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Results 601 - 650 of 4409
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Dardenne Etienne - - 2012
Both epigenetic and splicing regulation contribute to tumor progression, but the potential links between these two levels of gene-expression regulation in pathogenesis are not well understood. Here, we report that the mouse and human RNA helicases Ddx17 and Ddx5 contribute to tumor-cell invasiveness by regulating alternative splicing of several DNA- ...
Chang Yuxiao - - 2012
With the completion of the rice (Oryza sativa L.) genome-sequencing project, the rice research community proposed to characterize the function of every predicted gene in rice by 2020. One of the most effective and high-throughput strategies for studying gene function is to employ genetic mutations induced by insertion elements such ...
Díez-Municio Marina - - 2012
This work describes an efficient enzymatic synthesis and NMR structural characterization of the trisaccharide, β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-α-D-glucopyranoside, also termed as lactulosucrose. This oligosaccharide was formed by the Leuconostoc mesenteroides B-512F dextransucrase-catalysed transfer of the glucosyl residue from sucrose to the 2-hydroxyl group of the reducing unit of lactulose. The enzymatic reaction was ...
Fujii Yutaka - - 2012
Systemic inflammatory responses in patients receiving cardiac surgery with the use of the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) significantly contribute to CPB-associated morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that insufflated hydrogen gas (H(2) ) would provide systemic anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects during CPB, therefore reducing proinflammatory cytokine levels. In this study, we examined ...
Machtei Eli E - - 2012
Universal strategies for managing peri-implantitis are yet to be adopted. The aim of this study is to examine a protocol of intensive application of chlorhexidine containing chips in sites with peri-implantitis. This multi-centre, randomized, double-blind, parallel, two-arm clinical trial included 60 patients (77 implants) with probing depth (PD) 6-10 mm and ...
Gavara Núria - - 2012
The atomic force microscope can detect the mechanical fingerprints of normal and diseased cells at the single-cell level under physiological conditions. However, atomic force microscopy studies of cell mechanics are limited by the 'bottom effect' artefact that arises from the stiff substrates used to culture cells. Because cells adhered to ...
Gullerova Monika - - 2012
We show that convergent transcription induces transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) in trans for both fission yeast and mammalian cells. This method has advantages over existing strategies to induce gene silencing. Previous studies in fission yeast have characterized TGS as a cis-specific process involving RNA interference that maintains heterochromatic regions such ...
Schmidt Bryan H - - 2012
Type IIA topoisomerases control DNA supercoiling and disentangle chromosomes through a complex ATP-dependent strand-passage mechanism. Although a general framework exists for type IIA topoisomerase function, the architecture of the full-length enzyme has remained undefined. Here we present the structure of a fully catalytic Saccharomyces cerevisiae topoisomerase II homodimer complexed with ...
Rothbart Scott B - - 2012
A fundamental challenge in mammalian biology has been the elucidation of mechanisms linking DNA methylation and histone post-translational modifications. Human UHRF1 (ubiquitin-like PHD and RING finger domain-containing 1) has multiple domains that bind chromatin, and it is implicated genetically in the maintenance of DNA methylation. However, molecular mechanisms underlying DNA ...
Okoro Chinyere K - - 2012
A highly invasive form of non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease has recently been documented in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The most common Salmonella enterica serovar causing this disease is Typhimurium (Salmonella Typhimurium). We applied whole-genome sequence-based phylogenetic methods to define the population structure of sub-Saharan African invasive Salmonella Typhimurium isolates ...
Saalau-Bethell Susanne M - - 2012
Here we report a highly conserved new binding site located at the interface between the protease and helicase domains of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 protein. Using a chemical lead, identified by fragment screening and structure-guided design, we demonstrate that this site has a regulatory function on the protease ...
Koya Eisuke - - 2012
Cocaine-induced alterations in synaptic glutamate function in nucleus accumbens are thought to mediate drug-related behaviors such as psychomotor sensitization. However, previous studies have examined global alterations in randomly selected accumbens neurons regardless of their activation state during cocaine-induced behavior. We recently found that a minority of strongly activated Fos-expressing accumbens ...
Zhang Qiangfeng Cliff - - 2012
The genome-wide identification of pairs of interacting proteins is an important step in the elucidation of cell regulatory mechanisms. Much of our present knowledge derives from high-throughput techniques such as the yeast two-hybrid assay and affinity purification, as well as from manual curation of experiments on individual systems. A variety ...
