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Xin Wenkuan W Department of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, South Carolina College of Pharmacy, University of South Carolina, Coker Life Sciences Bldg., Rm. 609D, 715 Sumter St, Columbia, SC 29208, - - 2012
The large conductance voltage- and Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK) channel is a major regulator of detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) excitability and contractility. Recently, we showed that nonselective phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibition reduces guinea pig DSM excitability and contractility by increasing BK channel activity. Here, we investigated how DSM excitability and contractility changes ...
Renné Thomas T Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet and University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. - - 2012
Coagulation factor XII (FXII, Hageman factor, EC = 3.4.21.38) is the zymogen of the serine protease, factor XIIa (FXIIa). FXII is converted to FXIIa through autoactivation induced by "contact" to charged surfaces. FXIIa is of crucial importance for fibrin formation in vitro, but deficiency in the protease is not associated ...
Venere Monica M Department of Urology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, - - 2012
The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus continues generating new neurons throughout life. These neurons originate from radial astrocytes within the subgranular zone (SGZ). Here, we find that Sox1, a member of the SoxB1 family of transcription factors, is expressed in a subset of radial astrocytes. Lineage tracing using Sox1-tTA;tetO-Cre;Rosa26 reporter ...
Galarraga Miguel M Imaging Unit and Cancer Imaging Laboratory, Center for Applied Medical Research (CIMA), University of Navarra, Pamplona, - - 2012
The accurate estimation of the number and size of cells provides relevant information on the kinetics of growth and the physiological status of a given tissue or organ. Here, we present Adiposoft, a fully automated open-source software for the analysis of white adipose tissue cellularity in histological sections. First, we ...
Veldhuis Johannes D JD Endocrine Research Unit, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Mayo School of Graduate Medical Education, Center for Translational Science Activities, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. - - 2012
Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulsatility is required for optimal luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion, but whether LH pulsatility is required for physiological testosterone (T) secretion is not known. To test the postulate that pulses of recombinant human (rh) LH stimulate greater T secretion than continuous infusion of the same dose, a potent ...
Hofvind S S Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo, Norway. - - 2012
The aim of this study was to examine the sensitivity and specificity of screening mammography as performed in Vermont, USA, and Norway. Incident screening data from 1997 to 2003 for female patients aged 50-69 years from the Vermont Breast Cancer Surveillance System (116 996 subsequent screening examinations) and the Norwegian ...
Khan E E The Beatson West of Scotland Cancer Centre, Glasgow, - - 2012
Brain metastases following radical radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are a recognised phenomenon; however, the incidence of symptomatic brain metastasis is currently unknown. The aim of the study was to identify the number of patients, staged in accordance with National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidance, ...
Zager Richard A RA Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA. - - 2012
Hemopexin (Hpx) is a liver-generated acute phase reactant that binds and neutralizes prooxidant free heme. This study tested whether acute kidney injury (AKI) triggers renal Hpx accumulation, potentially impacting heme Fe-mediated tubular injury. Mice were subjected to glycerol, cisplatin, ischemia-reperfusion (I/R), or endotoxemic [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] AKI. In each instance, 3- ...
Izumi Yuichiro Y Systems Biology Center, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, - - 2012
The transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cell 5 (NFAT5) is activated by the stress of hypertonicity (e.g., high NaCl). Increased expression of NFAT5 target genes causes accumulation of protective organic osmolytes and heat shock proteins. Under normotonic conditions (∼300 mosmol/kgH(2)O), NFAT5 is distributed between the nucleus and cytoplasm, ...
Hubbell Margaret C MC Divisions of Physiology, Pharmacology, and Biochemistry, Center for Perinatal Biology, Loma Linda University Schoolof Medicine, Loma Linda, California 92350, - - 2012
Chronic hypoxia increases vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and thereby promotes angiogenesis. The present study explores the hypothesis that hypoxic increases in VEGF also remodel artery wall structure and contractility through phenotypic transformation of smooth muscle. Pregnant and nonpregnant ewes were maintained at sea level (normoxia) or 3,820 m (hypoxia) ...
McFerrin Michael B MB Deptartment of Neurobiology and Center for Glial Biology in Medicine, Universtiy of Alabama at Birmingham, 1719 6th Ave. South, CIRC 410, Birmingham, AL, 35294, - - 2012
An important event during apoptosis is regulated cell condensation known as apoptotic volume decrease (AVD). Ion channels have emerged as essential regulators of this process mediating the release of K(+) and Cl(-), which together with osmotically obliged water, results in the condensation of cell volume. Using a Grade IV human ...
Lie Fong S S Division of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Erasmus Medical Center, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands. - - 2012
Anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) is an accurate marker of ovarian reserve. However, sufficiently large sets of normative data from infancy to the end of reproductive life are scarce. This study was an assessment of serum AMH levels in healthy females. In 804 healthy females ranging from infancy until the end of ...
