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Desimone John A JA Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, - - 2012
The relationship between taste receptor cell (TRC) intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) and rat chorda tympani (CT) nerve responses to bitter (quinine and denatonium), sweet (sucrose, glycine, and erythritol), and umami [monosodium glutamate (MSG) and MSG + inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP)] taste stimuli was investigated before and after lingual application of ionomycin (Ca(2+) ...
Frigon Alain A Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Centre de recherche Clinique Étienne-Le Bel, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada. - - 2012
In this study, we used a novel technique to study reflex wind-up when the spinal cord is intact and following an acute spinal transection. Specifically, we evaluated reflex responses evoked by a series of 10 electrical pulses to the tibial or superficial peroneal nerves in 9 decerebrate adult cats, before ...
Boinagrov David D Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA. - - 2012
It is well known that spiking neurons can produce action potentials in response to extracellular stimulation above certain threshold. It is widely assumed that there is no upper limit to somatic stimulation, except for cellular or electrode damage. Here we demonstrate that there is an upper stimulation threshold, above which ...
Ong Kuok Teong KT Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, - - 2013
Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is the predominant triacylglycerol (TAG) hydrolase in mammals; however, the tissue-specific effects of ATGL outside of adipose tissue have not been well characterized. Hence, we tested the contribution of hepatic ATGL on mediating glucose tolerance and insulin action. Glucose or insulin tolerance tests and insulin signaling ...
Motiani Rajender K RK Center for Cardiovascular Sciences, Albany Medical College, Albany, NY 12208, - - 2013
Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) encoded by Orai1 proteins is a ubiquitous Ca(2+)-selective conductance involved in cellular proliferation and migration. We recently described up-regulation of Orai3 channels that selectively mediate SOCE in estrogen receptor α-expressing (ERα(+)) breast cancer cells. However, the connection between ERα and Orai3 and the role of Orai3 ...
Sheikh Abdul Q AQ Biomedical Engineering, SEEBME, University of Cincinnati, 2901 Woodside Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012, - - 2013
Low-amplitude electric field (EF) is an important component of wound-healing response and can promote vascular tissue repair; however, the mechanisms of action on endothelium remain unclear. We hypothesized that physiological amplitude EF regulates angiogenic response of microvascular endothelial cells via activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) pathway. ...
Theiss Susan M SM School of Geography, Planning and Environmental Management, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia. - - 2012
Much is known regarding the evolution of colour vision in nearly every vertebrate class, with the notable exception of the elasmobranchs. While multiple spectrally distinct cone types are found in some rays, sharks appear to possess only a single class of cone and, therefore, may be colour blind. In this ...
Loskill Peter P Experimental Physics, Saarland University, Saarbrücken, - - 2013
Surface energies are commonly used to determine the adhesion forces between materials. However, the component of surface energy derived from long-range forces, such as van der Waals forces, depends on the material's structure below the outermost atomic layers. Previous theoretical results and indirect experimental evidence suggest that the van der ...
O'Dwyer James P JP Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, NM, USA. - - 2013
A population in a novel environment will accumulate adaptive mutations over time, and the dynamics of this process depend on the underlying fitness landscape: the fitness of and mutational distance between possible genotypes in the population. Despite its fundamental importance for understanding the evolution of a population, inferring this landscape ...
McDonald Birgitte I BI Center for Marine Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Scholander Hall, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 9500 Gilman Drive no. 0204, La Jolla, CA 92093-0204, USA. - - 2012
Lung collapse is considered the primary mechanism that limits nitrogen absorption and decreases the risk of decompression sickness in deep-diving marine mammals. Continuous arterial partial pressure of oxygen profiles in a free-diving female California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) revealed that (i) depth of lung collapse was near 225 m as ...