Li Guangjin - - 2012
The ability of the human immune system to respond to vaccination declines with age. We identified an age-associated defect in T cell receptor (TCR)-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation in naive CD4(+) T cells, whereas other signals, such as ζ chain-associated protein kinase 70 (ZAP70) and phospholipase C-γ1 phosphorylation, were ...
Gautier Emmanuel L - - 2012
We assessed gene expression in tissue macrophages from various mouse organs. The diversity in gene expression among different populations of macrophages was considerable. Only a few hundred mRNA transcripts were selectively expressed by macrophages rather than dendritic cells, and many of these were not present in all macrophages. Nonetheless, well-characterized ...
Leung Brian B Department of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. - - 2012
Some alien species cause substantial impacts, yet most are innocuous. Given limited resources, forecasting risks from alien species will help prioritise management. Given that risk assessment (RA) approaches vary widely, a synthesis is timely to highlight best practices. We reviewed quantitative and scoring RAs, integrating > 300 publications into arguably the most ...
Lisovskaja Vera V Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology and Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden. - - 2013
Many potential new medicines fail in phase III clinical trials, because of either insufficient efficacy or intolerability. Such failures may be caused by the absence of an effect and also if a suboptimal dose is being tested. It is thus important to consider how to optimise the choice of dose ...
Tumbarello David A DA Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 0XY, UK. - - 2012
Autophagy targets pathogens, damaged organelles and protein aggregates for lysosomal degradation. These ubiquitylated cargoes are recognized by specific autophagy receptors, which recruit LC3-positive membranes to form autophagosomes. Subsequently, autophagosomes fuse with endosomes and lysosomes, thus facilitating degradation of their content; however, the machinery that targets and mediates fusion of these ...
Rossier Olivier O Interdisciplinary Institute for Neuroscience, University of Bordeaux, UMR 5297, F-33000 Bordeaux, - - 2012
Integrins in focal adhesions (FAs) mediate adhesion and force transmission to extracellular matrices essential for cell motility, proliferation and differentiation. Different fibronectin-binding integrins, simultaneously present in FAs, perform distinct functions. Yet, how integrin dynamics control biochemical and biomechanical processes in FAs is still elusive. Using single-protein tracking and super-resolution imaging ...
Mochida Ganeshwaran H GH Department of Medicine, Division of Genetics, Boston Children's Hospital, Massachusetts, - - 2012
Charged multivesicular body protein 1A (CHMP1A; also known as chromatin-modifying protein 1A) is a member of the ESCRT-III (endosomal sorting complex required for transport-III) complex but is also suggested to localize to the nuclear matrix and regulate chromatin structure. Here, we show that loss-of-function mutations in human CHMP1A cause reduced ...
Jin Jin J Department of Immunology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, - - 2012
Immunoglobulin class switching is crucial for the generation of antibody diversity in humoral immunity and, when deregulated, also has severe pathological consequences. How the magnitude of immunoglobulin isotype switching is controlled is still poorly understood. Here we identify the kinase TBK1 as a pivotal negative regulator of class switching to ...
O'Donoghue Anthony J AJ Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, San Francisco, - - 2012
We developed a simple and rapid multiplex substrate-profiling method to reveal the substrate specificity of any endo- or exopeptidase using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry sequencing. We generated a physicochemically diverse library of peptides by incorporating all combinations of neighbor and near-neighbor amino acid pairs into decapeptide sequences that are flanked ...
Riazuddin Saima S Division of Pediatric Otolaryngology/Head & Neck Surgery, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Ohio, - - 2012
Sensorineural hearing loss is genetically heterogeneous. Here, we report that mutations in CIB2, which encodes a calcium- and integrin-binding protein, are associated with nonsyndromic deafness (DFNB48) and Usher syndrome type 1J (USH1J). One mutation in CIB2 is a prevalent cause of deafness DFNB48 in Pakistan; other CIB2 mutations contribute to ...
Lagier-Tourenne Clotilde C Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California, - - 2012
FUS/TLS (fused in sarcoma/translocated in liposarcoma) and TDP-43 are integrally involved in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia. We found that FUS/TLS binds to RNAs from >5,500 genes in mouse and human brain, primarily through a GUGGU-binding motif. We identified a sawtooth-like binding pattern, consistent with co-transcriptional deposition of ...
