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Results 451 - 500 of 4408
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Kamangar Farin - - 2012
This article provides an introduction to the meaning of causality in epidemiology and methods that epidemiologists use to distinguish causal associations from non-causal ones. Alternatives to causal association are discussed in detail. Hill's guidelines, set forth approximately 50 years ago, and more recent developments are reviewed. The role of religious ...
Tehrani Omid S - - 2012
A case of a 31-year-old woman with sudden respiratory distress is presented. Preliminary evaluations and imaging studies did not reveal the underlying cause. Workup during hospital stay showed advanced metastatic cancer of unknown primary origin. This is an unusual presentation of cancer of an unknown primary involving the thyroid with ...
Dallaspezia Sara - - 2012
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a recurrent and disabling illness, characterized by periods of depression and mania. The history of the illness differs widely between patients, with episode frequency emerging as a strong predictor of poor illness outcome. Lithium salts are the first-choice long-term mood-stabilizing therapy, but not all patients respond ...
Tibes Raoul - - 2012
Discovery of the JAK2 V617F mutation in the myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) has stimulated great interest in the underlying molecular mechanisms and treatment of these diseases. Along with acceleration of technologies, novel mutations in genes such as MPL, LNK, and CBL ...
Nagano Nobuo - - 2012
The inhibitory effect of cinacalcet hydrochloride (cinacalcet) on blood phosphorus (P) levels is widely-accepted. However, this effect is only observed in patients on dialysis. Reduction in parathyroid hormone (PTH) induced by cinacalcet increases blood P levels with decreased urinary P excretion in pre-dialysis patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Similar ...
Albayda Jemima - - 2012
The inflammatory myopathies are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by muscle weakness and inflammation. Although no standard therapeutic guidelines exist, traditional treatment has included corticosteroids and a variety of second-line immunosuppressants. As treatment of refractory disease has been difficult, newer agents and approaches have been used with varying response. ...
Geavlete Bogdan - - 2012
A single-centre, prospective trial was performed aiming to assess the impact of narrow-band imaging (NBI) cystoscopy in cases of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) in comparison to standard white light cystoscopy (WLC). A total of 95 NMIBC-suspected consecutive cases were enrolled. The inclusion criteria were hematuria, positive urinary cytology or ultrasound ...
Mulders Peter F - - 2012
Bone metastases in patients with genitourinary cancers are associated with increased risk for skeletal-related events including pathologic fractures, spinal cord compression, and the requirement for surgery or palliative radiotherapy to bone. The nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate zoledronic acid and the monoclonal antibody against RANK, denosumab, are approved for the prevention of skeletal-related ...
McMahon Chris G - - 2012
Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual disorder which is associated with substantial personal and interpersonal negative psychological consequences. Pharmacotherapy of PE with off-label antidepressant selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is common, effective and safe. Development and regulatory approval of drugs specifically for the treatment of PE will reduce ...
Chughtai Bilal - - 2012
Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) commonly affect older men. These bothersome symptoms can lead to a decreased quality of life. Currently, two classes of drugs - α-adrenergic blockers and 5α-reductase inhibitors - are prescribed to treat LUTS secondary to BPH. Due to their different ...
Wahlbeck Kristian - - 2012
The current global economic crisis is expected to produce adverse mental health effects that may increase suicide and alcohol-related death rates in affected countries. In nations with greater social safety nets, the health impacts of the economic downturn may be less pronounced. Research indicates that the mental health impact of ...
Westen Drew - - 2012
This article describes a system for diagnosing mood disorders that is empirically derived and designed for its clinical utility in everyday practice. A random national sample of psychiatrists and clinical psychologists described a randomly selected current patient with a measure designed for clinically experienced informants, the Mood Disorder Diagnostic Questionnaire ...
Smith Jessica W - - 2012
The relationship between systemic inflammatory processes to total knee arthroplasty (TKA) outcomes remains unclear. This study investigates the relationship between serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and functional outcomes post-TKA. A total of 31 patients with osteoarthritis (OA) who underwent TKA were enrolled in the study; 15 with hs-CRP ≤1.0 mg/l ...