Kaipa Balasankara Reddy BR Fachbereich Biologie, Entwicklungsbiologie, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Karl-von-Frisch Str. 8, D-35043 Marburg, - - 2013
The formation of the larval body wall musculature of Drosophila depends on the asymmetric fusion of two myoblast types, founder cells (FCs) and fusion-competent myoblasts (FCMs). Recent studies have established an essential function of Arp2/3-based actin polymerization during myoblast fusion, formation of a dense actin focus at the site of ...
Das Rajat K RK Laboratories of Biochemistry, University of Pennsylvania, School of Veterinary Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, - - 2013
Identify sex- and hormone-independent housekeeping genes in rat liver by using a commercially available quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction array designed to measure the expression of 32 rat housekeeping genes. We found that the levels of five of the genes were sexually dimorphic, 22 genes were overexpressed, and one was ...
Wiens John J JJ Department of Ecology and Evolution, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5245, USA. - - 2012
Squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes) are one of the most diverse groups of terrestrial vertebrates. Recent molecular analyses have suggested a very different squamate phylogeny relative to morphological hypotheses, but many aspects remain uncertain from molecular data. Here, we analyse higher-level squamate phylogeny with a molecular dataset of unprecedented size, ...
Schiewer Matthew J MJ Departments of Cancer Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, - - 2012
PARP-1 is an abundant nuclear enzyme that modifies substrates by poly(ADP-ribose)-ylation. PARP-1 has well-described functions in DNA damage repair and also functions as a context-specific regulator of transcription factors. With multiple models, data show that PARP-1 elicits protumorigenic effects in androgen receptor (AR)-positive prostate cancer cells, in both the presence ...
Li Songtao S Division of Medical Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, - - 2013
Pompe disease has resisted enzyme replacement therapy with acid α-glucosidase (GAA), which has been attributed to inefficient cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor (CI-MPR) mediated uptake. We evaluated β2-agonist drugs, which increased CI-MPR expression in GAA knockout (KO) mice. Clenbuterol along with a low-dose adeno-associated virus vector increased Rotarod latency by 75% at ...
Carroll Michael S MS Center for Integrative Brain Research, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, WA 98101, - - 2013
Rhythmically active networks are typically composed of neurons that can be classified as silent, tonic spiking, or rhythmic bursting based on their intrinsic activity patterns. Within these networks, neurons are thought to discharge in distinct phase relationships with their overall network output, and it has been hypothesized that bursting pacemaker ...
Sirén Jukka J Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. - - 2013
Reconstruction of the past is an important task of evolutionary biology. It takes place at different points in a hierarchy of molecular variation, including genes, individuals, populations, and species. Statistical inference about population histories has recently received considerable attention, following the development of computational tools to provide tractable approaches to ...
Tobias Alex A Brain Tumour Center, The University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Ave, MC 3026, Chicago, IL 60637, - - 2013
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly invasive brain tumour that is unvaryingly fatal in humans despite even aggressive therapeutic approaches such as surgical resection followed by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Unconventional treatment options such as gene therapy provide an intriguing option for curbing glioma related deaths. To date, gene therapy has ...
Calza Leonardo L Department of Internal Medicine, Geriatrics and Nephrologic Diseases, Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy. - - 2013
We performed a retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected antiretroviral-naïve patients starting a first antiretroviral therapy with tenofovir/emtricitabine plus efavirenz (EFV), atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r), or lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r). The incidence of renal impairment or proximal tubular dysfunction was evaluated during a 12-month follow-up. Renal impairment was diagnosed by a reduced estimated glomerular filtration ...
Corrêa Sonia A L SA School of Life Sciences and Molecular Organisation and Assembly in Cells, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, United - - 2012
The ability of neurons to modulate synaptic strength underpins synaptic plasticity, learning and memory, and adaptation to sensory experience. Despite the importance of synaptic adaptation in directing, reinforcing, and revising the behavioral response to environmental influences, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying synaptic adaptation are far from clear. Brain-derived neurotrophic ...
