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Results 551 - 600 of 4411
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Gerster Daniel - - 2012
Photosynthesis is used by plants, algae and bacteria to convert solar energy into stable chemical energy. The initial stages of this process-where light is absorbed and energy and electrons are transferred-are mediated by reaction centres composed of chlorophyll and carotenoid complexes. It has been previously shown that single small molecules ...
Kida Toshiyuki - - 2012
Isotactic poly(methyl methacrylate) (it-PMMA)/syndiotactic poly(methacrylic acid) (st-PMAA) stereocomplex hollow capsules were fabricated by the deposition of stereocomplex films of it-PMMA and st-PMAA on silica particles by alternate Layer-by-Layer assembly and the subsequent removal of the silica particles with aqueous HF. The selective extraction of st-PMAA from the it-PMMA/st-PMAA stereocomplex capsule ...
Chae Ho Byoung - - 2012
Genevestigator analysis indicated heat shock induction of transcripts for NADPH-thioredoxin reductase, type C (NTRC) in the light. Here we show overexpression of NTRC in Arabidopsis (NTRCOE) resulting in enhanced tolerance to heat shock, whereas NTRC knockout mutant plants (ntrc1) exhibit a temperature sensitive phenotype. To investigate the underlying mechanism of ...
Ohsawa Shizue - - 2012
Mitochondrial respiratory function is frequently impaired in human cancers. However, the mechanisms by which mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to tumour progression remain elusive. Here we show in Drosophila imaginal epithelium that defects in mitochondrial function potently induce tumour progression of surrounding tissue in conjunction with oncogenic Ras. Our data show that ...
Chang Fang F State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Plant Biology, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, - - 2013
The ROP1 GTPase-based signaling network controls tip growth in Arabidopsis pollen tubes. Our previous studies imply that ROP1 might be directly activated by RopGEF1, which belongs to a plant-specific family of Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RopGEFs) and in turn may be activated by an unknown factor through releasing RopGEF1's ...
Ding Jihua - - 2012
Photoperiod-sensitive male sterility (PSMS) is a valuable germplasm for hybrid rice breeding. Recently, we cloned pms3, a locus controlling PSMS, which encodes a long non-coding RNA called LDMAR required for normal male fertility of the rice plant under long-day conditions. Increased methylation in the promoter of LDMAR in the PSMS ...
Mochida Ganeshwaran H GH Department of Medicine, Division of Genetics, Boston Children's Hospital, Massachusetts, - - 2012
Charged multivesicular body protein 1A (CHMP1A; also known as chromatin-modifying protein 1A) is a member of the ESCRT-III (endosomal sorting complex required for transport-III) complex but is also suggested to localize to the nuclear matrix and regulate chromatin structure. Here, we show that loss-of-function mutations in human CHMP1A cause reduced ...
Singh Manoj K - - 2012
Rho GTPase modifying bacterial protein toxins are useful for analysis of Rho signalling in animal cells, but these toxins cannot be taken up by plant cells. We demonstrate in vitro deamidation of Arabidopsis Rop4 by Escherichia coli Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor 1 (CNF1) and glucosylation by Clostridium difficile toxin B. Expression ...
Yu Shibin - - 2012
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Estrogens play an important role in modulating the morphology and function of temporomandibular joints (TMJs), which is suggested to act via estrogen receptors (ERs). The present study was to investigate the expression of aggrecan, collagen type II (Col II), Col X, aromatase, ERalpha and ERbeta in degenerative changes ...
van 't Erve O M J - - 2012
Spin manipulation in a semiconductor offers a new paradigm for device operation beyond Moore's law. Ferromagnetic metals are ideal contacts for spin injection and detection, but the intervening tunnel barrier required to accommodate the large difference in conductivity introduces defects, trapped charge and material interdiffusion, which severely compromise performance. Here, ...
Saalau-Bethell Susanne M - - 2012
Here we report a highly conserved new binding site located at the interface between the protease and helicase domains of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 protein. Using a chemical lead, identified by fragment screening and structure-guided design, we demonstrate that this site has a regulatory function on the protease ...
Kerstjens Jorien M - - 2012
Aim  The aim of the study was to assess the influence of decreasing gestational age on the risk of developmental delay in various domains at age 4 years among children born at a wide range of gestational ages. Method  In a community-based cohort, the parents of 1439 preterm-born children (24 0/7 ...