Bello Alfonso E - - 2012
Chronic pain conditions affect at least 116 million US adults and more than one-third of adults worldwide. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used extensively for the treatment of chronic pain due to their efficacy as anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents. Gastrointestinal toxicity is the most well known adverse effect of NSAID ...
Patil Pravin - - 2012
The wide availability and recent improvement in technology coupled with portability, low cost and safety makes ultrasound the first choice imaging investigation for the evaluation of musculoskeletal diseases. Diagnostic use of ultrasound findings is greatly enhanced by knowledge of the clinical presentation. Conversely, ultrasound skills with its prerequisite anatomical knowledge ...
Carlson Gabrielle A - - 2012
Issues complicating the differential diagnosis of bipolar disorder in young people are discussed. They include: a) the subtype of bipolar disorder being considered; b) the person's age and stage of development; c) whether one views bipolar disorder more conservatively, requiring clear episodes that mark a distinct change from premorbid levels ...
Bellack Alan S - - 2012
The consumer recovery model has had increasing influence on mental health practices in the United States, Western Europe, and several other countries. However, adoption of the model has reflected political decisions rather than empirical evidence of the validity of the model or its value for treatment services. The recovery construct ...
Nordgaard Julie - - 2012
The use of structured psychiatric interviews performed by non-clinicians is frequent for research purposes and is becoming increasingly common in clini-cal practice. The validity of such interviews has rarely been evaluated empirically. In this study of a sample of 100 diagnostically heterogeneous, first-admitted inpatients, the results of an assessment with ...
Ito Hiroto - - 2012
This paper summarizes the findings for the East and South East Asia Region of the WPA Task Force on Steps, Obstacles and Mistakes to Avoid in the Im-plementation of Community Mental Health Care. The paper presents a description of the region, an overview of mental health policies, a critical ap-praisal ...
Razzouk Denise - - 2012
This paper summarizes the findings for the Latin American and Caribbean countries of the WPA Task Force on Steps, Obstacles and Mistakes to Avoid in the Implementation of Community Mental Health Care. It presents an overview of the provision of mental health services in the region; describes key experiences in ...
Marcocci Claudio - - 2012
Nowadays, primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is mostly a mild disease. Overt skeletal manifestations are rare but decreased bone mineral density (BMD) can still be demonstrated. Even in mild cases, excess parathyroid hormone (PTH) increases bone turnover leading to bone loss particularly at cortical sites. Conversely, a relative preservation of cancellous bone ...
Schmidinger Manuela - - 2012
Following approval of the oral, multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib malate for the treatment of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) in Europe and the USA in 2006, the agent has had a substantial impact on the treatment landscape in this setting. Sunitinib is now recommended in international treatment ...
Díaz-Beyá M - - 2013
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with t(8;16)(p11;p13) (t(8;16) AML) has unique clinico-biological characteristics, but its microRNA pattern is unknown. We analyzed 670 microRNAs in seven patients with t(8;16) AML and 113 with other AML subtypes. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed that all t(8;16) AML patients grouped in an independent cluster. Supervised analysis ...
McCann Sue - - 2012
Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a rare non-Hodgkin lymphoma with predominant skin manifestations and a relatively indolent course at early stages, but it can be fatal in advanced settings. In the absence of cure, the goal of therapy for CTCL is to induce long-term remissions without further compromising a patient's ...
Verma Sunil - - 2012
Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) is an antibody-drug conjugate incorporating the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-targeted antitumor properties of trastuzumab with the cytotoxic activity of the microtubule-inhibitory agent DM1. The antibody and the cytotoxic agent are conjugated by means of a stable linker. We randomly assigned patients with HER2-positive advanced ...
Kreek Mary Jeanne - - 2012
Addictive diseases, including addiction to heroin, prescription opioids, or cocaine, pose massive personal and public health costs. Addictions are chronic relapsing diseases of the brain caused by drug-induced direct effects and persisting neuroadaptations at the epigenetic, mRNA, neuropeptide, neurotransmitter, or protein levels. These neuroadaptations, which can be specific to drug ...