Bond Lisa M LM Laboratory of Molecular Physiology, NHLBI, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, - - 2012
The actin-based molecular motor myosin VI functions in the endocytic uptake pathway, both during the early stages of clathrin-mediated uptake and in later transport to/from early endosomes. This study uses fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) to examine the turnover rate of myosin VI during endocytosis. The results demonstrate that myosin ...
Davies Angharad Puw AP Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Institute of Life Science, The College of Medicine, Swansea University, Swansea, United Kingdom. - - 2012
Fifty-six α-hemolytic streptococcal isolates were identified using MALDI Biotyper MS (Bruker Daltonics), API 20 Strep (bioMérieux), and BD Phoenix (Becton, Dickinson). The gold standard for identification was 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis with 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer sequencing. The following percentages of isolates were correctly identified to the species level: ...
Peng Changgeng C Institute of Developmental Genetics, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Umwelt und Gesundheit, and Technische Universität München-Weihenstephan, D-85764 Neuherberg, - - 2012
MicroRNAs have emerged as key posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression during vertebrate development. We show that the miR-200 family plays a crucial role for the proper generation and survival of ventral neuronal populations in the murine midbrain/hindbrain region, including midbrain dopaminergic neurons, by directly targeting the pluripotency factor Sox2 and ...
Zhang Guofan G Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, - - 2012
The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas belongs to one of the most species-rich but genomically poorly explored phyla, the Mollusca. Here we report the sequencing and assembly of the oyster genome using short reads and a fosmid-pooling strategy, along with transcriptomes of development and stress response and the proteome of the ...
Ayllon Juan J Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, - - 2012
Conserved tryptophan-187 facilitates homodimerization of the influenza A virus NS1 protein effector domain. We generated a mutant influenza virus strain expressing NS1-W187R to destabilize this self-interaction. NS1-W187R protein exhibited lower double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-binding activity, showed a temporal redistribution during infection, and was minimally compromised for interferon antagonism. The mutant virus ...
Ross Ewan A EA Medical Research Council Centre for Immune Regulation, School of Immunity and Infection, Institute for Biomedical Research, Medical School, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, United - - 2012
Thymic atrophy is a frequent consequence of infection with bacteria, viruses, and parasites and is considered a common virulence trait between pathogens. Multiple reasons have been proposed to explain this atrophy, including premature egress of immature thymocytes, increased apoptosis, or thymic shutdown to prevent tolerance to the pathogen from developing. ...
Maringer Kevin K Section of Virology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, United - - 2012
Assembly of the herpesvirus tegument is poorly understood but is believed to involve interactions between outer tegument proteins and the cytoplasmic domains of envelope glycoproteins. Here, we present the detailed characterization of a multicomponent glycoprotein-tegument complex found in herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1)-infected cells. We demonstrate that the tegument protein ...
Bosch Daniel D Cell Biology Unit, Medical Research Council Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, United - - 2012
Inositol phosphates are key signaling molecules affecting a large variety of cellular processes. Inositol-polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK) is a central component of the inositol phosphate biosynthetic routes, playing essential roles during development. IPMK phosphorylates inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate to inositol tetrakisphosphate and subsequently to inositol pentakisphosphate and has also been described to function ...
Henderson Christina C Seaside Therapeutics Inc., Cambridge, MA 02139, - - 2012
Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability and autism, results from the transcriptional silencing of FMR1 and loss of the mRNA translational repressor protein fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Patients with FXS exhibit changes in neuronal dendritic spine morphology, a pathology associated with altered ...
Dimude Juachi U JU From Medical Microbiology, University of Edinburgh , Edinburgh , - - 2013
Escherichia coli producing the CTX-M-15 β-lactamase are a major cause of infection. We present the characterization of plasmids encoding the CTX-M-15 β-lactamase gene, the genetic environment, and the mode of spread of this gene in blood culture isolates from a single hospital. Blood culture E. coli isolates with extended spectrum ...