Loeffen R - - 2012
Background: Thrombin generation assays are sensitive methods to assess the overall clotting potential of plasma and despite their common use in thrombosis research, standardization of pre-analytical conditions is missing. In order to setup a standardized protocol, we analyzed different pre-analytical variables and validated the Calibrated Automated Thrombogram method. Methods and ...
Lagier-Tourenne Clotilde C Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California, - - 2012
FUS/TLS (fused in sarcoma/translocated in liposarcoma) and TDP-43 are integrally involved in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia. We found that FUS/TLS binds to RNAs from >5,500 genes in mouse and human brain, primarily through a GUGGU-binding motif. We identified a sawtooth-like binding pattern, consistent with co-transcriptional deposition of ...
Zhang H H - - 2012
The effect of different dietary protein levels and DL-methionine (Met) supplementation on hair growth and the resulting pelt quality in mink was studied. Four groups of male mink were fed with four isocaloric diets containing 32% (P32), 24% (P24), 16% (P16) or P24+Met (0.8%) crude protein of dry matter (DM) ...
Gullerova Monika - - 2012
We show that convergent transcription induces transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) in trans for both fission yeast and mammalian cells. This method has advantages over existing strategies to induce gene silencing. Previous studies in fission yeast have characterized TGS as a cis-specific process involving RNA interference that maintains heterochromatic regions such ...
Furukawa-Hibi Yoko - - 2012
Neuronal PAS domain 4 (NPAS4), a brain specific helix-loop-helix transcription factor, has recently been shown to regulate the development of GABAergic inhibitory neurons. We previously reported that Npas4 mRNA expression levels were reduced in the hippocampus of mice exposed to social isolation or restraint stress, which was accompanied by impairment ...
Zhang Qiangfeng Cliff - - 2012
The genome-wide identification of pairs of interacting proteins is an important step in the elucidation of cell regulatory mechanisms. Much of our present knowledge derives from high-throughput techniques such as the yeast two-hybrid assay and affinity purification, as well as from manual curation of experiments on individual systems. A variety ...
Sataranatarajan Kavithalakshmi - - 2012
We explored molecular events associated with aging-induced matrix changes in the kidney. C57BL6 mice were studied in youth, middle age and old age. Albuminuria and serum cystatin C level (an index of glomerular filtration) increased with aging. Renal hypertrophy was evident in middle-aged and old mice and was associated with ...
Halldén C - - 2012
Background: Haemophilia A (HA) has a high level of variation within the disease class with more than 1000 mutations listed in the HAMSTeRS database. At the same time a number of F8 mutations are present in specific populations at high frequencies. Objectives: The simultaneous presence of large numbers of rare ...
Farago Marganit - - 2012
Although most genes are expressed biallelically, a number of key genomic sites-including immune and olfactory receptor regions-are controlled monoallelically in a stochastic manner, with some cells expressing the maternal allele and others the paternal allele in the target tissue. Very little is known about how this phenomenon is regulated and ...
Ren Dong - - 2012
The pursuit of modern sustainable chemistry has stimulated the development of innovative catalytic processes that enable chemical transformations to be performed under mild and clean conditions with high efficiency. Herein, we report that gold nanoparticles supported on TiO2 catalyze the chemoselective hydrogenation of functionalized quinolines with H2 under mild reaction ...
Shiiba Kyoko - - 2012
Abstract Conclusions: The changes in the cochlin isoforms in the perilymph may provide important insights to the understanding of cochlin function and the pathogenesis of related inner ear diseases. Objectives: Cochlin is involved in various pathologies of the inner ear. Altered levels of cochlin isoforms in developing inner ear tissue ...
Li Wei - - 2012
Haploids and double haploids are important resources for studying recessive traits and have large impacts on crop breeding, but natural haploids are rare in animals. Mammalian haploids are restricted to germline cells and are occasionally found in tumours with massive chromosome loss. Recent success in establishing haploid embryonic stem (ES) ...