Verge Charles F CF Department of Endocrinology, Sydney Children's Hospital, Randwick, NSW 2031, - - 2012
Monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) is a thyroid hormone-specific cell membrane transporter. MCT8 deficiency causes severe psychomotor retardation and abnormal thyroid tests. The great majority of affected children cannot walk or talk, and all have elevated serum T(3) levels, causing peripheral tissue hypermetabolism and inability to maintain weight. Treatment with thyroid ...
Huda Sabil S Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208, - - 2012
In moving cells dynamic microtubules (MTs) target and disassemble substrate adhesion sites (focal adhesions; FAs) in a process that enables the cell to detach from the substrate and propel itself forward. The short-range interactions between FAs and MT plus ends have been observed in several experimental systems, but the spatial ...
Yoo Sa Kan SK Program in Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1525 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706, - - 2012
Microtubules control cell motility by positively regulating polarization in many cell types. However, how microtubules regulate leukocyte migration is not well understood, particularly in living organisms. Here we exploited the zebrafish system to study the role of microtubules in neutrophil migration in vivo. The localization of microtubules was visualized in ...
Cornelius Ryan J RJ Dept. of Cellular and Integrative Physiology, Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5850, - - 2012
Ca-activated K channels (BK), which are stimulated by high distal nephron flow, are utilized during high-K conditions to remove excess K. Because BK predominantly reside with BK-β4 in acid/base-transporting intercalated cells (IC), we determined whether BK-β4 knockout mice (β4KO) exhibit deficient K excretion when consuming a high-K alkaline diet (HK-alk) ...
Wei Qingqing Q Dept. of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Health Sciences Univ., Augusta, GA 30912, - - 2012
Renal ischemia-reperfusion leads to acute kidney injury (AKI), a major kidney disease associated with an increasing prevalence and high mortality rates. A variety of experimental models, both in vitro and in vivo, have been used to study the pathogenic mechanisms of ischemic AKI and to test renoprotective strategies. Among them, ...
Visschedyk Danielle D Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, - - 2012
We identified Certhrax, the first anthrax-like mART toxin from the pathogenic G9241 strain of Bacillus cereus. Certhrax shares 31% sequence identity with anthrax lethal factor from Bacillus anthracis; however, we have shown that the toxicity of Certhrax resides in the mART domain, whereas anthrax uses a metalloprotease mechanism. Like anthrax ...
Macro Laura L Laboratory of Cellular Biophysics, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, - - 2012
The protein clathrin mediates one of the major pathways of endocytosis from the extracellular milieu and plasma membrane. In single-cell eukaryotes, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the gene encoding clathrin is not an essential gene, raising the question of whether clathrin conveys specific advantages for multicellularity. Furthermore, in contrast to mammalian ...
Wilkie Richard M RM Institute of Psychological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom. - - 2012
"Visual capture" is the term used to describe vision being afforded a higher weighting than other sensory information. Visual capture can produce powerful illusory effects with individuals misjudging the size and position of their hands. The advent of laparoscopic surgical techniques raises the question of whether visual capture can interfere ...
Wang Dongsheng D Department of Neuroscience, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, - - 2012
Gene targeting with genetically encoded optical voltage sensors brings the methods of voltage imaging to genetically defined neurons and offers a method of studying circuit activity in these selected populations. The present study reports the targeting of genetically encoded hybrid voltage sensors (hVOS) to neurons in transgenic mice. The hVOS ...
Cebollero Eduardo E Department of Cell Biology and Institute of Biomembranes, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The - - 2012
Autophagosomes, the hallmark of autophagy, are double-membrane vesicles sequestering cytoplasmic components. They are generated at the phagophore assembly site (PAS), the phagophore being the precursor structure of these carriers. According to the current model, autophagosomes result from the elongation and reorganization of membranes at the PAS/phagophore driven by the concerted ...
Meyer Michael M Department of Biology, Institute of Molecular Health Sciences, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich, - - 2012
Efficient wound repair is essential for the maintenance of the integrity of the skin. The repair process is controlled by a variety of growth factors and cytokines, and their abnormal expression or activity can cause healing disorders. Here, we show that wound repair is severely delayed in mice lacking fibroblast ...
Bouaouina Mohamed M Departments of Pharmacology and Cell Biology, Yale University School of Medicine, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 06520, - - 2012
Integrins are heterodimeric adhesion receptors that link the extracellular matrix (ECM) to the cytoskeleton. Binding of the scaffold protein, talin, to the cytoplasmic tail of β-integrin causes a conformational change of the extracellular domains of the integrin heterodimer, thus allowing high-affinity binding of ECM ligands. This essential process is called ...