Potter Jane A JA Biomedical Sciences Research Complex, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife, United - - 2012
The E2 envelope glycoprotein of hepatitis C virus (HCV) binds to the host entry factor CD81 and is the principal target for neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). Most NAbs recognize hypervariable region 1 on E2, which undergoes frequent mutation, thereby allowing the virus to evade neutralization. Consequently, there is great interest in ...
Smith Stevens S SS Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA. - - 2013
Telephone tobacco quitlines are effective and are widely used, with more than 500,000 U.S. callers in 2010. This study investigated the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of 3 different quitline enhancements: combination nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), longer duration of NRT, and counseling to increase NRT adherence. In this study, 987 quitline ...
Sharott Andrew A Medical Research Council Anatomical Neuropharmacology Unit and Department of Pharmacology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3TH, United Kingdom. - - 2012
The striatum is comprised of medium-sized spiny projection neurons (MSNs) and several types of interneuron, and receives massive glutamatergic input from the cerebral cortex. Understanding of striatal function requires definition of the electrophysiological properties of neurochemically identified interneurons sampled in the same context of ongoing cortical activity in vivo. To ...
Roche Daniel P DP School of Integrative Biology, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, - - 2012
Learning is an important form of phenotypic plasticity that allows organisms to adjust their behaviour to the environment. An individual's learning performance can be affected by its mother's environment. For example, mothers exposed to stressors, such as restraint and forced swimming, often produce offspring with impaired learning performance. However, it ...
Han Shuxin S Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, - - 2012
Thioesterase superfamily member 1 (Them1; synonyms acyl-CoA thioesterase 11 and StarD14) is highly expressed in brown adipose tissue and limits energy expenditure in mice. Them1 is a putative fatty acyl-CoA thioesterase that comprises tandem hot dog-fold thioesterase domains and a lipid-binding C-terminal steroidogenic acute regulatory protein-related lipid transfer (START) domain. ...
Etchegaray Jon Iker JI Department of Biology, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, - - 2012
The efficient removal of dead cells is an important process in animal development and homeostasis. Cell corpses are often engulfed by professional phagocytes such as macrophages. However, in some tissues with limited accessibility to circulating cells, engulfment is carried out by neighboring non-professional phagocytes such as epithelial cells. Here, we ...
Rice Heather C HC Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, - - 2012
Neuronal precursor cell migration in the developing mammalian brain is a complex process requiring the coordinated interaction of numerous proteins. We have recently shown that amyloid precursor protein (APP) plays a role in migration into the cortical plate through its interaction with two cytosolic signaling proteins, disabled 1 (DAB1) and ...
Porotto Matteo M Department of Pediatrics, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York, USA. - - 2012
The hemagglutinin (HA)-neuraminidase protein (HN) of paramyxoviruses carries out three discrete activities, each of which affects the ability of HN to promote viral fusion and entry: receptor binding, receptor cleaving (neuraminidase), and triggering of the fusion protein. Binding of HN to its sialic acid receptor on a target cell triggers ...
Thura David D Groupe de Recherche sur le Système Nerveux Central, Département de Physiologie, Université de Montréal, Montréal,Québec, Canada. - - 2012
It is often suggested that decisions are made when accumulated sensory information reaches a fixed accuracy criterion. This is supported by many studies showing a gradual build up of neural activity to a threshold. However, the proposal that this build up is caused by sensory accumulation is challenged by findings ...
Campbell-Meiklejohn Daniel D Centre of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus, Denmark. - - 2012
Methylphenidate (MPH) is a stimulant that increases extracellular levels of dopamine and noradrenaline. It can diminish risky decision-making tendencies in certain clinical populations. MPH is also used, without license, by healthy adults, but the impact on their decision-making is not well established. Previous work has found that dopamine receptor activity ...