Doyle Alexander J AJ McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, - - 2012
Elevated transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling has been implicated in the pathogenesis of syndromic presentations of aortic aneurysm, including Marfan syndrome (MFS) and Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS). However, the location and character of many of the causal mutations in LDS intuitively imply diminished TGF-β signaling. Taken together, these data have engendered ...
Mudd Philip A PA Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53711, - - 2012
Developing a vaccine for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may be aided by a complete understanding of those rare cases in which some HIV-infected individuals control replication of the virus. Most of these elite controllers express the histocompatibility alleles HLA-B*57 or HLA-B*27 (ref. 3). These alleles remain by far the most ...
Aksoy Ezra E Centre for Cell Signaling, Barts Institute of Cancer, Queen Mary, University of London, London, UK. - - 2012
Lipopolysaccharide activates plasma-membrane signaling and endosomal signaling by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) through the TIRAP-MyD88 and TRAM-TRIF adaptor complexes, respectively, but it is unclear how the signaling switch between these cell compartments is coordinated. In dendritic cells, we found that the p110δ isoform of phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI(3)K) induced internalization of ...
Busch Wolfgang W Department of Biology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, - - 2012
To fully describe gene expression dynamics requires the ability to quantitatively capture expression in individual cells over time. Automated systems for acquiring and analyzing real-time images are needed to obtain unbiased data across many samples and conditions. We developed a microfluidics device, the RootArray, in which 64 Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings ...
Winter Georg E GE CeMM Research Center for Molecular Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna, - - 2012
Occurrence of the BCR-ABL(T315I) gatekeeper mutation is among the most pressing challenges in the therapy of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Several BCR-ABL inhibitors have multiple targets and pleiotropic effects that could be exploited for their synergistic potential. Testing combinations of such kinase inhibitors identified a strong synergy between danusertib and ...
Chang Fang F State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Plant Biology, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, - - 2013
The ROP1 GTPase-based signaling network controls tip growth in Arabidopsis pollen tubes. Our previous studies imply that ROP1 might be directly activated by RopGEF1, which belongs to a plant-specific family of Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RopGEFs) and in turn may be activated by an unknown factor through releasing RopGEF1's ...
Xu Jianfeng J Fudan Institute of Urology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, - - 2012
Prostate cancer risk-associated variants have been reported in populations of European descent, African-Americans and Japanese using genome-wide association studies (GWAS). To systematically investigate prostate cancer risk-associated variants in Chinese men, we performed the first GWAS in Han Chinese. In addition to confirming several associations reported in other ancestry groups, this ...
Kumar Raj - - 2012
Instability of CAG triplet repeat encoding polyglutamine (polyQ) stretches in the gene for target protein has been implicated as a putative mechanism in several inherited neurodegenerative diseases. Expansion of polyQ chain length in the androgen receptor (AR) causes spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) or Kennedy's disease. Although the mechanisms ...
Park Seok Soon - - 2012
Caspase cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) has been reported to be important in Aβ-mediated neurotoxicity. However, the underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. In this study, we explored the effect of caspase cleavage of APP on tau phosphorylation in relation to Aβ. We found that Asp664 cleavage of APP ...
Vasianovich Alena - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Two population surveys were conducted in Belarus: The Living Conditions, Lifestyle and Health (LLH) in 2001 (n = 2000) and The Health in Times of Transition (HITT) in 2010 (n = 1800). Each survey included a question on health status. The LLH questionnaire provided a 4-point Verbal Response Scale, ...
Sirén Jukka - - 2012
Reconstruction of the past is an important task of evolutionary biology. It takes place at different points in a hierarchy of molecular variation, including genes, individuals, populations and species. Statistical inference about population histories has recently received considerable attention, following the development of computational tools to provide tractable approaches to ...
Nakaniwa Tetsuko - - 2012
Intracellular proteins can have free cysteines that may contribute to their structure, function and stability; however, free cysteines can lead to chemical instabilities in solution because of oxidation-driven aggregation. The MAP kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK1), possesses seven free cysteines and is an important drug target for autoimmune diseases, cancers ...
Zhang Suying - - 2012
Traditionally cured vanilla beans (Vanilla planifolia) from Madagascar and Uganda were extracted with organic solvents and the volatiles were separated from the non-volatile fraction using the Solvent Assisted Flavor Evaporation (SAFE) technique. Concentrated vanilla bean extracts were analyzed using GC-MS and GC-O. 246 Volatile compounds were identified using the Automated ...