Borschel William F WF Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, - - 2012
The activation mechanisms of recombinant N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NRs) have been established in sufficient detail to account for their single channel and macroscopic responses; however, the reaction mechanism of native NRs remains uncertain due to indetermination of the isoforms expressed and possible neuron-specific factors. To delineate the activation mechanism of native ...
Albrecht Andreas A Department of Internal Medicine 3, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, - - 2013
To determine whether erosions appearing in MRI in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) represent true erosions. 50 RA patients received 1.5 T MRI and microCT (μCT) of the dominant hand. Erosion counts were assessed in coronal T1 weighted MRI sections and in coronal as well as axial μCT sections of ...
Tsapenko Mykola V - - 2012
Vascular access dysfunction causes morbidity in hemodialysis patients. This study examined the generation and pathobiological significance of superoxide anion in a rat femoral arteriovenous fistula (AVF). One week after AVF creation, there was increased production of superoxide anion accompanied by decreased total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Cu/Zn SOD activities and ...
Kang Incheol I Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. - - 2012
Correlations between trial-to-trial fluctuations in the responses of individual sensory neurons and perceptual reports, commonly quantified with choice probability (CP), have been widely used as an important tool for assessing the contributions of neurons to behavior. These correlations are usually weak and often require a large number of trials for ...
Chen Chunling C Department of Pharmacology and Cellular and Molecular Biology Program, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, - - 2012
Voltage-gated Na(+) channels in the brain are composed of a single pore-forming α subunit, one non-covalently linked β subunit (β1 or β3), and one disulfide-linked β subunit (β2 or β4). The final step in Na(+) channel biosynthesis in central neurons is concomitant α-β2 disulfide linkage and insertion into the plasma ...
Desimone John A JA Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, - - 2012
The relationship between taste receptor cell (TRC) intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) and rat chorda tympani (CT) nerve responses to bitter (quinine and denatonium), sweet (sucrose, glycine, and erythritol), and umami [monosodium glutamate (MSG) and MSG + inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP)] taste stimuli was investigated before and after lingual application of ionomycin (Ca(2+) ...
Frigon Alain A Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Centre de recherche Clinique Étienne-Le Bel, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada. - - 2012
In this study, we used a novel technique to study reflex wind-up when the spinal cord is intact and following an acute spinal transection. Specifically, we evaluated reflex responses evoked by a series of 10 electrical pulses to the tibial or superficial peroneal nerves in 9 decerebrate adult cats, before ...
Boinagrov David D Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA. - - 2012
It is well known that spiking neurons can produce action potentials in response to extracellular stimulation above certain threshold. It is widely assumed that there is no upper limit to somatic stimulation, except for cellular or electrode damage. Here we demonstrate that there is an upper stimulation threshold, above which ...
Ong Kuok Teong KT Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, - - 2013
Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is the predominant triacylglycerol (TAG) hydrolase in mammals; however, the tissue-specific effects of ATGL outside of adipose tissue have not been well characterized. Hence, we tested the contribution of hepatic ATGL on mediating glucose tolerance and insulin action. Glucose or insulin tolerance tests and insulin signaling ...
Motiani Rajender K RK Center for Cardiovascular Sciences, Albany Medical College, Albany, NY 12208, - - 2013
Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) encoded by Orai1 proteins is a ubiquitous Ca(2+)-selective conductance involved in cellular proliferation and migration. We recently described up-regulation of Orai3 channels that selectively mediate SOCE in estrogen receptor α-expressing (ERα(+)) breast cancer cells. However, the connection between ERα and Orai3 and the role of Orai3 ...
Sheikh Abdul Q AQ Biomedical Engineering, SEEBME, University of Cincinnati, 2901 Woodside Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012, - - 2013
Low-amplitude electric field (EF) is an important component of wound-healing response and can promote vascular tissue repair; however, the mechanisms of action on endothelium remain unclear. We hypothesized that physiological amplitude EF regulates angiogenic response of microvascular endothelial cells via activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) pathway. ...
Theiss Susan M SM School of Geography, Planning and Environmental Management, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia. - - 2012
Much is known regarding the evolution of colour vision in nearly every vertebrate class, with the notable exception of the elasmobranchs. While multiple spectrally distinct cone types are found in some rays, sharks appear to possess only a single class of cone and, therefore, may be colour blind. In this ...
Loskill Peter P Experimental Physics, Saarland University, Saarbrücken, - - 2013
Surface energies are commonly used to determine the adhesion forces between materials. However, the component of surface energy derived from long-range forces, such as van der Waals forces, depends on the material's structure below the outermost atomic layers. Previous theoretical results and indirect experimental evidence suggest that the van der ...
O'Dwyer James P JP Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, NM, USA. - - 2013
A population in a novel environment will accumulate adaptive mutations over time, and the dynamics of this process depend on the underlying fitness landscape: the fitness of and mutational distance between possible genotypes in the population. Despite its fundamental importance for understanding the evolution of a population, inferring this landscape ...