Prenus Rose V RV College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Florida A__AMB__M University, Tallahassee, FL 32307, - - 2012
Morphine is an effective analgesic that acts by binding to the µ-opioid receptor (MOR) coded in the human by the OPRM1 gene. In the present study, we investigated the regulation of µ-opioid receptor (MOR-1) mRNA levels in all-trans-retinoic acid-differentiated SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells under in vitro conditions with 10 µM ...
Gu Dongsheng D Wells Center for Pediatric Research, Departments of Pediatrics, Biochemistry/Molecular Biology and Pharmacology/ Toxicology, The Simon Cancer Center, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46074, - - 2012
Activation of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway is known to drive development of basal cell carcinoma and medulloblastomas and to associate with many other types of cancer, but the exact molecular mechanisms underlying the carcinogenesis process remain elusive. We discovered that skin tumors derived from epidermal expression of oncogenic Smo, SmoM2, ...
Christoforidis John B JB Department of Ophthalmology, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH, USA. - - 2012
To determine the anatomic characteristics and pharmacokinetic properties of intravitreally-placed aflibercept in a rabbit model. Four Dutch-belted rabbits underwent intravitreal injection with I-124-aflibercept. Serial imaging with PET/CT imaging was performed on days 0, 2, 5, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35. Measured radioactivity emission in becquerels/mL was used to calculate ...
Gaborit Nathalie N Gladstone Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, San Francisco, CA 94158, - - 2012
The Iroquois homeobox (Irx) homeodomain transcription factors are important for several aspects of embryonic development. In the developing heart, individual Irx genes are important for certain postnatal cardiac functions, including cardiac repolarization (Irx5) and rapid ventricular conduction (Irx3). Irx genes are expressed in dynamic and partially overlapping patterns in the ...
Nittrouer Susan S The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA. - - 2013
Previous research has demonstrated that children weight the acoustic cues to many phonemic decisions differently than do adults and gradually shift those strategies as they gain language experience. However, that research has focused on spectral and duration cues rather than on amplitude cues. In the current study, the authors examined ...
Tewalt Eric F EF Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Cancer Biology, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA 22908, - - 2012
Lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) induce peripheral tolerance by direct presentation to CD8 T cells (T(CD8)). We demonstrate that LECs mediate deletion only via programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) ligand 1, despite expressing ligands for the CD160, B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator, and lymphocyte activation gene-3 inhibitory pathways. LECs induce activation and proliferation ...
Hirata Taku T Dept. Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN 55905, - - 2012
Nephrolithiasis is a major public health problem with a complex and varied etiology. Most stones are composed of calcium oxalate (CaOx), with dietary excess a risk factor. Because of complexity of mammalian system, the details of stone formation remain to be understood. Here we have developed a nephrolithiasis model using ...
Bouaouina Mohamed M Departments of Pharmacology and Cell Biology, Yale University School of Medicine, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 06520, - - 2012
Integrins are heterodimeric adhesion receptors that link the extracellular matrix (ECM) to the cytoskeleton. Binding of the scaffold protein, talin, to the cytoplasmic tail of β-integrin causes a conformational change of the extracellular domains of the integrin heterodimer, thus allowing high-affinity binding of ECM ligands. This essential process is called ...
Gonzalez-Flores Jonathan N JN Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, - - 2012
The selenocysteine (Sec)-specific eukaryotic elongation factor (eEFSec) delivers the aminoacylated selenocysteine-tRNA (Sec-tRNA(Sec)) to the ribosome and suppresses UGA codons that are upstream of Sec insertion sequence (SECIS) elements bound by SECIS-binding protein 2 (SBP2). Multiple studies have highlighted the importance of SBP2 forming a complex with the SECIS element, but ...
Johnson Russell A RA Centre for Vaccine Sciences, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, - - 2012
Immunity against Vibrio cholerae O1 is serogroup specific, and serogrouping is defined by the O-specific polysaccharide (OSP) part of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Despite this, human immune responses to V. cholerae OSP have not previously been characterized. We assessed immune responses against V. cholerae OSP in adults with cholera caused by V. ...
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