Zenthöfer Andreas - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Oral hygiene and health of the institutionalized elderly are frequently described as inadequate. OBJECTIVES: This randomized and single-blinded (outcome evaluation) study compared three types of intervention for improving oral hygiene with a control. The purpose was to investigate whether there were any significant differences between the intervention and control ...
Cheng Kao-Chi - - 2012
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is more prevalent in Taiwan than in most countries. This population-based cohort study evaluated the dementia risk associated with CKD. METHODS: Using claims data of 1,000,000 insured residents covered in the universal health insurance of Taiwan, we selected 37049 adults with CKD newly diagnosed ...
Sen Chandan K - - 2012
ARS was aimed at advancing the erstwhile niche field of redox biology to a more central position in research. Currently, ARS ranks first (impact factor: 8.456) in the field of redox biology. Of 8336 journals listed in Journal Citation Reports, ARS ranks 205th. The next journal in redox biology ranks ...
Silventoinen Karri - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Lower mortality has been systematically found in married when compared with non-married, especially in men, but little is known about marital status differences in mortality from external causes. Furthermore, the role of cohabitation and partnership history in the formation of these differences and how they have been changed over ...
Pengelly Steven - - 2012
Aim:  To determine the long term outcomes of patients in whom no initial cause for their anaemia is established. Methods:  639 patients presenting to an iron deficiency anaemia pathway were prospectively entered onto a database. Initial assessment included haematological review, coeliac screen, OGD and colonic imaging as per BSG guidelines. ...
Akamine Yumiko - - 2012
Multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein (P-gp; also known as MDR1 and ABCB1) is expressed in the luminal membrane of the small intestine and blood-brain barrier, and the apical membranes of excretory cells such as hepatocytes and kidney proximal tubule epithelia. P-gp regulates the absorption and elimination of a wide range of compounds, ...
Jooken Etienne - - 2012
As steviol glycosides are now allowed as a food additive in the European market, it is important to assess the stability of these steviol glycosides after they have been added to different food matrices. We analyzed and tested the stability of steviol glycosides in semi-skimmed milk, soy drink, fermented milk ...
Rizzolo Anna - - 2012
The aim of this research was to study the relationships between electronic nose pattern, maturity class of peaches assessed at harvest by means of absorption coefficient at 670 nm (µa670) measured in fruit pulp by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy (TRS) and quality evolution during a 4 week cold storage. 'Spring Belle' ...
Lam Lloyd T - - 2012
Cancer cells persist by resisting programmed cell death or apoptosis. In particular, an imbalance of proteins that regulate apoptosis leads to lack of response to apoptotic stimuli. Thus, restoring the ability of cancer cells to undergo apoptosis is highly desirable. One apoptosis pathway, the intrinsic pathway, involves perturbation of the ...
Zhou Huimin - - 2012
B4GALT1 gene encodes type II membrane-bound glycoprotein, named β-1, 4-galactosyltransferase 1 (β1, 4-Gal-T1), which can transfer galactose to acceptor sugars. B4GALT1 gene plays important roles in physiological process and disease development. In this study, we investigate the possible role and mechanism of B4GALT1 gene in multidrug resistance of human leukemia ...
Yan Hede - - 2012
The exact mechanism of neuroma-associated pain is not yet fully understood, thus contributing to the substantial challenge faced when managing patients with painful neuromas. We aimed to observe the expression of alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in the painful traumatic neuroma and to investigate its possible roles in the cause ...
Hasegawa Minoru - - 2012
Objective. Inducible costimulator (ICOS), expressed on activated T cells, and its ligand, ICOS ligand (ICOSL), expressed on antigen-presenting cells, have been considered a single receptor-ligand pair. Here we investigated the expression of ICOS and ICOSL in patients with SSc.Methods. ICOS expression on peripheral blood T cells, and ICOSL expression on ...
Iwaki Jun - - 2012
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases play a key role in the translation of genetic code into correct protein sequences. These enzymes recognize cognate amino acids and tRNAs from noncognate counterparts, and catalyze the formation of aminoacyl-tRNAs. While several tyrosyl-tRNA synthetases (TyrRSs) from various species have been structurally and functionally well characterized, the crenarchaeal ...
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