understanding the symptoms and treatment of infusion reactions, healthcare team ...
Etemadifar Masoud - - 2012
Multiple sclerosis (MS) typically affects young adults; however, the first symptoms can occur after age 50 and is classified as late-onset MS (LOMS).  In this retrospective study, we extracted the records of 3522 MS patients (2716 females and 806 males) registered in the Isfahan MS Society (IMSS) from 2003 to ...
Churg Andrew - - 2012
Context.-The separation of benign from malignant mesothelial proliferations is crucial to patient management but is often a difficult problem for the pathologist. Objective.-To review the pathologic features that allow separation of benign from malignant mesothelioma proliferations, with an emphasis on new findings. Data Sources.-Literature review and experience of the authors. ...
Mullighan Charles G - - 2012
B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) is the most common childhood tumor and the leading cause of cancer-related death in children and young adults. The majority of B-ALL cases are aneuploid or harbor recurring structural chromosomal rearrangements that are important initiating events in leukemogenesis but are insufficient to explain the biology ...
Rahman M Aminur - - 2012
Two reef margin species of tropical sea urchins, Echinometra sp. C (Ec) and Echinometra oblonga (Eo), occur sympatrically on Okinawa intertidal reefs in southern Japan. Hybridization between these species was examined through a series of cross-fertilization experiments. At limited sperm concentrations, where conspecific crosses reached near 100% fertilization, both heterospecific ...
Fernandez Jose-Maria - - 2012
Biomedical innovation has become riskier, more expensive and more difficult to finance with traditional sources such as private and public equity. Here we propose a financial structure in which a large number of biomedical programs at various stages of development are funded by a single entity to substantially reduce the ...
Yu Dongmei - - 2012
Adiponectin is secreted from adipose tissue and functions as a protein hormone in regulating glucose metabolism and fatty acid catabolism. Adiponectin plays an important role as a novel risk factor and potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in cancer. Crystal structures of globular adiponectin have been resolved with three calcium-binding sites ...
Barros M Teresa - - 2012
An iodine mediated aromatization leading to a one-pot synthesis of iodo-N-arylanilines and N-arylanilines is reported. This highly regioselective aliphatic-aromatic transformation can be performed with various combinations of 2-cyclohexenones and anilines. The presence of a directing group is crucial for achieving high yields.
Vricella Laura K - - 2012
To determine whether severe preeclampsia is associated with increased maternal hypotension or fetal heart rate abnormalities after epidural anesthesia placement during labor. Retrospective cohort study of 100 women with severe preeclampsia and 100 normotensive controls who underwent epidural anesthesia during labor from May 2008 to July 2011. Blood pressures during ...
Kamangar Farin - - 2012
This article provides an introduction to the meaning of causality in epidemiology and methods that epidemiologists use to distinguish causal associations from non-causal ones. Alternatives to causal association are discussed in detail. Hill's guidelines, set forth approximately 50 years ago, and more recent developments are reviewed. The role of religious ...
Jastifer James R - - 2012
ABSTRACT Introduction: Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), world-renowned Italian renaissance master, is known for his contributions to, and broad interests in science and art. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the extent of his science by applying the use of his concepts to current models of foot and ankle ...
Jiang Peng - - 2012
We have previously established that CAST/EiJ (CAST) mice differ from normal mice, such as C57BL/6J (B6), in the timing of wheel-running onset relative to light/dark cycles. These mice provide an animal model for studies of the genetic and neurobiological basis for circadian phase misalignment in humans. Neither differences in endogenous ...
Christensen P M - - 2012
The present study examined if an elevated nitrate intake would improve VO(2) kinetics, endurance, and repeated sprint capacity in elite endurance athletes. Ten highly trained cyclists (72 ± 4 mL O(2) /kg/min, mean ± standard deviation) underwent testing for VO(2) kinetics (3 × 6 min at 298 ± 28 W), endurance (120 min preload followed by a 400-kcal time trial), and repeated ...
Drillaud Nicolas - - 2012
A novel photochromic azobenzene-based surfactant was described for organic chemistry in water. The molecule BABTGA thus synthesized can be isomerised from its trans to its cis form reversibly in solution by simple light irradiation. That property allowed the recyclability of a model acetylation reaction performed in the surfactant media, compared ...
Oerlemans Martinus I F J - - 2012
Previous studies investigating the role of circulating microRNAs in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) were based on small patient numbers, performed no comparison with established markers of cardiac injury and did not have appropriate controls. We determined the potential diagnostic value of circulating microRNAs as novel early biomarkers in 332 suspected ...
Lee-Yaw J A - - 2012
For northern taxa, persistence in multiple vs. single Pleistocene refugia may have been an important determinant of contemporary range size, with larger ranges achieved by species that colonized the north from several glacial refugia. Under this hypothesis, widespread species are expected to demonstrate marked phylogeographic structure in previously glaciated regions. ...