Tumbarello David A DA Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 0XY, UK. - - 2012
Autophagy targets pathogens, damaged organelles and protein aggregates for lysosomal degradation. These ubiquitylated cargoes are recognized by specific autophagy receptors, which recruit LC3-positive membranes to form autophagosomes. Subsequently, autophagosomes fuse with endosomes and lysosomes, thus facilitating degradation of their content; however, the machinery that targets and mediates fusion of these ...
Rebora Paola - - 2012
In some exceptional circumstances, as in very rare diseases, nonrandomized one-arm trials are the sole source of evidence to demonstrate efficacy and safety of a new treatment. The design of such studies needs a sound methodological approach in order to provide reliable information, and the determination of the appropriate sample ...
Lenting P J - - 2012
Von Willebrand factor (VWF) is a protein best known from its critical role in hemostasis. Indeed, any dysfunction of VWF is associated with a severe bleeding tendency known as von Willebrand disease (VWD). Since the first description of the disease by Dr. Erich von Willebrand in 1926, remarkable progress has ...
Kotani Yasuhiro - - 2012
From 2005 to 2011, 23 of 178 (12.9%) patients with venoarterial (VA) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) had left atrial (LA) decompression to help improve left ventricular (LV) function, LA/LV dilatation, and/or lung edema. LA decompression was achieved with LA cannulation (n = 16), surgically created adjustable atrial septal defect (n ...
Pahari Dipak R - - 2012
A minimized perfusion circuit (MPC) has proven to be superior to the conventional circulatory perfusion bypass (CCPB) as it reduces the blood-material interaction and hemodilution. Until now not much is known about impact these different perfusion systems have on the brain. The objective of this study is to determine carnosinase ...
Schmidt Bryan H - - 2012
Type IIA topoisomerases control DNA supercoiling and disentangle chromosomes through a complex ATP-dependent strand-passage mechanism. Although a general framework exists for type IIA topoisomerase function, the architecture of the full-length enzyme has remained undefined. Here we present the structure of a fully catalytic Saccharomyces cerevisiae topoisomerase II homodimer complexed with ...
Lisovskaja Vera V Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology and Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden. - - 2013
Many potential new medicines fail in phase III clinical trials, because of either insufficient efficacy or intolerability. Such failures may be caused by the absence of an effect and also if a suboptimal dose is being tested. It is thus important to consider how to optimise the choice of dose ...
Chen Wen-Xin - - 2012
We report herein that amides are excellent N-sources in the NHC-Pd(II)-Im complex 1 catalyzed amination of aryl chlorides. In the presence of KOtBu, various aryl chlorides and amides can react smoothly to give the corresponding aminated products in moderate to almost quantitative yields at room temperature within 6 h.
Li Guangjin - - 2012
The ability of the human immune system to respond to vaccination declines with age. We identified an age-associated defect in T cell receptor (TCR)-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation in naive CD4(+) T cells, whereas other signals, such as ζ chain-associated protein kinase 70 (ZAP70) and phospholipase C-γ1 phosphorylation, were ...
Dardenne Etienne - - 2012
Both epigenetic and splicing regulation contribute to tumor progression, but the potential links between these two levels of gene-expression regulation in pathogenesis are not well understood. Here, we report that the mouse and human RNA helicases Ddx17 and Ddx5 contribute to tumor-cell invasiveness by regulating alternative splicing of several DNA- ...
Chang Yuxiao - - 2012
With the completion of the rice (Oryza sativa L.) genome-sequencing project, the rice research community proposed to characterize the function of every predicted gene in rice by 2020. One of the most effective and high-throughput strategies for studying gene function is to employ genetic mutations induced by insertion elements such ...
Díez-Municio Marina - - 2012
This work describes an efficient enzymatic synthesis and NMR structural characterization of the trisaccharide, β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-α-D-glucopyranoside, also termed as lactulosucrose. This oligosaccharide was formed by the Leuconostoc mesenteroides B-512F dextransucrase-catalysed transfer of the glucosyl residue from sucrose to the 2-hydroxyl group of the reducing unit of lactulose. The enzymatic reaction was ...
Fujii Yutaka - - 2012
Systemic inflammatory responses in patients receiving cardiac surgery with the use of the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) significantly contribute to CPB-associated morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that insufflated hydrogen gas (H(2) ) would provide systemic anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects during CPB, therefore reducing proinflammatory cytokine levels. In this study, we examined ...