Kuehl W Michael - - 2012
Multiple myeloma is a monoclonal tumor of plasma cells, and its development is preceded by a premalignant tumor with which it shares genetic abnormalities, including universal dysregulation of the cyclin D/retinoblastoma (cyclin D/RB) pathway. A complex interaction with the BM microenvironment, characterized by activation of osteoclasts and suppression of osteoblasts, ...
Zhao Ya-e - - 2012
To our knowledge, few reports on Demodex studied at the molecular level are available at present. In this study our group, for the first time, cloned, sequenced and analyzed the chitin synthase (CHS) gene fragments of Demodex folliculorum, Demodex brevis, and Demodex canis (three isolates from each species) from Xi'an ...
Budin Siti Balkis - - 2012
Litsea elliptica Blume has been traditionally used to treat headache, fever, and stomach ulcer, and has also been used as an insect repellent. The acute and subacute toxicities of L. elliptica essential oil were evaluated orally by gavage in female Sprague-Dawley rats. For the acute toxicity study, L. elliptica essential ...
Oerlemans Martinus I F J - - 2012
Previous studies investigating the role of circulating microRNAs in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) were based on small patient numbers, performed no comparison with established markers of cardiac injury and did not have appropriate controls. We determined the potential diagnostic value of circulating microRNAs as novel early biomarkers in 332 suspected ...
Swart Chantel W - - 2012
Current paradigms assume that gas bubbles cannot be formed within yeasts although these workhorses of the baking and brewing industries vigorously produce and release CO(2) gas. We show that yeasts produce gas bubbles that fill a significant part of the cell. The missing link between intracellular CO(2) production by glycolysis ...
Van Vlierberghe Pieter - - 2012
T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias (T-ALLs) arise from the malignant transformation of hematopoietic progenitors primed toward T cell development, as result of a multistep oncogenic process involving constitutive activation of NOTCH signaling and genetic alterations in transcription factors, signaling oncogenes, and tumor suppressors. Notably, these genetic alterations define distinct molecular ...
Mullighan Charles G - - 2012
B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) is the most common childhood tumor and the leading cause of cancer-related death in children and young adults. The majority of B-ALL cases are aneuploid or harbor recurring structural chromosomal rearrangements that are important initiating events in leukemogenesis but are insufficient to explain the biology ...
Jares Pedro - - 2012
Mantle cell lymphoma is a B cell malignancy in which constitutive dysregulation of cyclin D1 and the cell cycle, disruption of DNA damage response pathways, and activation of cell survival mechanisms contribute to oncogenesis. A small number of tumors lack cyclin D1 overexpression, suggesting that its dysregulation is always not ...
Pileri Stefano A - - 2012
Peripheral T cell lymphomas (PTCLs) are heterogeneous neoplasms and represent about 12% of all lymphoid malignancies. They are often regarded as "orphan diseases," a designation that does not reflect their real incidence but rather signifies the difficulties encountered in their classification, diagnosis, and treatment. Here we revise the current understanding ...
Li Xiao-ran - - 2012
Tidal flats are soil resources of great significance. Nitrification plays a central role in the nitrogen cycle and is often a critical first step in nitrogen removal from estuarine and coastal environments. We determined the abundance as well as composition of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in different ...
Rahman M Aminur - - 2012
Two reef margin species of tropical sea urchins, Echinometra sp. C (Ec) and Echinometra oblonga (Eo), occur sympatrically on Okinawa intertidal reefs in southern Japan. Hybridization between these species was examined through a series of cross-fertilization experiments. At limited sperm concentrations, where conspecific crosses reached near 100% fertilization, both heterospecific ...
Jiang Yu-ping - - 2012
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are potent regulators of photosynthesis and crop yield in agricultural crops; however, the mechanism by which BRs increase photosynthesis is not fully understood. Here, we show that foliar application of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) resulted in increases in CO(2) assimilation, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) accumulation, and leaf area in cucumber. H(2)O(2) ...