McDonald Birgitte I BI Center for Marine Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Scholander Hall, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 9500 Gilman Drive no. 0204, La Jolla, CA 92093-0204, USA. - - 2012
Lung collapse is considered the primary mechanism that limits nitrogen absorption and decreases the risk of decompression sickness in deep-diving marine mammals. Continuous arterial partial pressure of oxygen profiles in a free-diving female California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) revealed that (i) depth of lung collapse was near 225 m as ...
Kaipa Balasankara Reddy BR Fachbereich Biologie, Entwicklungsbiologie, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Karl-von-Frisch Str. 8, D-35043 Marburg, - - 2013
The formation of the larval body wall musculature of Drosophila depends on the asymmetric fusion of two myoblast types, founder cells (FCs) and fusion-competent myoblasts (FCMs). Recent studies have established an essential function of Arp2/3-based actin polymerization during myoblast fusion, formation of a dense actin focus at the site of ...
Das Rajat K RK Laboratories of Biochemistry, University of Pennsylvania, School of Veterinary Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, - - 2013
Identify sex- and hormone-independent housekeeping genes in rat liver by using a commercially available quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction array designed to measure the expression of 32 rat housekeeping genes. We found that the levels of five of the genes were sexually dimorphic, 22 genes were overexpressed, and one was ...
Wiens John J JJ Department of Ecology and Evolution, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5245, USA. - - 2012
Squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes) are one of the most diverse groups of terrestrial vertebrates. Recent molecular analyses have suggested a very different squamate phylogeny relative to morphological hypotheses, but many aspects remain uncertain from molecular data. Here, we analyse higher-level squamate phylogeny with a molecular dataset of unprecedented size, ...
Schiewer Matthew J MJ Departments of Cancer Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, - - 2012
PARP-1 is an abundant nuclear enzyme that modifies substrates by poly(ADP-ribose)-ylation. PARP-1 has well-described functions in DNA damage repair and also functions as a context-specific regulator of transcription factors. With multiple models, data show that PARP-1 elicits protumorigenic effects in androgen receptor (AR)-positive prostate cancer cells, in both the presence ...
Li Songtao S Division of Medical Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, - - 2013
Pompe disease has resisted enzyme replacement therapy with acid α-glucosidase (GAA), which has been attributed to inefficient cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor (CI-MPR) mediated uptake. We evaluated β2-agonist drugs, which increased CI-MPR expression in GAA knockout (KO) mice. Clenbuterol along with a low-dose adeno-associated virus vector increased Rotarod latency by 75% at ...
Carroll Michael S MS Center for Integrative Brain Research, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, WA 98101, - - 2013
Rhythmically active networks are typically composed of neurons that can be classified as silent, tonic spiking, or rhythmic bursting based on their intrinsic activity patterns. Within these networks, neurons are thought to discharge in distinct phase relationships with their overall network output, and it has been hypothesized that bursting pacemaker ...
Sirén Jukka J Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. - - 2013
Reconstruction of the past is an important task of evolutionary biology. It takes place at different points in a hierarchy of molecular variation, including genes, individuals, populations, and species. Statistical inference about population histories has recently received considerable attention, following the development of computational tools to provide tractable approaches to ...
Tobias Alex A Brain Tumour Center, The University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Ave, MC 3026, Chicago, IL 60637, - - 2013
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly invasive brain tumour that is unvaryingly fatal in humans despite even aggressive therapeutic approaches such as surgical resection followed by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Unconventional treatment options such as gene therapy provide an intriguing option for curbing glioma related deaths. To date, gene therapy has ...
Calza Leonardo L Department of Internal Medicine, Geriatrics and Nephrologic Diseases, Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy. - - 2013
We performed a retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected antiretroviral-naïve patients starting a first antiretroviral therapy with tenofovir/emtricitabine plus efavirenz (EFV), atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r), or lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r). The incidence of renal impairment or proximal tubular dysfunction was evaluated during a 12-month follow-up. Renal impairment was diagnosed by a reduced estimated glomerular filtration ...
Hutcheson Rachel U RU Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and the Astrobiology Biogeocatalysis Research Center, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, - - 2012
Radical S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) enzymes are a large and diverse superfamily with functions ranging from enzyme activation through a single H atom abstraction to complex organic and metal cofactor synthesis involving a series of steps. Though these enzymes carry out a variety of functions, they share common structural and mechanistic characteristics. ...
Corrêa Sonia A L SA School of Life Sciences and Molecular Organisation and Assembly in Cells, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, United - - 2012
The ability of neurons to modulate synaptic strength underpins synaptic plasticity, learning and memory, and adaptation to sensory experience. Despite the importance of synaptic adaptation in directing, reinforcing, and revising the behavioral response to environmental influences, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying synaptic adaptation are far from clear. Brain-derived neurotrophic ...
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