Dallaspezia Sara - - 2012
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a recurrent and disabling illness, characterized by periods of depression and mania. The history of the illness differs widely between patients, with episode frequency emerging as a strong predictor of poor illness outcome. Lithium salts are the first-choice long-term mood-stabilizing therapy, but not all patients respond ...
Oliemuller Erik - - 2012
Collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP-2) is the first described and most studied member of a family of proteins that mediate the addition of tubulin dimers to the growing microtubule. CRMPs have mainly been studied in the nervous system, but recently, they have been described in other tissues where they participate ...
Milanov Andrian P - - 2012
Alternative novel precursor chemistries for the vapor phase deposition of rare-earth (RE) oxide thin films were developed by synthesising the homoleptic guanidinate compounds tris(N,N'-diisopropyl-2-dimethylamidoguanidinato)-scandium(iii) [Sc(DPDMG)(3)] (), tris(N,N'-diisopropyl-2-dimethylamidoguanidinato)-erbium(iii), [Er(DPDMG)(3)] () and tris(N,N'-diisopropyl-2-dimethylamidoguanidinato)-yttrium(iii), [Y(DPDMG)(3)] (). All three compounds are monomeric as revealed by single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance ...
Nagano Nobuo - - 2012
The inhibitory effect of cinacalcet hydrochloride (cinacalcet) on blood phosphorus (P) levels is widely-accepted. However, this effect is only observed in patients on dialysis. Reduction in parathyroid hormone (PTH) induced by cinacalcet increases blood P levels with decreased urinary P excretion in pre-dialysis patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Similar ...
Freysteinson Wyona M - - 2012
Body image in oncology is a relatively unexplored field. Recent interventions have focused on the use of the mirror in assessing body image. The purpose of this narrative is to increase oncology nurses' awareness of the need to adopt such interventions based on expert judgment and practice when empirical evidence ...
Larsen Brandon T - - 2012
Context.-Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are a subset of diffuse pulmonary interstitial diseases classified by international consensus in 2002 as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, acute interstitial pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis interstitial lung disease, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and lymphoid interstitial pneumonia. Each is associated with a characteristic histopathologic pattern. ...
Kridel Robert - - 2012
The hallmark t(14;18)(q32;q21) in follicular lymphoma (FL) results in constitutive overexpression of the BCL2 protein, allowing B cells to abrogate the default germinal center apoptotic program. Most tumors are characterized by recurrent secondary genetic alterations including genomic gains, losses, and mutations, some providing a growth advantage, including alterations in MLL2, ...
Wolfe Scott W - - 2012
The use of bioabsorbable conduits in digital nerve repair has demonstrated increased efficacy compared to direct repair (for gaps ≤ 4mm) and nerve grafting (for gaps ≥ 8 mm) for sensory recovery in a level 1 human trial. Although nonhuman primate studies on mixed motor-sensory nerves have documented comparable efficacy ...
Zhang Long - - 2012
The objective of this study was to investigate the geographical origin of Chinese teas using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratio technology. The results showed that inter-provincial dispersion of teas in Guangdong (GD), Guangxi (GX), Hainan (HA), Fujian (FJ), Shandong (SD), Sichuan (SC), Chongqing (CQ), and Henan (HN) provinces was ...
Anithakumari A M - - 2012
Potato is the third most important staple food crop in terms of consumption, yet it is relatively susceptible to yield loss because of drought. As a first step towards improving drought tolerance in this crop, we set out to identify the genetic basis for drought tolerance in a diploid potato ...
Lenz Markus - - 2012
Selenium (Se) is of key importance to human health with a very narrow concentration range of optimal dietary intake. Due to the inherent analytical challenge linked with the low natural abundance, information on precise and accurate Se speciation in deficient environments is hardly existent. This study presents a novel approach ...
Moore Nicholas - - 2012
Abstract Background and objectives: Breakthrough pain (BTP) is a transitory flare of moderate to severe pain that occurs in patients with stable, controlled persistent pain. Management of BTP episodes is difficult because frequency, time-to-peak intensity, and duration of episodes vary both within and between individuals. Formulations of fentanyl that use ...
Khalil Asma - - 2012
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the association between maternal racial origin and a wide range of adverse pregnancy outcomes after adjustment for confounding factors in obstetric history and maternal characteristics. Methods: This was a prospective screening study for adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with singleton pregnancies ...
Ochwada-Doyle F - - 2012
This study examined the spatio-temporal reproductive patterns, population structure, maturity and growth of Acanthopagrus hybrid complexes, which comprise mainly black bream Acanthopagrus butcheri and the hybrids they form with yellowfin bream Acanthopagrus australis, in two Australian estuaries (Coila and Brou Lakes, NSW). There were no differences between pure A. butcheri ...
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