Zhang Long - - 2012
The objective of this study was to investigate the geographical origin of Chinese teas using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratio technology. The results showed that inter-provincial dispersion of teas in Guangdong (GD), Guangxi (GX), Hainan (HA), Fujian (FJ), Shandong (SD), Sichuan (SC), Chongqing (CQ), and Henan (HN) provinces was ...
Zhou Hai - - 2012
The purpose of this study was to measure the kinematics of the lower limbs of Chinese people during normal kneeling activity, as such data could be valuable in designing joint prosthesis and arthroplasty that meet the needs of Chinese citizens' daily activities. Thirty young and twenty elderly Chinese participants with ...
O'Neill Jessica - - 2012
A large number of pharmacological studies have used capsaicin as a tool to activate many physiological systems, with an emphasis on pain research but also including functions such as the cardiovascular system, the respiratory system, and the urinary tract. Understanding the actions of capsaicin led to the discovery its receptor, ...
Vanini Giancarlo - - 2012
GABAergic and cholinergic transmission within the basal forebrain and cerebral cortex contribute to the regulation of sleep and wakefulness. In contrast to levels of acetylcholine (ACh), levels of endogenous GABA in basal forebrain and cortex during sleep and wakefulness have not previously been quantified. This study (1) tested the hypothesis ...
Crisalli Joseph A - - 2012
Children with obstructive sleep apnea have blunted baroreflex sensitivity and increased blood pressure variability. The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that treatment of sleep apnea by adenotonsillectomy results in significant improvement of baroreflex sensitivity, lowering of blood pressure and blood pressure variability and increase vagal heart ...
Huang Jingtao - - 2012
Obese patients develop obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), at least in part because of a narrowed upper airway. However, many obese adolescents do not develop OSAS, despite having a presumably narrower airway. The reasons for this phenomenon are unclear. The authors hypothesized that obese controls have a compensatory neuromuscular response ...
Dauvilliers Yves - - 2012
To determine the activity of cerebral histaminergic system evaluated by CSF levels of histamine (HA) and tele-methylhistamine (t-MHA), its major metabolite, and their relationships with hypocretin-1 levels in a large population of patients with hypersomnia and neurological conditions. sensitive liquid chromatographic-electrospray/tandem mass spectrometric assay was developed for the simultaneous quantification ...
Soehner Adriane M - - 2012
To evaluate the prevalence of severe insomnia symptoms and the extent to which they are associated with daytime impairments in comorbid mood and anxiety disorders. Nationally representative cross-sectional survey. National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (NCS-R). There were 5,692 NCS-R respondents with no mood or anxiety disorder (n = 3,711), mood disorders only ...
Le Glou Eric - - 2012
Several lines of evidence indicate that sleep plays a critical role in learning and memory. The aim of this study was to evaluate anesthesia resistant memory following sleep deprivation in Drosophila. Four to 16 h after aversive olfactory training, flies were sleep deprived for 4 h. Memory was assessed 24 ...
Scheer Frank A J L - - 2012
In the United States alone, approximately 22 million people take beta-blockers chronically. These medications suppress endogenous nighttime melatonin secretion, which may explain a reported side effect of insomnia. Therefore, we tested whether nightly melatonin supplementation improves sleep in hypertensive patients treated with beta-blockers. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group design. Clinical and ...
Nussbaumer-Ochsner Yvonne - - 2012
Susceptible subjects ascending rapidly to high altitude develop pulmonary edema (HAPE). We evaluated whether HAPE leads to sleep and breathing disturbances that are alleviated by dexamethasone. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial with open-label extension. One night in sleep laboratory at 490 m, 2 nights in mountain hut at 4,559 m. 21 ...
Barger Laura K - - 2012
To interact with the robotic Phoenix Mars Lander (PML) spacecraft, mission personnel were required to work on a Mars day (24.65 h) for 78 days. This alien schedule presents a challenge to Earth-bound circadian physiology and a potential risk to workplace performance and safety. We evaluated the acceptability, feasibility, and ...
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