Brinkmann Gunnar - - 2012
We describe an efficient new algorithm for the generation of fullerenes. Our implementation of this algorithm is more than 3.5 times faster than the previously fastest generator for fullerenes -- fullgen -- and the first program since fullgen to be useful for more than 100 vertices. We also note a ...
Kern Andreas M - - 2012
The enhancement of fluorescence and Raman scattering by plasmonic nanostructures is studied theoretically with special focus on the effects of the observed molecule's properties and the realistic geometry of the plasmonic nanostructure. Numerical experiments show that the enhancement factor may vary by many orders of magnitude depending on a fluorophore's ...
Oh Jihun - - 2012
Silicon nanowire and nanopore arrays promise to reduce manufacturing costs and increase the power conversion efficiency of photovoltaic devices. So far, however, photovoltaic cells based on nanostructured silicon exhibit lower power conversion efficiencies than conventional cells due to the enhanced photocarrier recombination associated with the nanostructures. Here, we identify and ...
Liu Chang C - - 2012
Bacterial regulators of transcriptional elongation are versatile units for building custom genetic switches, as they control the expression of both coding and noncoding RNAs, act on multigene operons and can be predictably tethered into higher-order regulatory functions (a property called composability). Yet the less versatile bacterial regulators of translational initiation ...
Ruhl Laura Suzanne - - 2012
The combustion of coal to generate electricity produces about 130 million tons of Coal Combustion Residues (CCRs) each year in the United States; yet their environmental implications are not well constrained. This study systematically documents the quality of effluents discharged from CCR settling ponds or cooling water at ten sites ...
Machtei Eli E - - 2012
Universal strategies for managing peri-implantitis are yet to be adopted. The aim of this study is to examine a protocol of intensive application of chlorhexidine containing chips in sites with peri-implantitis. This multi-centre, randomized, double-blind, parallel, two-arm clinical trial included 60 patients (77 implants) with probing depth (PD) 6-10 mm and ...
Zahid M - - 2012
The treatment of acute coronary syndromes has been considerably improved in recent years with the introduction of highly efficient antiplatelet drugs. However, there are still significant limitations: the recurrence of adverse vascular events remains a problem and the improvement in efficacy is counterbalanced by an increased risk of bleeding of ...
Agostinelli S - - 2012
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSES: To determine the prevalence of SLC2A1 mutations in children with early-onset absence epilepsy (EOAE) and to investigate whether there were differences in demographic and electroclinical data between patients who became seizure-free with anti-epileptic drug (AED) monotherapy (group I) and those who needed add-on treatment of a second ...
Koya Eisuke - - 2012
Cocaine-induced alterations in synaptic glutamate function in nucleus accumbens are thought to mediate drug-related behaviors such as psychomotor sensitization. However, previous studies have examined global alterations in randomly selected accumbens neurons regardless of their activation state during cocaine-induced behavior. We recently found that a minority of strongly activated Fos-expressing accumbens ...
Osmialowski Borys - - 2012
Intermolecular interactions of ten 2-acylamino and 2,4-bis(acylamino)pyrimidines (from which seven are previously unknown) have been investigated by X-ray structural, quantum chemical (DFT), and NMR spectral methods. Especially the concentration dependencies of the 1H NMR chemical shifts and titrations with other molecules capable for multiple hydrogen bonding provided useful information regarding ...
O'Malley A James - - 2012
The catalyst for this paper is the recent interest in the relationship between social networks and an individual's health, which has arisen following a series of papers by Nicholas Christakis and James Fowler on person- to-person spread of health behaviors. In this issue, they provide a detailed explanation of their ...
Mudd Philip A PA Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53711, - - 2012
Developing a vaccine for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may be aided by a complete understanding of those rare cases in which some HIV-infected individuals control replication of the virus. Most of these elite controllers express the histocompatibility alleles HLA-B*57 or HLA-B*27 (ref. 3). These alleles remain by far the most ...
Irvine William T M - - 2012
Understanding the effect of curvature and topological frustration in crystals yields insights into the fragility of the ordered state. For instance, a one-dimensional crystal of identical charged particles can accommodate an extra particle (interstitial) if all the particle positions are readjusted, yet in a planar hexagonal crystal interstitials remain trapped ...
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